Genetic Expression in the Cell Cycle - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125437202, 9780323148924

Genetic Expression in the Cell Cycle

1st Edition

Editors: G.M. Padilla
eBook ISBN: 9780323148924
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1982
Page Count: 478
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Genetic Expression in the Cell Cycle provides an understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern the expression of genetic information during the cell cycle. The initial five chapters describe the intimate relationships between the supramolecular complexes that form the basic structure of chromatin. Emphasis is placed on the dynamics of cycle-dependent changes in the structural organization of some of these components. Subsequent chapters demonstrate that small nuclear RNAs (SnRNA) are actively involved in gene regulation in eukaryotic cells; discuss the relationship between cell cycle regulation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and transcription of ribosomal RNA genes; and describe the use of conditional lethal mutants to study the regulation of the cell cycle of eukaryotic cells. The remaining chapters discuss the concepts and methodologies employed to isolate and study specific cell cycle mutants of S. cerevisiae; the antiproliferative effect of interferon on cultured human fibroblasts; and the role of cell membrane and related subcellular elements in the control of proliferation, differentiation, and cell cycle kinetics.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


I. Structure and Function of the Eukaryotic Genome

1. Organization of Nucleosomes in Chromatin and Chromosomes in Eukaryotic Cells

I. Introduction

II. Hexagonal Bipartite Disk Structure of the Nucleosome

III. The Conformation of DNA

IV. Histone-Histone and DNA-Histone Interactions

V. Histone HI and Alignment of Nucleosomes

VI. Higher Order Packing

VII. Interphase Chromatin and Metaphase Chromosomes

VIII. Conclusion


2. Cell Cycle Studies of Histone Acetylation and the Structure and Function of Chromatin

I. Introduction

II. Chromatin Structure

III. Cell Cycle Studies of Histone Acetylation Using Physarum polycephalum as a Model System

IV. Acetate Content of H4 in the Cell Cycle

V. H4 Acetate Content Varies during the Cell Cycle

VI. Acetate Turnover on H4 in the Cell Cycle

VII. Histone Deacetylase Activity in the Cell Cycle

VIII. Role of Histone Acetylation


3. Role of HMG-Nucleosome Complexes in Eukaryotic Gene Activity

I. Introduction

II. Nucleosome Core Particles

III. Characterization of the High Mobility Group Proteins

IV. Fractionation and Characterization of Acetyltransferases

V. Proposed Mechanisms of HMG-Induced RNA Transcription

VI. Summary


4. RNA Content and Chromatin Structure in Cycling and Noncycling Cell Populations Studied by Flow Cytometry

I. Introduction

II. RNA Content

III. Chromatin Structure

IV. Detection of the Discrete Cell Cycle Compartments Based on Differences in RNA Content and Chromatin Structure


5. Nuclear Fluorescence and Chromatin Condensation of Mammalian Cells during the Cell Cycle with Special Reference to the d Phase

I. Introduction

II. The QDH Staining Method and Fluorescent Nuclear Patterns

III. Fluorometric Measurements of QDH-Stained Nuclei from Synchronized

IV. Fluorescence Patterns Resulting upon Release from Serum Block

V. Correlation of PCC Morphology with QDH Staining Patterns

VI. Applications of Cytologie Methods to the Analysis of Blocks Caused by Temperature-Sensitive Mutations

VII. Discussion


II. Genetic Expression and Posttranscriptional Modifications

6. Stimulation of Transcription in Isolated Mammalian Nuclei by Specific Small Nuclear RNAs

I. Introduction

II. The Use of Isolated Nuclei for Assay of Regulatory Elements in Transcription

III. Role of Loosely Bound Non-Histone Chromosomal Proteins and SnRNAs

IV. Tissue and Species Specificity of SnRNAs

V. Effect on RNA Polymerase II: Initiation and Sizing of RNA Transcripts

VI. The Search for the Active SnRNA Subfraction

VII. Implications and Prospects


7. Transcription of rRNA Genes and Cell Cycle Regulation in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

I. Introduction

II. Yeast as a Model Eukaryote

III. Regulation of the Yeast Cell Cycle

IV. Experimental Approach

V. Discussion


8. Posttranscriptional Regulation of Expression of the Gene for an Ammonium-lnducible Glutamate Dehydrogenase during the Cell Cycle of the Eukaryote Chlorella

I. Introduction

II. Ammonia and Light Requirement for Induction of NADP-GDH Antigen

III. Turnover of NADP-GDH during Induction and Its Rapid Inactivation by Covalent Modification during Deinduction Period

IV. Presence of NADP-GDH mRNA on Polysomes of Both Induced and Uninduced Cells

V. Synthesis and Rapid Degradation of NADP-GDH Subunits in Uninduced Cells

VI. Posttranscriptional Model for Induction of NADP-GDH Activity

VII. Accumulation of NADP-GDH mRNA in Uninduced Synchronous Cells: A Possible Explanation for Observed Continuous Increase in Enzyme Potential during the Cell Cycle


9. Genes and the Regulation of the Cell Cycle

I. Introduction

II. Execution Points

III. Informational Content of Cells and of Cytoplasts

IV. Nature of the ts Mutations

V. Induction of Cellular DNA Replication in G1-Specific ts Mutants by Viruses

VI. Future Directions of Research


10. The Nature of G0 in Yeast

I. Introduction: The Question of the G0 State

II. Mutant Isolation Procedures

III. Mutant Characterization

IV. Start as the Sole Regulatory Point

V. Resting Phase is Quantitatively Different


11. The Effect of Morphogenese Hormones on the Cell Cycle of Cultured Drosophila Cells

I. Introduction

II. Ecdysteroid-Responsive Tissues in Vitro

III. Ecdysteroid-Responsive Cell Lines

IV. Differentiative Responses of Kc Cells to Ecdysteroids

V. Ecdysteroid-Induced Alterations in the Kc Cell Cycle

VI. Acquisition of Resistance to Ecdysteroids in Kc Cells

VII. Conclusions and Future Directions


12. Interferon as a Modulator of Human Fibroblast Proliferation and Growth

I. Introduction

II. Relationship between Interferon Concentration and Antiproliferative Effect of Interferon

III. Relationship between the Duration of Interferon Treatment and the Antiproliferative Effect

IV. Time-Lapse Cinemicrographic Analysis of the Kinetics of Proliferation of Control and Interferon- Treated Fibroblasts

V. Cell Surface Area and Nuclear Characteristics

VI. Cell Volume

VII. Macromolecular Synthesis and Cellular Content of Macromolecules

VIII. Cell Cycle Phase Distribution

IX. Cell Locomotion

X. Cytoskeletal Components

XI. Cell Surface Fibronectin

XII. Conclusions and General Comments


13. Different Sequences of Events Regulate the Initiation of DNA Replication in Cultured Mouse Cells

I. Introduction

II. Experimental System

III. Action of a Growth Factor Alone

IV. Interaction of a Growth Factor with a Nonmitogenic Compound

V. Interaction between Growth Factors

VI. Possible Interpretations


III. Ionic and Membrane Modulations in the Cell Cycle

14. Modulation of Structure and Function of the Plasma Membrane in the Cell Cycle of Neuroblastoma Cells

I. Introduction

II. Cell Cycle Kinetics

III. Dynamic Properties of Plasma Membrane Components

IV. Structural Features of the Plasma Membrane

V. Cation Transport and Electrical Membrane Properties

VI. Growth Stimulation and Cation Transport

VII. Concluding Remarks


15. The Role of Ions, Ion Fluxes, and Na+=, K+-ATPase Activity in the Control of Proliferation, Differentiation, and Transformation

I. Introduction

II. The Role of Ions in the Control of Metabolism and of Cell Proliferation

III. The Role of Na+ and K+ in Cell Differentiation

IV. The Role of Ions and Ion Fluxes in the Stimulation of Cell Proliferation

V. Comparison of Intracellular Element (Ion) Contents and Na+, K+- ATPase Activity of Normal and Cancer Cells

VI. The Effects of Amiloride on Normal and Tumor Cell Growth

VII. Conclusions


16. The Central Role of Calcium in the Modulation of Cell Division

I. Introduction

II. General Concepts of Calcium as a Modulator of Diverse Cell Functions

III. Synchronized Tetrahymena as a Model System to Study Calcium Fluxes in Relation to Cell Division

IV. Possible Role for Calmodulin as a Modulator of Events Associated with Cell Division

V. Conclusions and Perspectives


17. Univalent Cation Concentration and Regulation of the BALB/C-3T3 Growth Cycle

I. Introduction

II. Hormonal Regulation of Cell Growth and Ion Flux

III. Rapid Changes in Fibroblast Monovalent Cation Flux

IV. Later Changes in Monovalent Cations during Go/G1

V. Increased Na+, K+ Pumping Is Not Required for Growth of G0-Arrested 3T3 Cells

VI. Mechanism of Ouabain Inhibition of Cell Growth

VII. Monovalent Cations and Transformation of Fibroblasts

VIII. Monovalent Cation Flux in Fibroblasts: Current Status

IX. The Cell Growth Cycle and Monovalent Cation Flux: Future Directions of Research




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© Academic Press 1982
Academic Press
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About the Editor

G.M. Padilla

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