Genetic Expression in the Cell Cycle

Genetic Expression in the Cell Cycle

1st Edition - January 28, 1982

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  • Editor: G.M. Padilla
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323148924

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Description

Genetic Expression in the Cell Cycle provides an understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern the expression of genetic information during the cell cycle. The initial five chapters describe the intimate relationships between the supramolecular complexes that form the basic structure of chromatin. Emphasis is placed on the dynamics of cycle-dependent changes in the structural organization of some of these components. Subsequent chapters demonstrate that small nuclear RNAs (SnRNA) are actively involved in gene regulation in eukaryotic cells; discuss the relationship between cell cycle regulation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and transcription of ribosomal RNA genes; and describe the use of conditional lethal mutants to study the regulation of the cell cycle of eukaryotic cells. The remaining chapters discuss the concepts and methodologies employed to isolate and study specific cell cycle mutants of S. cerevisiae; the antiproliferative effect of interferon on cultured human fibroblasts; and the role of cell membrane and related subcellular elements in the control of proliferation, differentiation, and cell cycle kinetics.

Table of Contents


  • List of Contributors

    Preface

    I. Structure and Function of the Eukaryotic Genome

    1. Organization of Nucleosomes in Chromatin and Chromosomes in Eukaryotic Cells

    I. Introduction

    II. Hexagonal Bipartite Disk Structure of the Nucleosome

    III. The Conformation of DNA

    IV. Histone-Histone and DNA-Histone Interactions

    V. Histone HI and Alignment of Nucleosomes

    VI. Higher Order Packing

    VII. Interphase Chromatin and Metaphase Chromosomes

    VIII. Conclusion

    References

    2. Cell Cycle Studies of Histone Acetylation and the Structure and Function of Chromatin

    I. Introduction

    II. Chromatin Structure

    III. Cell Cycle Studies of Histone Acetylation Using Physarum polycephalum as a Model System

    IV. Acetate Content of H4 in the Cell Cycle

    V. H4 Acetate Content Varies during the Cell Cycle

    VI. Acetate Turnover on H4 in the Cell Cycle

    VII. Histone Deacetylase Activity in the Cell Cycle

    VIII. Role of Histone Acetylation

    References

    3. Role of HMG-Nucleosome Complexes in Eukaryotic Gene Activity

    I. Introduction

    II. Nucleosome Core Particles

    III. Characterization of the High Mobility Group Proteins

    IV. Fractionation and Characterization of Acetyltransferases

    V. Proposed Mechanisms of HMG-Induced RNA Transcription

    VI. Summary

    References

    4. RNA Content and Chromatin Structure in Cycling and Noncycling Cell Populations Studied by Flow Cytometry

    I. Introduction

    II. RNA Content

    III. Chromatin Structure

    IV. Detection of the Discrete Cell Cycle Compartments Based on Differences in RNA Content and Chromatin Structure

    References

    5. Nuclear Fluorescence and Chromatin Condensation of Mammalian Cells during the Cell Cycle with Special Reference to the d Phase

    I. Introduction

    II. The QDH Staining Method and Fluorescent Nuclear Patterns

    III. Fluorometric Measurements of QDH-Stained Nuclei from Synchronized

    IV. Fluorescence Patterns Resulting upon Release from Serum Block

    V. Correlation of PCC Morphology with QDH Staining Patterns

    VI. Applications of Cytologie Methods to the Analysis of Blocks Caused by Temperature-Sensitive Mutations

    VII. Discussion

    References

    II. Genetic Expression and Posttranscriptional Modifications

    6. Stimulation of Transcription in Isolated Mammalian Nuclei by Specific Small Nuclear RNAs

    I. Introduction

    II. The Use of Isolated Nuclei for Assay of Regulatory Elements in Transcription

    III. Role of Loosely Bound Non-Histone Chromosomal Proteins and SnRNAs

    IV. Tissue and Species Specificity of SnRNAs

    V. Effect on RNA Polymerase II: Initiation and Sizing of RNA Transcripts

    VI. The Search for the Active SnRNA Subfraction

    VII. Implications and Prospects

    References

    7. Transcription of rRNA Genes and Cell Cycle Regulation in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    I. Introduction

    II. Yeast as a Model Eukaryote

    III. Regulation of the Yeast Cell Cycle

    IV. Experimental Approach

    V. Discussion

    References

    8. Posttranscriptional Regulation of Expression of the Gene for an Ammonium-lnducible Glutamate Dehydrogenase during the Cell Cycle of the Eukaryote Chlorella

    I. Introduction

    II. Ammonia and Light Requirement for Induction of NADP-GDH Antigen

    III. Turnover of NADP-GDH during Induction and Its Rapid Inactivation by Covalent Modification during Deinduction Period

    IV. Presence of NADP-GDH mRNA on Polysomes of Both Induced and Uninduced Cells

    V. Synthesis and Rapid Degradation of NADP-GDH Subunits in Uninduced Cells

    VI. Posttranscriptional Model for Induction of NADP-GDH Activity

    VII. Accumulation of NADP-GDH mRNA in Uninduced Synchronous Cells: A Possible Explanation for Observed Continuous Increase in Enzyme Potential during the Cell Cycle

    References

    9. Genes and the Regulation of the Cell Cycle

    I. Introduction

    II. Execution Points

    III. Informational Content of Cells and of Cytoplasts

    IV. Nature of the ts Mutations

    V. Induction of Cellular DNA Replication in G1-Specific ts Mutants by Viruses

    VI. Future Directions of Research

    References

    10. The Nature of G0 in Yeast

    I. Introduction: The Question of the G0 State

    II. Mutant Isolation Procedures

    III. Mutant Characterization

    IV. Start as the Sole Regulatory Point

    V. Resting Phase is Quantitatively Different

    References

    11. The Effect of Morphogenese Hormones on the Cell Cycle of Cultured Drosophila Cells

    I. Introduction

    II. Ecdysteroid-Responsive Tissues in Vitro

    III. Ecdysteroid-Responsive Cell Lines

    IV. Differentiative Responses of Kc Cells to Ecdysteroids

    V. Ecdysteroid-Induced Alterations in the Kc Cell Cycle

    VI. Acquisition of Resistance to Ecdysteroids in Kc Cells

    VII. Conclusions and Future Directions

    References

    12. Interferon as a Modulator of Human Fibroblast Proliferation and Growth

    I. Introduction

    II. Relationship between Interferon Concentration and Antiproliferative Effect of Interferon

    III. Relationship between the Duration of Interferon Treatment and the Antiproliferative Effect

    IV. Time-Lapse Cinemicrographic Analysis of the Kinetics of Proliferation of Control and Interferon- Treated Fibroblasts

    V. Cell Surface Area and Nuclear Characteristics

    VI. Cell Volume

    VII. Macromolecular Synthesis and Cellular Content of Macromolecules

    VIII. Cell Cycle Phase Distribution

    IX. Cell Locomotion

    X. Cytoskeletal Components

    XI. Cell Surface Fibronectin

    XII. Conclusions and General Comments

    References

    13. Different Sequences of Events Regulate the Initiation of DNA Replication in Cultured Mouse Cells

    I. Introduction

    II. Experimental System

    III. Action of a Growth Factor Alone

    IV. Interaction of a Growth Factor with a Nonmitogenic Compound

    V. Interaction between Growth Factors

    VI. Possible Interpretations

    References

    III. Ionic and Membrane Modulations in the Cell Cycle

    14. Modulation of Structure and Function of the Plasma Membrane in the Cell Cycle of Neuroblastoma Cells

    I. Introduction

    II. Cell Cycle Kinetics

    III. Dynamic Properties of Plasma Membrane Components

    IV. Structural Features of the Plasma Membrane

    V. Cation Transport and Electrical Membrane Properties

    VI. Growth Stimulation and Cation Transport

    VII. Concluding Remarks

    References

    15. The Role of Ions, Ion Fluxes, and Na+=, K+-ATPase Activity in the Control of Proliferation, Differentiation, and Transformation

    I. Introduction

    II. The Role of Ions in the Control of Metabolism and of Cell Proliferation

    III. The Role of Na+ and K+ in Cell Differentiation

    IV. The Role of Ions and Ion Fluxes in the Stimulation of Cell Proliferation

    V. Comparison of Intracellular Element (Ion) Contents and Na+, K+- ATPase Activity of Normal and Cancer Cells

    VI. The Effects of Amiloride on Normal and Tumor Cell Growth

    VII. Conclusions

    References

    16. The Central Role of Calcium in the Modulation of Cell Division

    I. Introduction

    II. General Concepts of Calcium as a Modulator of Diverse Cell Functions

    III. Synchronized Tetrahymena as a Model System to Study Calcium Fluxes in Relation to Cell Division

    IV. Possible Role for Calmodulin as a Modulator of Events Associated with Cell Division

    V. Conclusions and Perspectives

    References

    17. Univalent Cation Concentration and Regulation of the BALB/C-3T3 Growth Cycle

    I. Introduction

    II. Hormonal Regulation of Cell Growth and Ion Flux

    III. Rapid Changes in Fibroblast Monovalent Cation Flux

    IV. Later Changes in Monovalent Cations during Go/G1

    V. Increased Na+, K+ Pumping Is Not Required for Growth of G0-Arrested 3T3 Cells

    VI. Mechanism of Ouabain Inhibition of Cell Growth

    VII. Monovalent Cations and Transformation of Fibroblasts

    VIII. Monovalent Cation Flux in Fibroblasts: Current Status

    IX. The Cell Growth Cycle and Monovalent Cation Flux: Future Directions of Research

    References

    Index








Product details

  • No. of pages: 478
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1982
  • Published: January 28, 1982
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323148924

About the Editor

G.M. Padilla

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