General Virology

General Virology

Biochemical, Biological, and Biophysical Properties

1st Edition - January 1, 1959

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  • Editors: F. M. Burnet, W. M. Stanley
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483257662

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The Viruses, Volume 1: General Virology focuses on physical and chemical approaches to virology, including cellular organization, inactivation of viruses, and plant viruses. The selection first offers information on the problems of virology and the structural and chemical architecture of host cells with special reference to the synthesis of polymers. Discussions focus on cellular organization, patterns of polymer synthesis, problems of polymer duplication, and biochemical mechanisms of enzyme and protein synthesis. The book also takes a look at the physical properties of infective particles and quantitative relationships between virus particles and their functional activity. The publication ponders on the inactivation of viruses; chemical basis of the infectivity of tobacco mosaic virus and other plant viruses; and comparative chemistry of infective virus particles and their functional activity. The book also elaborates on comparative chemistry of infective virus particles and of other virus-specific products and biochemistry of insect viruses. The selection is a dependable source of information for readers interested in virology.

Table of Contents

  • Contents

    Contributors to Volume 1

    Contents of Volume 2

    Contents of Volume 3


    I. The Problems of Virology

    I. Introduction

    II. The Double Approach

    A. The Infective Particle

    B. The Virus-Host Cell Relationship


    II. Structural and Chemical Architecture of Host Cells with Special Reference to the Synthesis of Polymers

    I. Introduction

    A. Historical Notes

    B. The Metabolic Machinery and Virus Infection

    C. Possible Contributions of the Host Cell to the Synthesis of Viral Polymers

    D. On the Origin and Cellular Relations of the Viruses

    II. Cellular Organization

    A. On the Cell in General

    B. The Composition of the Nucleus

    C. Cytoplasmic Structures

    III. The Distribution of Metabolic Function

    A. Methodological Notes

    B. Tables of Enzyme Distribution

    C. Enzymatic Systems of Nuclei

    D. Enzymatic Systems of Cytoplasm

    E. Enzymatic Systems in the Microsomal Fraction

    F. Enzymatic Activities of Cell Sap

    G. Polymer Synthesis in Cytoplasm and Nucleus

    IV. Patterns of Polymer Synthesis

    A. Exponential Growth

    B. Differentiated Cells

    C. Synchronous Cultures

    D. Pathological Systems

    E. Unbalanced Growth

    F. Syntheses with Abnormal Metabolites

    G. Problems of Turnover

    V. Controlling Mechanisms of Enzyme and Protein Synthesis

    A. Introduction

    B. Genetic Controls

    C. Some Nutritional Phenomena

    D. The Induced Biosynthesis of Enzymes

    VI. Biochemical Mechanisms of Polymer Formation

    A. Phosphate Transfer

    B. Polysaccharide Biosynthesis

    C. Phospholipid Synthesis

    D. Mechanisms of Peptide Synthesis

    E. The Biosynthesis of Nucleic Acid Intermediates

    F. Biosynthesis of the Nucleic Acids

    VII. Problems of Polymer Duplication

    A. DNA Duplication and Partition

    B. The Transfer of Biological Information

    VIII. Conclusion


    III. The Physical Properties of Infective Particles

    I. Introduction

    II. Physical Methods

    A. Hydrodynamic and Thermodynamic Methods

    B. Optical Methods

    III. Application of Physical Methods to Virus Studies

    A. Homogeneity and Purity as Related to Virus Identification

    B. Identification of Physical Particles as Infective Agents

    C. Physical Properties of Well-Studied Viruses


    IV. Quantitative Relationships between Virus Particles and Their Functional Activity

    I. Introduction

    II. Titration of Virus Infectivity

    A. Assay Based on All-or-None Response

    B. Assay by Local Lesion Count

    C. Factors Affecting Virus Infectivity Titrations

    III. Methods of Determining Total Virus Particle Concentrations

    A. Direct Methods: Electron Microscopy

    B. Indirect Methods

    IV. Relationships between Total Particle Count and Biological Function

    A. Initiation of Infection by a Single Virus Particle

    B. Observed Ratios between Virus Particle Count and Infectious Units

    V. Summary and Conclusion


    V. Inactivation of Viruses

    I. Introduction

    II. Physical Agents

    A. Mechanical Treatments

    B. Ionizing and Nonionizing Radiations

    III. Physicochemical Factors

    A. Heat Inactivation

    B. Resistance to Low Temperature and to Desiccation

    C. Virus Stability and pH

    D. Salt Effects

    IV. Chemical Agents

    A. Chemical Alterations of the Virus Particle not associated with Loss of Infectivity

    B. Formaldehyde

    C. Protein-Denaturing Agents

    D. Oxidizing Agents

    E. Alkylating Agents

    F. Organic Solvents

    G. Enzymes

    H. Miscellaneous Agents


    VI. The Chemical Basis of the Infectivity of Tobacco Mosaic Virus and Other Plant Viruses

    I. Purification of Plant Viruses

    A. Procedure for the Preparation of TMV

    B. Isolation and Properties of Other Plant Viruses

    C. The Nature of Virus-Specific Components in Infected Plants

    II. Degradation of TMV

    A. Preparation of Nucleic Acid

    B. Preparation of Protein

    C. Structure and Function of Viral Proteins

    III. Assay of Infectivity of TMV and TMV-RNA

    IV. Reconstitution of TMV

    V. Infective y of Viral RNA

    A. TMV

    B. Other Viruses

    C. Natural Occurrence of Infectious Nucleic Acid

    VI. Chemical and Physicochemical Properties of Infectious TMVKNA

    A. Molecular Weight

    B. Lability

    C. Miscellaneous Reactions

    VII. Reconstitution of Viruses from Different Strains

    A. Mixed Viruses

    B. Mixed Nucleic Acid Viruses

    C. Search for in Vitro-Tioducea Mutants


    VII. The Comparative Chemistry of Infective Virus Particles and Their Functional Activity: T2 and other Bacterial Viruses

    I. Introduction

    II. General Structure of Coliphage Particles

    III. The Protein Components of Coliphage Particles

    A. Amino Acid Context of Coliphage Proteins

    B. The Heterogeneity of Viral Protein

    IV. Nucleic Acid Components of Coliphage

    A. Analysis of Components of Viral Nucleic Acid

    B. Heterogeneity of Viral DNA

    V. Other Viral Specific Products



    VIII. The Comparative Chemistry of Infective Virus Particles and of other Virus-Specific Products: Animal Viruses

    I. Introduction

    II. Definition of the Various Virus-Specific Units

    III. Problems and Methods of Chemical Analysis

    IV. Chemical Composition of Infective Particles and Other Virus-Specific Products

    A. Smaller Viruses

    B. Viruses of Medium Size

    C. Larger Viruses

    D. Summary

    V. Origin and Function of the Chemical Constituents of Animal Viruses


    IX. Biochemistry of Insect Viruses

    I. The Chemical Changes in the Insect Host during Virus Infection

    II. Physicochemical Properties and Chemical Composition of Inclusion Bodies

    A. Physicochemical Properties

    B. Chemical Composition of Inclusion Body Proteins

    III. Chemical Composition of Virus Particles


    X. The Scope and Limitations of Immunological Methods in the Characterization and Functional Study of Viruses

    I. Introduction

    II. The Concepts of Immunological Specificity

    III. Aggregation Reactions in Virology

    A. Precipitin Reactions

    B. Complement Fixation

    C. Fluorescent Antibody Techniques

    IV. The Process of Virus Neutralization

    A. Neutralization of Bacterial Viruses

    B. Neutralization of Plant Viruses

    C. Neutralization of Animal Viruses by Immune Serum


    XI. The Reproduction of Viruses: A Comparative Survey

    I. Virus Infection as Infective Heredity

    A. Virus Multiplication, Cell Multiplication, and Cell Growth

    B. Virus as Genetic Determinant

    C. Virus Replication and Virus Maturation

    II. Multiplication of Bacteriophage

    A. The Nature of the Replicating Phage Material

    B. Infectious DNA from Phage Particles

    C. Kinetics of Replication of Vegetative Phage

    D. Functions of the Phage Genome

    E. Phage Maturation and Infective Heredity

    III. Multiplication of Tobacco Mosaic Virus

    A. RNA as the Initiator of Infection

    B. TMV Protein and Virus Maturation

    C. Other RNA Viruses

    IV. Multiplication of Animal Viruses

    A. Myxovirus Group

    B. Other Viruses

    V. Virus Multiplication, Cell Function, and Cell Organization

    A. Restatement of the Dual Hypothesis

    B. Cell Damage and Virus Multiplication

    C. Viruses and Cellular Constituents


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 628
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1959
  • Published: January 1, 1959
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483257662

About the Editors

F. M. Burnet

W. M. Stanley

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