Gazelles and their relatives are important game animals in Africa and Asia; they have been successfully introduced into the US and they are also kept in zoos throughout the world. The occurrence of territorial behavior and its importance for the reproduction of gazelles has been recognized for some time; thus specific information on their territorial behavior is desirable both for scientific and for practical reasons. This book provides the first concrete information on territory size and shape, duration of territorial periods, reoccupation of territories, phases of territoriality, the process of becoming territorial and of abandoning the territory, favorable and unfavorable environmental factors for territorial establishment, and territoriality as antagonist of migratory behavior. Also included are many previously unknown details of traditional territorial behavior, such as differences in the aggression of owners of territories toward (male) conspecifics of different age and social class, the structure of a marking system within a territory, etc.


Animal scientists, veterinarians, agricultural and zoological managers and handlers, animal behaviorists.

Table of Contents

Introduction On Classification of Antilopinae Present Status of Research in Antilopinae Behavior Definition of Territory General Methods Sex and Age Classes Individual Identification Animal Populations and Habitats: Study Areas Indian Blackbuck Mountain Gazelle Thomson's and Grant's Gazelle The Place of Territoriality within the Social System Gregariousness and Isolation Tendency The Social Groups The Territorial Males Territoriality vs. Gregariousness and Migratory Behavior Shape, Size and Density of Territories: Territorial Periods General Aspects Environmental Requirements for Territoriality in Single Species Structure of Territory Resting Sites and Other Specific Activity Sites Center and Boundary Marking System Male Behavior at Peak of Territoriality Marking Behavior Aggressive Behavior Herding Behavior Sexual Behavior Behavioral Peculiarities of Territorial Males as Compared to Other Classes Special Relations among Territorial Neighbors The Day of a Territorial Buck Variations in Territorial Behavior Rise and Decline of Territoriality in Antilopinae Becoming Territorial Decline of Territoriality Abandoning the Territory Functions of Territoriality in Antilopinae Functions in Reproduction Functions in Social Organization and Spatial Distribution Comparative Aspects of Antilopinae Territoriality Management Implications


No. of pages:
© 1983
William Andrew
eBook ISBN:
Print ISBN:

About the authors

Fritz R. Walther

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Wildlife & Fisheries Sciences, Texas A&M University, USA (retired)

Elizabeth C. Mungall

Affiliations and Expertise

Texas Woman's University; Exotic Wildlife Association, USA

Gerald A. Grau

Affiliations and Expertise

National Wetlands Research Center, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA