Gastrointestinal Hormones - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780120273119, 9781483215532

Gastrointestinal Hormones

1st Edition

Advances in Metabolic Disorders, Vol. 11

Editors: Viktor Mutt
eBook ISBN: 9781483215532
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th September 1988
Page Count: 556
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Advances in Metabolic Disorders, Volume 11: Gastrointestinal Hormones covers the developments in the study of gastrointestinal (GI) hormones. The book discusses the cytochemical techniques in work with GI hormones; the general aspects and problems for the radioimmunoassays of GI hormones in the 80s; and the response of the GI hormone system to the pathological changes. The text also describes the evolutional aspects of GI hormones; the cell membrane receptors for secretagogues on pancreatic acinar cells; and the synthesis of GI hormones using organic chemical or recombinant DNA techniques.
Gastrin is reviewed with regard to its forms and fragments in tissues, circulating components during post- and perisecretory processing, cellular origins and distribution, actions and structure-function relations, metabolic disposal, nervous and chemical control for its release, and its role in human pathology. The book further tackles the chemical, anatomical, and biological studies on gastrin-releasing peptides, as well as the physiological actions of gastric inhibitory polypeptide. Discussions about the vasoactive intestinal peptide, incretin, enteroglucagon, neuropeptide Y, peptide HI, galanin, cholecystokinin-58, neuropeptide K, peptide YY, motilin, somatostatin-28, neurotensin, substance P, and opioid peptides are also encompassed. The text concludes by looking into the investigations on the structure and function of the head activator in hydra and in mammals. Molecular biologists, endocrinologists, histochemists, physiologists, and those involved in the research about GI hormones will find the book invaluable.

Table of Contents




Cytochemical Techniques in Work with Gastrointestinal Hormones

I. Introduction

II. Cytochemical Methods and the Concept of the Gut as an Endocrine Organ

III. Electron Microscopy

IV. Immunocytochemistry

V. Gastrointestinal Hormone-Producing Cells

VI. General Markers for Gastrointestinal Endocrine Cells

VII. New Technology

VIII. Conclusions


Radioìmmunoassay Problems for Gut Hormones in the Eighties

I. Introduction

II. Structural Premises for the Assay of Gut Hormones

III. General Strategy for Measurement of Gut Hormones

IV. Production of Antibodies

V. Evaluation of Antisera

VI. Preparation of Tracers

VII. Separation Techniques

VIII. Sequence-Specific Radioimmunoassays


Gastrointestinal Hormones in Disease

I. Introduction

II. Effects of Age and Obesity

III. Gastric Pathology

IV. Intestinal Surgery

V. Diseases Resulting in Malabsorption

VI. Inflammation

VII. Abnormalities of the Enteric Neural System

VIII. Conclusions


Evolutionary Aspects of Gastrointestinal Hormones

I. Introduction

II. Methodological Approaches

III. Gut Peptides in Nerves and Elsewhere

IV. Hormonal Families

V. Overview


Cell Membrane Receptors for Secretagogues on Pancreatic Acinar Cells

I. Introduction

II. Receptors for Secretagogues that Cause Mobilization of Cellular Calcium

III. Receptors for Secretagogues that Increase Cellular Cyclic AMP


Synthesis of Gastrointestinal Hormones Using Organic Chemical or Recombinant DNA Techniques

I. Introduction

II. Synthetic Replicates of Gastrointestinal Hormones

III. Synthesis of Peptides Based on the Amino Acid Sequences Deduced from Hormone Precursor Structures

IV. Immunochemical Studies on Gastrointestinal Hormones Using Synthetic Replicates, Fragments, and Analogs

V. Structure-Activity Study

VI. Synthesis of Gastrointestinal Hormones by Recombinant DNA Techniques



I. Forms and Fragments of Gastrin in Tissues

II. Circulating Components: Post- and Perisecretory Processing

III. Cellular Origins and Distribution

IV. Actions of Gastrin

V. Structure-Function Relations

VI. Metabolic Disposal of Gastrin

VII. Nervous and Chemical Control of Gastrin Release

VIII. Gastrin in Human Pathology


The Gastrin-Releasing Polypeptide (GRP)

I. Introduction

II. Chemical Studies

III. Anatomical Studies

IV. Biological Studies

V. Summary


Secretin and Cholecystokinin

I. Secretin

II. Cholecystokinin

III. Conclusions


Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide (GIP)

I. Isolation and Structure of GIP

II. Cellular Localization

III. Secretion of IR-GRP

IV. Obesity

V. Insulin-Dependent Diabetes

VI. Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes

VII. Physiological Actions of GIP


The Incretin Concept

I. The Enteroinsular Axis and Its Neural Components

II. Definition of Incretin

III. The Incretin Candidates

IV. GIP Response in Malassimilation Syndromes

V. GIP Response to Oral Fat

VI. Insulinotropic Effects of GIP

VII. GIP in Diabetes Mellitus

Vili. GIP Secretion in Obesity

IX. Quantification of Incretin

X. Evidence for Further Incretins

XI. Significance of Altered Hepatic Insulin Extraction

XII. Conclusion


Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide

I. Discovery and Isolation from Intestine

II. Rediscovery as a Neuropeptide

III. Distribution and Localization

IV. Chemical Structure and the Family of Related Peptides

V. Biosynthesis and Molecular Biology

VI. Chemical Synthesis

VII. Structural Variants in the Animal Kingdom

VIII. Biological Actions

IX. Mechanism of Action

X. Release

XI. Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism

XII. Interactions with Other Hormones and Neurotransmitters

XIII. Physiological Roles

XIV. Relationship to Human Disease

XV. Potential as a Therapeutic Agent



I. Introduction

II. Chemistry

III. Localization of Enteroglucagon

IV. Enteroglucagon Secretion

V. Circulating Enteroglucagon

VI. Effects of Enteroglucagon

VII. Conclusion


Neuropeptide Y, Peptide HI, Galanin, Cholecystokinin-58, Neuropeptide K, and Peptide YY

I. Introduction

II. Neuropeptide Y

III. Peptide HI

IV. Galanin

V. Cholecystokinin-58

VI. Neuropeptide K

VII. Peptide YY

VIII. Summary



I. Isolation and Structure of Motilin

II. Cellular Localization

III. The Secretion of Motilin and Its Effect on Gastrointestinal Motility and Exocrine Secretion

IV. Mode of Action of Motilin on Smooth Muscle

V. Actions of Motilin on Central Neurons and the Pituitary

VI. Clinical Aspects



I. Introduction

II. Isolation, Synthesis, and Biochemical Properties

III. Distribution

IV. Biological Effects

V. Conclusion


Neurotensin and Substance P

I. Neurotensin

II. Substance P


Opioid Peptides and the Gastrointestinal Tract

I. The Opioid Peptide Systems

II. Immunohistochemical Distribution of Opioid Peptides

III. Functional Aspects

IV. Concluding Remarks


Structure and Function of the Head Activator in Hydra and in Mammals

I. Introduction

II. Isolation and Sequence Analysis of the Head Activator

III. Immunoassays

IV. Effects of the Head Activator on Cellular Growth and Differentiation in Hydra

V. Action of the Head Activator in Mammals

VI. Head Activator in Plasma Is Carrier-Bound

VII. Summary




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© Academic Press 1988
Academic Press
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About the Editor

Viktor Mutt

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