Gaseous Hydrogen Embrittlement of Materials in Energy Technologies

Gaseous Hydrogen Embrittlement of Materials in Energy Technologies

The Problem, its Characterisation and Effects on Particular Alloy Classes

1st Edition - January 16, 2012

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  • Editors: Richard Gangloff, Brian Somerday
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857093899
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780081016237

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Many modern energy systems are reliant on the production, transportation, storage, and use of gaseous hydrogen. The safety, durability, performance and economic operation of these systems is challenged by operating-cycle dependent degradation by hydrogen of otherwise high performance materials. This important two-volume work provides a comprehensive and authoritative overview of the latest research into managing hydrogen embrittlement in energy technologies.Volume 1 is divided into three parts, the first of which provides an overview of the hydrogen embrittlement problem in specific technologies including petrochemical refining, automotive hydrogen tanks, nuclear waste disposal and power systems, and H2 storage and distribution facilities. Part two then examines modern methods of characterization and analysis of hydrogen damage and part three focuses on the hydrogen degradation of various alloy classesWith its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Volume 1 of Gaseous hydrogen embrittlement of materials in energy technologies is an invaluable reference tool for engineers, designers, materials scientists, and solid mechanicians working with safety-critical components fabricated from high performance materials required to operate in severe environments based on hydrogen. Impacted technologies include aerospace, petrochemical refining, gas transmission, power generation and transportation.

Key Features

  • Summarises the wealth of recent research on understanding and dealing with the safety, durability, performance and economic operation of using gaseous hydrogen at high pressure
  • Reviews how hydrogen embrittlement affects particular sectors such as the petrochemicals, automotive and nuclear industries
  • Discusses how hydrogen embrittlement can be characterised and its effects on particular alloy classes


Professionals and academics.

Table of Contents

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    Part I: The hydrogen embrittlement problem

    Chapter 1: Hydrogen production and containment


    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) stationary vessels in hydrogen service

    1.3 Department of Transportation (DOT) steel transport vessels

    1.4 Fracture mechanics method for steel hydrogen vessel design

    1.5 American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) stationary composite vessels

    1.6 Composite transport vessels

    1.7 Hydrogen pipelines

    1.8 Gaseous hydrogen leakage

    1.9 Joint design and selection

    1.10 American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) code leak and pressure testing

    Chapter 2: Hydrogen-induced disbonding and embrittlement of steels used in petrochemical refining


    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Petrochemical refining

    2.3 Problems during/after cooling of reactors

    2.4 Effect of hydrogen content on mechanical properties

    2.5 Conclusion

    Chapter 3: Assessing hydrogen embrittlement in automotive hydrogen tanks


    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Experimental details

    3.3 Results and discussion

    3.4 Conclusions and future trends

    Chapter 4: Gaseous hydrogen issues in nuclear waste disposal


    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Nature of nuclear wastes and their disposal environments

    4.3 Gaseous hydrogen issues in the disposal of high activity wastes

    Chapter 5: Hydrogen embrittlement in nuclear power systems


    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Experimental methods

    5.3 Environmental factors

    5.4 Metallurgical effects

    5.5 Conclusions

    5.6 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 6: Standards and codes to control hydrogen-induced cracking in pressure vessels and pipes for hydrogen gas storage and transport


    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Basic code selected for pressure vessels

    6.3 Code for piping and pipelines

    6.4 Additional code requirements for high pressure hydrogen applications

    6.5 Methods for calculating the design cyclic (fatigue) life

    6.6 Example of crack growth in a high pressure hydrogen environment

    6.7 Summary and conclusions

    Part II: Characterisation and analysis of hydrogen embrittlement

    Chapter 7: Fracture and fatigue test methods in hydrogen gas


    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 General considerations for conducting tests in external hydrogen

    7.3 Test methods

    7.4 Conclusions

    7.5 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 8: Mechanics of modern test methods and quantitative-accelerated testing for hydrogen embrittlement


    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 General aspects of hydrogen embrittlement (HE) testing

    8.3 Smooth specimens

    8.4 Pre-cracked specimens – the fracture mechanics (FM) approach to stress corrosion cracking (SCC)

    8.5 Limitations of the linear elastic fracture mechanics (FM) approach

    8.6 Future trends

    8.7 Conclusions

    Chapter 9: Metallographic and fractographic techniques for characterising and understanding hydrogen-assisted cracking of metals


    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Characterisation of microstructures and hydrogen distributions

    9.3 Crack paths with respect to microstructure

    9.4 Characterising fracture-surface appearance (and interpretation of features)

    9.5 Determining fracture-surface crystallography

    9.6 Characterising slip-distributions and strains around cracks

    9.7 Determining the effects of solute hydrogen on dislocation activity

    9.8 Determining the effects of adsorbed hydrogen on surfaces

    9.9 In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations of fracture in thin foils and other TEM studies

    9.10 ‘Critical’ experiments for determining mechanisms of hydrogen-assisted cracking (HAC

    9.11 Proposed mechanisms of hydrogen-assisted cracking (HAC)

    9.12 Conclusions

    9.13 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 10: Fatigue crack initiation and fatigue life of metals exposed to hydrogen


    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Effect of hydrogen on total-life fatigue testing and fatigue crack growth (FCG) threshold stress intensity range

    10.3 Mechanisms of fatigue crack initiation (FCI)

    10.4 Conclusions

    10.5 Future trends in total-life design of structural components

    Chapter 11: Effects of hydrogen on fatigue-crack propagation in steels


    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Materials and experimental methods

    11.3 Effect of hydrogen on the fatigue behavior of martensitic SCM435 Cr–Mo steel

    11.4 Effect of hydrogen on fatigue-crack growth behavior in austenitic stainless steels

    11.5 Effects of hydrogen on fatigue behavior in lower-strength bainitic/ferritic/martensitic steels

    11.6 Summary and conclusions

    11.7 Acknowledgement

    11.9 Appendix

    Part III: The hydrogen embrittlement of alloy classes

    Chapter 12: Hydrogen embrittlement of high strength steels


    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Microstructures of martensitic high strength steels

    12.3 Effects of hydrogen on crack growth

    12.4 Discussion of microstructural effects

    12.5 Conclusions

    Chapter 13: Hydrogen trapping phenomena in martensitic steels


    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Hydrogen in the normal lattice of pure iron

    13.3 Theoretical treatments for diffusion in a lattice containing trap sites

    13.4 Experimental and simulation techniques for measurement of trapping parameters

    13.5 Hydrogen trapping at lattice defects in martensitic steels

    13.6 Design of nano-sized alloy carbides as beneficial trap sites to enhance resistance to hydrogen embrittlement

    13.7 Conclusions

    Chapter 14: Hydrogen embrittlement of carbon steels and their welds


    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Hydrogen solubility and diffusivity in carbon steels

    14.3 Mechanical properties of carbon steels and their welds in high pressure hydrogen

    14.4 Important factors in hydrogen gas embrittlement

    14.5 Hydrogen embrittlement mechanisms in low strength carbon steels

    14.6 Future research needs

    14.7 Conclusions

    14.8 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 15: Hydrogen embrittlement of high strength, low alloy (HSLA) steels and their welds


    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 The family of high strength, low alloy (HSLA) steels

    15.3 The welding of high strength, low alloy (HSLA) steels

    15.4 Mechanical effect of hydrogen on high strength, low alloy (HSLA) steels

    15.5 Conclusions

    Chapter 16: Hydrogen embrittlement of stainless steels and their welds


    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Fundamentals of austenitic stainless steels

    16.3 Hydrogen transport

    16.4 Environment test methods

    16.5 Models and mechanisms

    16.6 Observations of hydrogen-assisted fracture

    16.7 Trends in hydrogen-assisted fracture

    16.8 Conclusions and future trends

    16.9 Acknowledgments

    Chapter 17: Hydrogen embrittlement of nickel, cobalt and iron-based superalloys


    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Hydrogen transport properties in superalloys

    17.3 Hydrogen gas effects on mechanical properties of superalloys

    17.4 Important factors in hydrogen embrittlement

    17.5 Future trends

    17.6 Conclusions

    Chapter 18: Hydrogen effects in titanium alloys


    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Terminology, classification and properties of titanium alloys

    18.3 Hydrogen embrittlement behavior in different classes of titanium alloys

    18.4 Hydrogen trapping in titanium alloys

    18.5 Positive effects in titanium alloys

    18.6 Summary and conclusions

    Chapter 19: Hydrogen embrittlement of aluminum and aluminum-based alloys


    19.1 Introduction: scope and objective

    19.2 Hydrogen interactions in Al alloy systems (experiment and modeling)

    19.3 Gaseous hydrogen and hydrogen environment embrittlement (HEE) in Al-based alloys

    19.4 Mechanisms of hydrogen-assisted cracking in Al-based systems

    19.5 Improvement of the hydrogen resistant Al-base alloys based on metallurgical, surface engineering or environmental chemistry modifications

    19.6 Needs, gaps and opportunities in Al-based systems

    19.7 Future trends

    19.8 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 20: Hydrogen-induced degradation of rubber seals


    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 Example of cracking of a rubber O-ring used in a high pressure hydrogen storage vessel

    20.3 Effect of filler on blister damage to rubber sealing materials in high pressure hydrogen gas

    20.4 Influence of gaseous hydrogen on the degradation of a rubber sealing material

    20.5 Testing of the durability of a rubber O-ring by using a high pressure hydrogen durability tester

    20.6 Additional work required and future plans

    20.7 Conclusions

    20.8 Acknowledgement


Product details

  • No. of pages: 864
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2012
  • Published: January 16, 2012
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857093899
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780081016237

About the Editors

Richard Gangloff

Brian Somerday

Affiliations and Expertise


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