Gaseous Hydrogen Embrittlement of Materials in Energy Technologies - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781845696771, 9780857093899

Gaseous Hydrogen Embrittlement of Materials in Energy Technologies

1st Edition

The Problem, its Characterisation and Effects on Particular Alloy Classes

Editors: Richard Gangloff Brian Somerday
eBook ISBN: 9780857093899
Hardcover ISBN: 9781845696771
Paperback ISBN: 9780081016237
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 16th January 2012
Page Count: 864
Tax/VAT will be calculated at check-out
File Compatibility per Device

PDF, EPUB, VSB (Vital Source):
PC, Apple Mac, iPhone, iPad, Android mobile devices.

Amazon Kindle eReader.

Institutional Access

Table of Contents

Contributor contact details


Part I: The hydrogen embrittlement problem

Chapter 1: Hydrogen production and containment


1.1 Introduction

1.2 American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) stationary vessels in hydrogen service

1.3 Department of Transportation (DOT) steel transport vessels

1.4 Fracture mechanics method for steel hydrogen vessel design

1.5 American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) stationary composite vessels

1.6 Composite transport vessels

1.7 Hydrogen pipelines

1.8 Gaseous hydrogen leakage

1.9 Joint design and selection

1.10 American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) code leak and pressure testing

Chapter 2: Hydrogen-induced disbonding and embrittlement of steels used in petrochemical refining


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Petrochemical refining

2.3 Problems during/after cooling of reactors

2.4 Effect of hydrogen content on mechanical properties

2.5 Conclusion

Chapter 3: Assessing hydrogen embrittlement in automotive hydrogen tanks


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Experimental details

3.3 Results and discussion

3.4 Conclusions and future trends

Chapter 4: Gaseous hydrogen issues in nuclear waste disposal


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Nature of nuclear wastes and their disposal environments

4.3 Gaseous hydrogen issues in the disposal of high activity wastes

Chapter 5: Hydrogen embrittlement in nuclear power systems


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Experimental methods

5.3 Environmental factors

5.4 Metallurgical effects

5.5 Conclusions

5.6 Acknowledgements

Chapter 6: Standards and codes to control hydrogen-induced cracking in pressure vessels and pipes for hydrogen gas storage and transport


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Basic code selected for pressure vessels

6.3 Code for piping and pipelines

6.4 Additional code requirements for high pressure hydrogen applications

6.5 Methods for calculating the design cyclic (fatigue) life

6.6 Example of crack growth in a high pressure hydrogen environment

6.7 Summary and conclusions

Part II: Characterisation and analysis of hydrogen embrittlement

Chapter 7: Fracture and fatigue test methods in hydrogen gas


7.1 Introduction

7.2 General considerations for conducting tests in external hydrogen

7.3 Test methods

7.4 Conclusions

7.5 Acknowledgements

Chapter 8: Mechanics of modern test methods and quantitative-accelerated testing for hydrogen embrittlement


8.1 Introduction

8.2 General aspects of hydrogen embrittlement (HE) testing

8.3 Smooth specimens

8.4 Pre-cracked specimens – the fracture mechanics (FM) approach to stress corrosion cracking (SCC)

8.5 Limitations of the linear elastic fracture mechanics (FM) approach

8.6 Future trends

8.7 Conclusions

Chapter 9: Metallographic and fractographic techniques for characterising and understanding hydrogen-assisted cracking of metals


9.1 Introduction

9.2 Characterisation of microstructures and hydrogen distributions

9.3 Crack paths with respect to microstructure

9.4 Characterising fracture-surface appearance (and interpretation of features)

9.5 Determining fracture-surface crystallography

9.6 Characterising slip-distributions and strains around cracks

9.7 Determining the effects of solute hydrogen on dislocation activity

9.8 Determining the effects of adsorbed hydrogen on surfaces

9.9 In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations of fracture in thin foils and other TEM studies

9.10 ‘Critical’ experiments for determining mechanisms of hydrogen-assisted cracking (HAC

9.11 Proposed mechanisms of hydrogen-assisted cracking (HAC)

9.12 Conclusions

9.13 Acknowledgements

Chapter 10: Fatigue crack initiation and fatigue life of metals exposed to hydrogen


10.1 Introduction

10.2 Effect of hydrogen on total-life fatigue testing and fatigue crack growth (FCG) threshold stress intensity range

10.3 Mechanisms of fatigue crack initiation (FCI)

10.4 Conclusions

10.5 Future trends in total-life design of structural components

Chapter 11: Effects of hydrogen on fatigue-crack propagation in steels


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Materials and experimental methods

11.3 Effect of hydrogen on the fatigue behavior of martensitic SCM435 Cr–Mo steel

11.4 Effect of hydrogen on fatigue-crack growth behavior in austenitic stainless steels

11.5 Effects of hydrogen on fatigue behavior in lower-strength bainitic/ferritic/martensitic steels

11.6 Summary and conclusions

11.7 Acknowledgement

11.9 Appendix

Part III: The hydrogen embrittlement of alloy classes

Chapter 12: Hydrogen embrittlement of high strength steels


12.1 Introduction

12.2 Microstructures of martensitic high strength steels

12.3 Effects of hydrogen on crack growth

12.4 Discussion of microstructural effects

12.5 Conclusions

Chapter 13: Hydrogen trapping phenomena in martensitic steels


13.1 Introduction

13.2 Hydrogen in the normal lattice of pure iron

13.3 Theoretical treatments for diffusion in a lattice containing trap sites

13.4 Experimental and simulation techniques for measurement of trapping parameters

13.5 Hydrogen trapping at lattice defects in martensitic steels

13.6 Design of nano-sized alloy carbides as beneficial trap sites to enhance resistance to hydrogen embrittlement

13.7 Conclusions

Chapter 14: Hydrogen embrittlement of carbon steels and their welds


14.1 Introduction

14.2 Hydrogen solubility and diffusivity in carbon steels

14.3 Mechanical properties of carbon steels and their welds in high pressure hydrogen

14.4 Important factors in hydrogen gas embrittlement

14.5 Hydrogen embrittlement mechanisms in low strength carbon steels

14.6 Future research needs

14.7 Conclusions

14.8 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 15: Hydrogen embrittlement of high strength, low alloy (HSLA) steels and their welds


15.1 Introduction

15.2 The family of high strength, low alloy (HSLA) steels

15.3 The welding of high strength, low alloy (HSLA) steels

15.4 Mechanical effect of hydrogen on high strength, low alloy (HSLA) steels

15.5 Conclusions

Chapter 16: Hydrogen embrittlement of stainless steels and their welds


16.1 Introduction

16.2 Fundamentals of austenitic stainless steels

16.3 Hydrogen transport

16.4 Environment test methods

16.5 Models and mechanisms

16.6 Observations of hydrogen-assisted fracture

16.7 Trends in hydrogen-assisted fracture

16.8 Conclusions and future trends

16.9 Acknowledgments

Chapter 17: Hydrogen embrittlement of nickel, cobalt and iron-based superalloys


17.1 Introduction

17.2 Hydrogen transport properties in superalloys

17.3 Hydrogen gas effects on mechanical properties of superalloys

17.4 Important factors in hydrogen embrittlement

17.5 Future trends

17.6 Conclusions

Chapter 18: Hydrogen effects in titanium alloys


18.1 Introduction

18.2 Terminology, classification and properties of titanium alloys

18.3 Hydrogen embrittlement behavior in different classes of titanium alloys

18.4 Hydrogen trapping in titanium alloys

18.5 Positive effects in titanium alloys

18.6 Summary and conclusions

Chapter 19: Hydrogen embrittlement of aluminum and aluminum-based alloys


19.1 Introduction: scope and objective

19.2 Hydrogen interactions in Al alloy systems (experiment and modeling)

19.3 Gaseous hydrogen and hydrogen environment embrittlement (HEE) in Al-based alloys

19.4 Mechanisms of hydrogen-assisted cracking in Al-based systems

19.5 Improvement of the hydrogen resistant Al-base alloys based on metallurgical, surface engineering or environmental chemistry modifications

19.6 Needs, gaps and opportunities in Al-based systems

19.7 Future trends

19.8 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 20: Hydrogen-induced degradation of rubber seals


20.1 Introduction

20.2 Example of cracking of a rubber O-ring used in a high pressure hydrogen storage vessel

20.3 Effect of filler on blister damage to rubber sealing materials in high pressure hydrogen gas

20.4 Influence of gaseous hydrogen on the degradation of a rubber sealing material

20.5 Testing of the durability of a rubber O-ring by using a high pressure hydrogen durability tester

20.6 Additional work required and future plans

20.7 Conclusions

20.8 Acknowledgement



Many modern energy systems are reliant on the production, transportation, storage, and use of gaseous hydrogen. The safety, durability, performance and economic operation of these systems is challenged by operating-cycle dependent degradation by hydrogen of otherwise high performance materials. This important two-volume work provides a comprehensive and authoritative overview of the latest research into managing hydrogen embrittlement in energy technologies.

Volume 1 is divided into three parts, the first of which provides an overview of the hydrogen embrittlement problem in specific technologies including petrochemical refining, automotive hydrogen tanks, nuclear waste disposal and power systems, and H2 storage and distribution facilities. Part two then examines modern methods of characterization and analysis of hydrogen damage and part three focuses on the hydrogen degradation of various alloy classes

With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Volume 1 of Gaseous hydrogen embrittlement of materials in energy technologies is an invaluable reference tool for engineers, designers, materials scientists, and solid mechanicians working with safety-critical components fabricated from high performance materials required to operate in severe environments based on hydrogen. Impacted technologies include aerospace, petrochemical refining, gas transmission, power generation and transportation.

Key Features

  • Summarises the wealth of recent research on understanding and dealing with the safety, durability, performance and economic operation of using gaseous hydrogen at high pressure
  • Reviews how hydrogen embrittlement affects particular sectors such as the petrochemicals, automotive and nuclear industries
  • Discusses how hydrogen embrittlement can be characterised and its effects on particular alloy classes


Professionals and academics.


No. of pages:
© Woodhead Publishing 2012
Woodhead Publishing
eBook ISBN:
Hardcover ISBN:
Paperback ISBN:

About the Editors

Richard Gangloff Editor

Brian Somerday Editor

Affiliations and Expertise