Gaseous Hydrogen Embrittlement of Materials in Energy Technologies

Gaseous Hydrogen Embrittlement of Materials in Energy Technologies

Mechanisms, Modelling and Future Developments

1st Edition - January 19, 2012

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  • Editors: Richard Gangloff, Brian Somerday
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780081016411
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857095374

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Description

Many modern energy systems are reliant on the production, transportation, storage, and use of gaseous hydrogen. The safety, durability, performance and economic operation of these systems is challenged by operating-cycle dependent degradation by hydrogen of otherwise high performance materials. This important two-volume work provides a comprehensive and authoritative overview of the latest research into managing hydrogen embrittlement in energy technologies.Volume 2 is divided into three parts, part one looks at the mechanisms of hydrogen interactions with metals including chapters on the adsorption and trap-sensitive diffusion of hydrogen and its impact on deformation and fracture processes. Part two investigates modern methods of modelling hydrogen damage so as to predict material-cracking properties. The book ends with suggested future directions in science and engineering to manage the hydrogen embrittlement of high-performance metals in energy systems.With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Volume 2 of Gaseous hydrogen embrittlement of materials in energy technologies is an invaluable reference tool for engineers, designers, materials scientists, and solid mechanicians working with safety-critical components fabricated from high performance materials required to operate in severe environments based on hydrogen. Impacted technologies include aerospace, petrochemical refining, gas transmission, power generation and transportation.

Key Features

  • Summarises the wealth of recent research on understanding and dealing with the safety, durability, performance and economic operation of using gaseous hydrogen at high pressure
  • Chapters review mechanisms of hydrogen embrittlement including absorption, diffusion and trapping of hydrogen in metals
  • Analyses ways of modelling hydrogen-induced damage and assessing service life

Readership

Engineers working in the energy sector and academics interested in this important topic.

Table of Contents

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    Introduction

    Part I: Mechanisms of hydrogen interactions with metals

    Chapter 1: Hydrogen adsorption on the surface of metals

    Abstract:

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Adsorption effect

    1.3 Elementary processes in adsorption

    1.4 The structure of the H–Me adsorption complex

    1.5 Kinetic equations and equilibrium

    1.6 Conclusions

    Chapter 2: Analysing hydrogen in metals: bulk thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) methods

    Abstract:

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Principle of thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) measurements

    2.3 Experimental aspects of thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS)

    2.4 Complementary techniques

    2.5 Conclusion

    Chapter 3: Analyzing hydrogen in metals: surface techniques

    Abstract:

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Available techniques for analyzing hydrogen

    3.3 Methods for analyzing hydrogen in metals: basic principles

    3.4 Applications of hydrogen analysis methods

    3.5 Ion beam-based methods

    3.6 Conclusion

    Chapter 4: Hydrogen diffusion and trapping in metals

    Abstract:

    4.1 Introduction: hydrogen uptake

    4.2 Solubility of hydrogen in metals

    4.3 Principles of hydrogen diffusion and trapping

    4.4 Modelling of hydrogen diffusion and trapping

    4.5 Measurement of hydrogen diffusion

    4.6 Hydrogen diffusion data

    4.7 Conclusions

    4.8 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 5: Control of hydrogen embrittlement of metals by chemical inhibitors and coatings

    Abstract:

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Chemical barriers to hydrogen environment embrittlement (HEE): gaseous inhibitors

    5.3 Physical barriers to hydrogen environment embrittlement (HEE)

    5.4 Conclusions and future trends

    Chapter 6: The role of grain boundaries in hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) of steels

    Abstract:

    6.1 Introduction: modes of cracking

    6.2 Impurity effects

    6.3 Temper embrittlement and hydrogen

    6.4 Tempered-martensite embrittlement and hydrogen

    6.5 Future trends

    6.6 Conclusions

    Chapter 7: Influence of hydrogen on the behavior of dislocations

    Abstract:

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Dislocation motion

    7.3 Evidence for hydrogen dislocation interactions

    7.4 Discussion

    7.5 Conclusions

    7.6 Acknowledgements

    Part II: Modelling hydrogen embrittlement

    Chapter 8: Modeling hydrogen induced damage mechanisms in metals

    Abstract:

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Pros and cons of proposed mechanisms

    8.3 Evolution of decohesion models

    8.4 Evolution of shear localization models

    8.5 Summary

    8.6 Conclusions

    8.7 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 9: Hydrogen effects on the plasticity of face centred cubic (fcc) crystals

    Abstract:

    9.1 Introduction and scope

    9.2 Study of dynamic interactions and elastic binding by static strain ageing (SSA)

    9.3 Modelling in the framework of the elastic theory of discrete dislocations

    9.4 Experiments on face centred cubic (fcc) single crystals oriented for single glide

    9.5 Review of main conclusions

    9.6 Future trends

    Chapter 10: Continuum mechanics modeling of hydrogen embrittlement

    Abstract:

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Basic concepts

    10.3 Crack tip fields: asymptotic elastic and plastic solutions

    10.4 Crack tip fields: finite deformation blunting predictions

    10.5 Application of crack tip fields and additional considerations

    10.6 Stresses around dislocations and inclusions

    10.7 Conclusions

    10.8 Acknowledgement

    Chapter 11: Degradation models for hydrogen embrittlement

    Abstract:

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Subcritical intergranular cracking under gaseous hydrogen uptake

    11.3 Subcritical ductile cracking: gaseous hydrogen exposure at pressures less than 45 MPa or internal hydrogen

    11.4 Discussion

    11.5 Conclusions

    11.6 Acknowledgments

    Chapter 12: Effect of inelastic strain on hydrogen-assisted fracture of metals

    Abstract:

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) processes and assumptions

    12.3 Hydrogen damage models and assumptions

    12.4 Diffusion with dynamic trapping

    12.5 Discussion

    12.6 Conclusions

    12.8 Appendix: nomenclature

    Chapter 13: Development of service life prognosis systems for hydrogen energy devices

    Abstract:

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Current techniques for control of cracking in safety critical structures

    13.3 Future developments in crack control using prognostic systems

    13.4 Prognostic systems for crack control in hydrogen energy technologies

    13.5 Potential future research areas

    13.6 Conclusions

    Part III: The future

    Chapter 14: Gaseous hydrogen embrittlement of high performance metals in energy systems: future trends

    Abstract:

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Theory and modeling

    14.3 Nanoscale processes

    14.4 Dynamic crack tip processes

    14.5 Interfacial effects of hydrogen

    14.6 Measurement of localized hydrogen concentration

    14.7 Loading mode effects

    14.8 Hydrogen permeation barrier coatings

    14.9 Advances in codes and standards

    14.10 Conclusions

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 520
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2012
  • Published: January 19, 2012
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780081016411
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857095374

About the Editors

Richard Gangloff

Brian Somerday

Affiliations and Expertise

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