Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook

Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook

3rd Edition - April 28, 2006

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  • Author: Meherwan Boyce
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080456898

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Description

The Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook has been the standard for engineers involved in the design, selection, and operation of gas turbines. This revision includes new case histories, the latest techniques, and new designs to comply with recently passed legislation. By keeping the book up to date with new, emerging topics, Boyce ensures that this book will remain the standard and most widely used book in this field. The new Third Edition of the Gas Turbine Engineering Hand Book updates the book to cover the new generation of Advanced gas Turbines. It examines the benefit and some of the major problems that have been encountered by these new turbines. The book keeps abreast of the environmental changes and the industries answer to these new regulations. A new chapter on case histories has been added to enable the engineer in the field to keep abreast of problems that are being encountered and the solutions that have resulted in solving them.

Key Features

  • Comprehensive treatment of Gas Turbines from Design to Operation and Maintenance. In depth treatment of Compressors with emphasis on surge, rotating stall, and choke; Combustors with emphasis on Dry Low NOx Combustors; and Turbines with emphasis on Metallurgy and new cooling schemes. An excellent introductory book for the student and field engineers
  • A special maintenance section dealing with the advanced gas turbines, and special diagnostic charts have been provided that will enable the reader to troubleshoot problems he encounters in the field
  • The third edition consists of many Case Histories of Gas Turbine problems. This should enable the field engineer to avoid some of these same generic problems

Readership

Industrial Engineers, Maintenance Engineers, Field Engineers, Mechanical Engineers, Design Engineers

Table of Contents

  • Part I: Design

    Chapter 1: An Overview of Gas Turbines

    Gas Turbine Cycle in the Combined Cycle or Cogeneration Mode

    Gas Turbine Performance

    Gas Turbine Design Considerations

    Categories of Gas Turbines

    Major Gas Turbine Components

    Fuel Type

    Environmental Effects

    Turbine Expander Section

    Materials

    Coatings

    Gas Turbine Heat Recovery

    Supplementary Firing of Heat Recovery Systems

    Bibliography

    Chapter 2: Theoretical and Actual Cycle Analysis

    The Brayton Cycle

    Actual Cycle Analysis

    The Brayton-Rankine Cycle

    Summation of Cycle Analysis

    A General Overview of Combined Cycle Plants

    Compressed Air Energy Storage Cycle

    Power Augmentaion

    Summation of the Power Augmentation Systems

    Bibliography

    Chapter 3: Compressor and Turbine Performance Characteristics

    Turbomachine Aerothermodynamics

    The Aerothermal Equations

    Efficiencies

    Dimensional Analysis

    Compressor Performance Characteristics

    Turbine Performance Characteristics

    Gas Turbine Performance Computation

    Bibliography

    Chapter 4: Performance and Mechanical Standards

    Major Variables for a Gas Turbine Application

    Performance Standards

    Mechanical Parameters

    Application of the Mechanical Standards to the Gas Turbine

    Specifications

    Bibliography

    Chapter 5: Rotor Dynamics

    Mathematical Analysis

    Application to Rotating Machines

    Critical Speed Calculations for Rotor Bearing Systems

    Electromechanical Systems and Analogies

    Campbell Diagram

    Bibliography

    Part II: Major Components

    Chapter 6: Centrifugal Compressors

    Centrifugal Compressor Components

    Centrifugal Compressor Performance

    Compressor Surge

    Process Centrifugal Compressors

    Bibliography

    Chapter 7: Axial-Flow Compressors

    Introduction

    Blade and Cascade Nomenclature

    Elementary Airfoil Theory

    Laminar-Flow Airfoils

    Energy Increase

    Velocity Triangles

    Degree of Reaction

    Radial Equilibrium

    Diffusion Factor

    The Incidence Rule

    The Deviation Rule

    Compressor Operation Characteristics

    Compressor Choke

    Compressor Performance Parameters

    Performance Losses in an Axial-Flow Compressor

    New Developments in Axial-Flow Compressors

    Axial-Flow Compressor Research

    Compressor Blade Material

    Acknowledgments

    Bibliography

    Chapter 8: Radial-Inflow Turbines

    Description

    Theory

    Design Considerations

    Losses in a Radial-Inflow Turbine

    Performance of a Radial-Inflow Turbine

    Bibliography

    Chapter 9: Axial-Flow Turbines

    Turbine Geometry

    Impulse Turbine

    The Reaction Turbine

    Turbine Blade Cooling Concepts

    Turbine Blade Cooling Design

    Cooled-Turbine Aerodynamics

    Turbine Losses

    Bibliography

    Chapter 10: Combustors

    Combustion Terms

    Combustion

    Combustion Chamber Design

    Fuel Atomization and Ignition

    Typical Combustor Arrangements

    Air Pollution Problems

    Catalytic Combustion

    Bibliography

    Part III: Materials, Fuel Technology, and Fuel Systems

    Chapter 11: Materials

    General Metallurgical Behaviors in Gas Turbines

    Creep and Rupture

    Ductility and Fracture

    Cyclic Fatigue

    Thermal Fatigue

    Corrosion

    Reactions—Ni-Base Alloys

    Gas Turbine Materials

    Turbine Wheel Alloys

    Compressor Blades

    Forgings and Nondestructive Testing

    Ceramics

    Coatings

    Shroud Coatings

    Future Coatings

    Bibliography

    Chapter 12: Fuels

    Fuels

    Fuel Specifications

    Fuel Properties

    Heavy Fuels

    Fuel Gas Handling and Treatment

    Equipment for Removal of Particulates and Liquids from Fuel Gas Systems

    Fuel Heating

    Cleaning of Turbine Components

    Fuel Economics

    Operating Experience

    Heat Tracing of Piping Systems

    Types of Heat-Tracing Systems

    Storage of Liquids

    Bibliography

    Part IV: Auxiliary Components and Accessories

    Chapter 13: Bearings and Seals

    Bearings

    Bearing Design Principles

    Tilting-Pad Journal Bearings

    Bearing Materials

    Bearing and Shaft Instabilities

    Thrust Bearings

    Factors Affecting Thrust-Bearing Design

    Thrust-Bearing Power Loss

    Seals

    Noncontacting Seals

    Mechanical (Face) Seals

    Mechanical Seal Selection and Application

    Seal Systems

    Associated Oil System

    Dry Gas Seals

    Bibliography

    Chapter 14: Gears

    GearTypes

    Factors Affecting Gear Design

    Manufacturing Processes

    Installation and Initial Operation

    Bibliography

    Part V: Installation, Operation, and Maintenance

    Chapter 15: Lubrication

    Basic Oil System

    Lubricant Selection

    Oil Sampling and Testing

    Oil Contamination

    Filter Selection

    Cleaning and Flushing

    Coupling Lubrication

    Lubrication Management Program

    Bibliography

    Chapter 16: Spectrum Analysis

    Vibration Measurement

    Taping Data

    Interpretation of Vibration Spectra

    Subsynchronous Vibration Analysis Using RTA

    Synchronous and Harmonic Spectra

    Bibliography

    Chapter 17: Balancing

    Rotor Imbalance

    Balancing Procedures

    Application of Balancing Techniques

    User’s Guide for Multiplane Balancing

    Data Sheet 1

    Data Sheet 2

    Bibliography

    Chapter 18: Couplings and Alignment

    Gear Couplings

    Continuously Lubricated Couplings

    Gear Coupling Failure Modes

    Metal Diaphragm Couplings

    Metal Disc Couplings

    Turbomachinery Uprates

    Bibliography

    Chapter 19: Control Systems and Instrumentation

    Control Systems

    Condition Monitoring Systems

    Monitoring Software

    Implementation of a Condition Monitoring System

    Life Cycle Costs

    Temperature Measurement

    Pressure Measurement

    Vibration Measurement

    Auxiliary System Monitoring

    The Gas Turbine

    Failure Diagnostics

    Turbine Efficiency

    Mechanical Problem Diagnostics

    Combination of Units of Yield Efficient Power Load Distribution for Different Demand Loads

    Summary

    Bibliography

    Chapter 20: Gas Turbine Performance Test

    Introduction

    Performance Codes

    Flow Straighteners

    Pressure Measurement

    Temperature Measurement

    Flow Measurement

    Gas Turbine Test

    Gas Turbine

    Air Inlet Filter Module

    Compressor Module

    Combustor Module

    Expander Module

    Life Cycle Consideration of Various Critical Hot Section Components

    Performance Curves

    Performance Computations

    General Governing Equations

    Gas Turbine Performance Calculation

    Gas Turbine Performance Calculations

    Correction Factors for Gas Turbines

    Vibration Measurement

    Rotor Dynamics

    Vibration Measurements

    Emission Measurements

    Emissions

    Plant Losses

    Bibliography

    Chapter 21: Maintenance Techniques

    Philosophy of Maintenance

    Defect:

    Maximization of Equipment Efficiency and Effectiveness

    Organization Structures for a Performance-Based Total Productive Maintenance Program

    Implementation of a Performance-Based Total Productive Maintenance

    Maintenance Department Requirements

    Training of Personnel

    I. Type of Personnel

    II. Types of Training

    Tools and Shop Equipment

    Spare Parts Inventory

    Condition and Life Assessment

    Availability and Reliability

    Redesign for Higher Machinery Reliability

    Gas Turbine Start-up

    Redesign for Higher Machinery Reliability

    Advanced Gas Turbines

    Axial-Flow Compressor

    Axial-Flow Turbine

    Maintenance Scheduling

    Maintenance Communications

    Inspection

    Long-Term Service Agreements

    Borescope Inspection

    Maintenance of Gas Turbine Components

    Compressors

    Compressor Cleaning

    Compressor Water Wash

    Different Wash Systems

    On-Line Wash Cleaning System

    Off-Line Crank Wash Cleaning System

    On-Line and Off-Line Water Wash Fluids

    Off-Line Crank Wash Procedure

    Combustors

    Turbines

    Rejuvenation of Used Turbine Blades

    Rotor Dynamic System Characteristics

    Bearing Maintenance

    Clearance Checks

    Thrust-Bearing Failure

    Coupling Maintenance

    Repair and Rehabilitation of Turbomachinery Foundations

    Installation Defects

    Increasing Mass and Rigidity

    Bibliography

    Chapter 22: Case Histories

    Axial-Flow Compressors

    Combustion Systems

    Axial-Flow Turbines

    Appendix: Equivalent Units

    Index

    Short Bio-Data

Product details

  • No. of pages: 960
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Gulf Professional Publishing 2006
  • Published: April 28, 2006
  • Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080456898

About the Author

Meherwan Boyce

Dr. Boyce has 40 years of experience in the field of Turbomachinery in both industry and academia. His industrial experience includes 20 years as Chairman and CEO of Boyce Engineering International, and five years as a designer of compressors and turbines for various gas turbine manufacturers. His academic experience includes 15 years as Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Texas A&M University and Founder of the Turbomachinery Laboratories and The Turbomachinery Symposium, which is now in its thirtieth year. Dr. Boyce is the author of several books and has authored more than 100 technical papers and reports on Gas Turbines, Compressors Pumps, Fluid Mechanics, and Turbomachinery and has taught over 100 short courses around the world, attended by over 3,000 students representing over 400 companies. He is a much-requested speaker at universities and conferences throughout the world.Dr. Boyce received a B.S. and M.S. in Mechanical Engineering from the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology and the State University of New York, respectively, and a Ph.D. (Aerospace & Mechanical Engineering) from the University of Oklahoma.

Affiliations and Expertise

Consultant and managing partner of The Boyce Consultancy Group, Texas, USA

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