Gas Solubilities - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080252483, 9781483147680

Gas Solubilities

1st Edition

Widespread Applications

Authors: William Gerrard
eBook ISBN: 9781483147680
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1980
Page Count: 520
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Gas Solubilities: Widespread Applications discusses several topics concerning the various applications of gas solubilities. The first chapter of the book reviews Henr's law, while the second chapter covers the effect of temperature on gas solubility. The third chapter discusses the various gases used by Horiuti, and the following chapters evaluate the data on sulfur dioxide, chlorine data, and solubility data for hydrogen sulfide. Chapter 7 concerns itself with solubility of radon, thoron, and actinon. Chapter 8 tackles the solubilities of diborane and the gaseous hydrides of groups IV, V, and VI of the periodic table. Chapter 9 discusses the solubility of gases containing fluorine, while Chapter 10 talks about Hildebrand's theory in the light of all gas solubility data. Chapter 11 covers the hydrogen halide system, while Chapter 12 deals with the solubility of gases in water and aqueous solutions of slats, inorganic acids and bases, and organic compounds. Chapter 13 discusses gases in sea water, while Chapter 14 covers aerosol propellants and Chapter 15 tackles the solubility of nitric oxide. Chapter 16 discusses the biotechnological aspects, and Chapter 17 talks about more on making holes. Chapter 18 covers the evaluation of data on phosphine. The book would be of great interest to researchers and professionals concerned with applications of the soluble nature of gases.

Table of Contents

1. What is Henry's Law

1.1. The Conventional Concept

1.2. Bunsen1s Heidelberg Group of 1855

1.3. Ostwald's Absorption Coefficient

1.4. Horiuti's Statements on the Ostwald Coefficient9

1.5. The Effect of the Vapor of Liquid S, the "Solvent"

1.6. Other Examples of Confusion

2. Effect of Temperature on Gas Solubility

2.1. The Concept of "Ideal Solubility"

2.2. Deviations from "Ideal Solubility"

2.3. The Reference Line (R-line) Procedure

2.4. n-Butane

2.5. Propane

2.6. Ethane

2.7. Methane

2.8. Data on Hydrogen, Ethane, Ethene, and Propane, Reported by Waters, Mortimer, and Clements (1970)

2.9· Data on Hydrogen and Deuterium, by Cook, Hansen, and Alder (1957)

2.10. Solubility of Hydrogen in Organic Liquids - Data by Maxted and Moon (1936)

2.11. Lannung's Data on Helium, Neon, and Argon (1930)

2.12. The Work of Siddkind and Kasarnowsky on the Solubility of Argon (1931,1933)

2.13. The Concept of Gas Solubility According to Phillips and Williams (1965)

2.14. The Solubility of Krypton - The Work of Korosy (1937), and van Liempt and van Wijk (1937)

2.15. Further Comments on the Making and Filling of Holes

2.16. R-line and "Ideal" Solubilities at 1 Atm and Different Temperatures

2.17. Data on the Noble Gases (He to Xe) by Clever, Battino, Saylor, and Gross

2.18. Solubility of Argon in Alcohols, Carbon Disulphide, and Perfluoroheptane: Lata by Gjaldbaek and Niemann (1958)

2.19. Hildebrand and Colleagues on Solubility and Entropy of Solution

2.20. The Theoretical Approach Based on Statistical Mechanics

2.21. Solubility of Helium, Neon, Hydrogen, and Deuterium in Liquid Argon

3. The Gases Used by Horiuti

3.1. Two Aspects: Solubility and Dilation

3.2. Solubility Data: Gases of "Great Solubility"

3.3. Solubility of Gases at "Medium Solubility"

3.4. Gases of "Small Solubility"

3.5. Data for N2O by Kunerth

3.6. Data on N2O by Yen and McKetta

3.7. Data by G. Jaldbaek for CO in Alcohols

4. Evaluation of Data on Sulfur Dioxide

4.1. The Two Dominating Conventional Concepts

4.2. The Muddle Over Henry's Law

4.3. The Solubility of Sulfur Dioxide in Diethylaniline

4.4. Solubility of SO2 in Benzene

4.5. Data by Albright, Shannon, Yu, and Chueh (1963)

4.6. Data by Pfeifer (1963)

4.7. Solubility in Di-n-butyl Ether

4.8. Solubility in Ethylene Glycol at 0°C

4.9. Solubility in Water

5. Evaluation of Chlorine Data

5.1. Principles and Methods of Measurements

5.2. The Technique of Taylor and Hildebrand (1923)

5.3. Solubility in Hydrocarbons

5.4. Solubility in Halogenated Hydrocarbons

5.5. Solubility in Carbon Disulfide and its Chlorination Products

5.6. Solubility in Organic Compounds Containing Oxygen

5.7. Solubility in Inorganic Chlorides

5.8. Solubility in Water

6. Evaluation of Solubility Data for Hydrogen Sulfide

6.1. Rejection of Henry's Law

6.2. Solubility in Nonaqueous Liquids

6.3. Solubility in n-Decane

6.4. Data by Gerrard

6.5. Solubility in Water

7. The Solubility of Radon 226/86Rn, Thoron 220/86Rn, and Actinon 219/86Rn in Liquids

7.1. The Measurement of Solubility by Radioactivity

7.2. Expression of Solubility of Radon as the Ostwald Coefficient

7.3. The Work of Eva Ramstedt

7.4. The Work of Kofier

7.5. The Work of Nussbaum and Hursh

7.6. Solubility Data for Radon

7.7. Confusion in the Data Books

7.8. Rational Evaluation of Data for Radon

7.9. The Effect of Temperature and Pressure

7.10. Solubility in Biological Fluids

7.11. Solubility in Aqueous Solutions of Salts and Organic Compounds

7.12. Recent Contributions

7.13. The Solubility of Thoron and Actinon

8. Solubilities of Diborane, and the Gaseous Hydrides of Groups IV, V, And VI of the Periodic Table

8.1. The Purpose of this Analysis

8.2. The Chromatographic Procedure Followed

8.3. Significance of the Distribution Coefficient, K

8.4. Group VI Systems: H2S, H2Se, H2Se, H2Te

8.5. Hydrides of Group V: PH3, AsH3, SbH3

8.6. Hydrides of Group IV: CH4, SiH4, GeH4, SnH4

8.7. Diborane

8.8. Solubility Spectrum 199

8.9. Lack of Numerical Correlation between Ê and N^ Values 199

8.10. Heats of Solution 199

8.11. Influence of Carrier Gas

8.12. Conclusion

8.13. Data for Arsine by Corriez and Berton

9. Solubility of Gases Containing Fluorine

9.1. SF6, CF4, NF3

9.2. Solubility of Octafluoropropane, C3F8, Octafluorocyclobutane, Cyclo C4F8, Chlorotrifluoromethane, CClF3; and for Contrast, Propane and Cyclopropane

9.3 Data for Hexafluoroethane Compared with those for Ethane

9.4. Solubility of Gaseous Chlorofluorohydrocarbons Containing Hydrogen

9.5. Solubility of Freons in Lubricating Oils of Refrigeration Units

9.6. Solubility of CClF3 and CCl2 and CCl2 in Four Liquid Hydrocarbons, and in Tetrachloromethane

9.7. Solubility of Gases in Hexafluorobenzene and in Benzene

9.8. Solubility of Boron Trifluoroacetonitrile, CF3CN

9.9. Solubility of Boron Trifluoride

9.10. Solubility of "Inert Gases" in Human Lung Tissue

9.11. Reference Diagrams for Other Gases Containing Fluorine

10. Hildebrand's Theory in the Light of all Gas Solubility Data

10.1. The Significance of Heat of Vaporization and Boiling Point/1 Atm

10.2. Hildebrand1s Regular Solutions

10.3. Hildebrand's Solubility Parameter

10.4. Examples of Invalid Classifications and Terminology

10.5. Extrapolations of the Mole Fraction, NA, vs Temperature Plots to the Critical Temperature, TC, of the Liquid, S

10.6. Solubility of Vinyl Chloride

10.7. Environmental Significance of the Solubility of Hydrocarbons in Water and Aqueous Solutions of Salts

10.8. Significance of the Solubility of Mercury in Water

10.9. Solubility of Tetraethyllead in Water

10.10. Ideality vs Reality

11. The Hydrogen Halide System

11.1. Previous Analysis by Gerrard

11.2. Vapor Pressure Measurements

11.3. Hydrogen Chloride as a Strong Electrolyte

11.4. Textbook Statements About the Solubility of Hydrogen Halides

11.5. Significance of the Reported Change in Electric Dipole Moment,UHX (Debye throughout) on Dissolution in Liquids

11.6. Hydrogen Fluoride as a "Solvent"

11.7. The Unnecessary Invocation of Fugacity

11.8. Graphical Illustration of the Effect of a Change in Temperature on the Mole Fraction Solubility of the Hydrogen Halides (HCl, HBr, HI)

12. Solubility of Gases in Water and Aqueous Solutions of Salts, Inorganic Acids and Bases, and Organic Compounds

12.1. Solubility in Water

12.2. Himmelblau's Review

12.3. Review by Wilhelm, Battino, and Wilcock

12.4. The Two Papers by Antropoff

12.5. Comparison of the Solubilities of the Noble Gases in Water and in Olive Oil

12.6. Thermodynamical Aspects

12.7. Solubility of Gases in Aqueous Solutions of Inorganic Salts

12.8. Solubility of Gases in Aqueous Solutions of Other Compounds

12.9. The Work of Sada and Colleagues

13. Gases in Sea Water

13.1. Resources of the Sea

13.2. The Oceans; their Physical Chemistry and General Biology

13.3. Marine Chemistry

13.4. Dissolved Gases other than CO2

13.5. Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Pure Water, Synthetic Sea Water and Synthetic Sea Water Concentrates at 10 to45 atm and at - 5° to 25°C

13.6. SO2 in Sea Water

13.7. Recent Discussions on the Chemistry of Sea Water

14. Aerosol Propellants

14.1. The Aerosol Handbook

14.2. The Fluorocarbon Propellants

14.3. The Chlorocarbon Propellants

14.4. Hydrocarbon Propellants

14.5. The Compressed Gas Propellants

14.6. The Ether Propellants

14.7. Hsu and Campbell's Work on the Solubility of N2O and CO2

14.8. Carbon Dioxide as an Aerosol Propellant

15. The Solubility op Nitric Oxide

15.1 Initial Approach

15.2. Registration of the Mole Fraction Solubilities of Nitric Oxide on the Reference Line Diagram for Krypton

15.3. Comments on the Individual Papers

15.4. Solubility in Water

15.5. Solubility in Solutions of Metallic Salts

15.6. Solubility of Nitric Oxide in Aqueous Solutions of Sulphuric Acid

15.7. Solubility of Nitric Oxide in Nitrosyl Chloride

15.8. Solubility of Nitric Oxide in Nitrose

15.9. Further Comment on the Work of Manchot

16. Biotechnological Aspects

16.1. Scope of Interest

16.2. Data by Meyer and Gottlieb-Billroth

16.3. Data on CO2 by Van Slyke and Colleagues

16.4. Data by Vibrans

16.5. Data by Schaffer and Haller

16.6. Data by Cull en and Gross

16.7. The Paper of Davidson, Eggleston, and Foggie

16.8. The Solubility of C02 in Body Fat 370

16.9. Connection of the Solubilities of Gases in Olive Oil and the Theories of Transport through Cell Membranes

16.10. Cyclopropane as an Anesthetic Gas

16.11. Halothane, CF3CHClBr, as an Anesthetic Gas

16.12. Solubility of "Inert" Gases in Human Lung Tissue

16.13. The Work of Yeh and Peterson

16.14. Pauling's Molecular Theory of General Anesthesia

16.15. The Diffusion of Gases in Protein Solutions

17. More on Making Holes

17.1. "Nonpolar" Gases in Water

17.2. A Test of Pierotti's Theory

17.3. Other Data by De Ligny and Colleagues

17.4. Solubility of Gases in Polyethylene

17.5. Solubility of Nitric Oxide and "Henry's Law Constants"

17.6. The Solubility of Mercury in Liquids

17.7. Solubility of Water in Hydrocarbons

17.8. Solubility of Gases in Water Containing Colloids

17.9· Lewis and Randall's Calculation of Activity

17.10. The Aspects of Surface Tension and Viscosity

17.11. Comments on Certain Measurements of the Solubility of Hydrocarbon Gases, Including Acetylene (Ethyne)

17.12. Determination of Gas Solubilities by Gas-Liquid Chromatography

17.13. Predictions of Gas Solubilities

18. Evaluation of Data on Phosphine

18.1. Solubility of Phosphine in Organic Liquids

18.2. Significance of Acid-Base Function

18.3. Thermodynamic Data

18.4. Comparison with Arsine and Stibine

18.5. Acknowledgment




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About the Author

William Gerrard

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