I. Introduction. II. Dust Explosions. Fundamentals. The strong effect of confinement. Scaling. Model analysis. Correlation with existing data and analysis. Discussion of the scaling law. Testing methods. Hartmann apparatus. Hartmann pressure bomb. Intermediate-scale vessels. Cubic meter vessels. Large scale testing. Other special apparati. Problems in testing. Control methods. Venting, small to intermediate scale. Venting, large scale. Inerting. Deluge. Suppression. Dust explosions in grain elevators. Case histories. The National Academy of Sciences study, and some recommendations. Closure. III. Reactive Gas Explosions. Terminology: explosion, deflagration detonation. Differences between deflagration and detonation. Turbulent flame propagation. Organization of chapter. Scaling. Scaling of vented gas deflagrations. Scaling of blast wave, from reactive gas explosions. Basic properties of slow burns in gaseous systems. Heat of combustion. Laminar burning velocity. Flammability limits. Autoignition temperature. Ignition energy and quenching distance. Confined and vented gaseous deflagrations. Unvented gas deflagrations. Vented gas deflagrations. Detonation fundamentals. Determination of detonation parameters. Direct initiation of a detonation wave. The mechanism of direct initiation of detonation. Source characteristics. Detonation structure and dynamic parameters. Deflagration to detonation transition (DDT). Unconfined vapor cloud explosions (UVCEs). Direct initiation of an unconfined detonation. The direct initiation of methane-air mixtures. Direct initiation of hydrogen-air detonations. Blast effects produced by unconfined gas deflagrations. Spherical flame model by Strehlow et al. TNO hemisphere model. The multi-energy method. Blast effects produced by vapor cloud detonations. Experimental investigation on flame acceleration. IV. Hybrid Explosions. Fundamentals. Scaling. Test methods. Control methods. Closure. <STRO
Damaging accidental explosions are a continuous threat to industry. Categories for such explosions include combustible dust explosions; reactive gas explosions, both confined and unconfined; hybrid explosions involving both gases and dusts; bursts of pressure vessels and piping; and liquid propellant explosions. This book evaluates the physical processes and resulting blast effects for these types of explosions. Special attention is given to reactive gas explosions, both confined and unconfined. This latter class of explosion has occurred all too frequently in refineries and petrochemical complexes, and is also one of the most difficult to predict and evaluate. Much recent work on this topic is reviewed and summarized. This is the only publication of its kind, to date, that offers such a thorough coverage of these types of industrial explosions. [p] Each class of explosion source is reviewed separately, first discussing fundamentals, then presenting methods of analysis and testing, and finally giving curves or equations to predict effects of the particular class of explosion. An extensive bibliography is included together with tables of pertinent properties of explosive materials. The text also includes many figures, equations, tables and a keyword index.
The book is intended for researchers in the field of characterizing and mitigating industrial explosions. It will also be of interest to engineers, scientists, and insurers involved in processes.
- No. of pages:
- © Elsevier Science 1991
- 27th August 1991
- Elsevier Science
- eBook ISBN:
@qu:... an excellent treatise on the subject.. @source:Journal of Loss Prevention Process
Wilfred Baker Engineering Inc., San Antonio,TX, USA
East China Institute of Technology, Nanjing, China