Gas Dehydration Field Manual - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781856179805, 9781856179812

Gas Dehydration Field Manual

1st Edition

Authors: Maurice Stewart Ken Arnold
eBook ISBN: 9781856179812
Paperback ISBN: 9781856179805
Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
Published Date: 8th August 2011
Page Count: 260
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Description

Gas Dehydration Field Manual presents different methods of gas dehydration, focusing on the differences between adsorption and absorption. It discusses the various designs and operations in a gas processing facility. As an introduction, the book provides different concepts and theories that describe the gas processing industry. It then discusses the processes involved in the gas processing industry, which include absorption, adsorption, glycol regeneration, glycol filtration, and carbon purification.
The book is divided into three parts. The first part discusses some of the basic terms and concepts of gas dehydration. The second part focuses on the factors involved in the different gas-dehydration methods. It also describes the difference between absorption and adsorption, as well as the process involved in glycol dehydration. The last part of the book discusses the proper care, maintenance, and troubleshooting methods of glycol dehydration process. This book is mainly designed for engineers, technologists, and operating personnel in the gas processing industry. Aside from engineers and process designers, readers who are interested in the different processes involved in gas dehydration will find this book a useful guide and reference.

Key Features

  • Include hydrate prevention, chemical injection systems, hydrate inhibitor methods
  • Condensation process, Glycol Regeneration and Molecular Sieves
  • An appendix provides the reader with additional exercises and solutions

Readership

Production Engineers, Reservoir Engineer ,Chemical Engineers, Petroleum Engineers, Pipeline Engineers, Any engineers working with the production, transportation, or drilling of natural gas

Table of Contents


Part 1 Hydrate Prediction and Prevention

Objectives

Overview

Dew Point

Dew Point Depression

Why Dehydrate?

Water Content of Gas

Introduction

Partial Pressure and Fugacity

Empirical Plots

Sour Gas Correlations

Effect of Nitrogen and Heavy Ends

Example 1-1: Calculation of Water Content in a Sour Gas Stream

Applications

Amount of Water Condensed

Gas Hydrates

What Are Gas Hydrates?

Why Is Hydrate Control Necessary?

What Conditions Are Necessary to Promote Hydrate Formation?

How Do We Prevent or Control Hydrates?

Prediction of Operating Temperature and Pressure

Wellhead Conditions

Flowline Conditions

Calculation of Temperature and Pressure at the Wellhead

Calculation of Flowline Downstream Temperature

Temperature Drop Determination

Overview

Temperature Drop Correlation

Example 1-2: Determine the Temperature Drop across a Choke

Hydrate Prediction Correlations

Overview

Vapor-Solid Equilibrium Constants

Pressure-Temperature Curves

Equations of State Calculations

Vapor-Solid Equilibrium Constants

Example 1-3: Determination of Hydrate Formation Temperature Using Vapor-Solid Constants

Pressure-Temperature Curves

Example 1-4: Determine the Hydrate Formation Temperature Using Pressure-Temperature Correlations

Hydrate Prevention

Overview

Adding Heat

Temperature Control

Chemical Injection

Comparison of Hydrate Prevention Methods

Summary of Hydrate Prevention Methods

Hydrate Inhibition

Hammerschmidt Equation

Determination of Total Inhibitor Required

Procedure for Determining Inhibitor Requirements

Example 1-5: Determining the Amount of Methanol Required in a Wet Gas Stream

Exercises

Part 2 Dehydration Considerations

Overview

Adsorption

Process Overview

Principles of Adsorption

Process Reversal

Mass Transfer Zone (MTZ)

Principles of Operation

Effect of Process Variables

Example 2-1: Determination of Pressure Drop through a Dry Bed Desiccant Dehydration Tower

Equipment

Inlet Gas Cleaning Equipment

Adsorber Tower

Insufficient Gas Distribution

Inadequate Insulation

Improper Bed Supports

Pressurization

Regeneration Gas Exchangers, Heaters, and Coolers

Regeneration Gas Separator

Control Valves

Expander Plant Molecular Sieve Applications

Desiccant Performance

General Conditions

Moisture Analyzer

Effect of Contaminants in Inlet Feed Stream

Effect of Regeneration Gases Rich in Heavy Hydrocarbons

Effect of Methanol in the Inlet Gas Stream

Useful Life

Effect of Insufficient Reactivation

Effect of High Reactivation Temperature

Areas Requiring Engineering Attention

Example 2-2: Preliminary Solid Bed Desiccant Design

Absorption

Process Overview

Principles of Absorption

Glycol Dehydration

Principles of Operation

Gas System

Glycol System

Effect of Operating Variables

System Design

Sizing Considerations

Inlet Microfiber Filter Separator

Glycol Gas Contactor

Contactor Diameter

Tray Design

Tray Spacing

Glycol Circulation Rate

Lean Glycol Concentration

Glycol-Glycol Preheater

Glycol-Gas Cooler

Glycol-Glycol Heat Exchanger

Gas-Glycol-Condensate Separator

Reconcentrator

Heat Duty

Fire Tube Sizing

Reflux Condenser

Stripping Still Column

Diameter Size

Packing

Amount of Stripping Gas

Filters

Glycol Pumps

Still Emissions

Mercury Considerations

Mercury

Treatment

Special Glycol Dehydration Systems

General Considerations

Drizo (wt.-2) Process

Cold Finger Condenser Process

Systems Utilizing Glycol-Gas Powered Pumps

Systems Utilizing Electric Driven Pumps

Example 2-3: Glycol Dehydration







Nonregenerable Dehydrator

Nonregenerable Dehydrator

Overview

Calcium Chloride Unit

Physical Properties of Common Glycols

Part 3 Glycol Maintenance, Care, and Troubleshooting

Preventive Maintenance

Scheduled Preventive Maintenance

Five Steps to a Successful Preventive Maintenance Program

Record-Keeping

Mechanical Maintenance

Glycol Care

Corrosion Control

Communication

General Considerations

Oxidation

Thermal Decomposition

pH Control

Salt Contamination

Hydrocarbons

Sludge

Foaming

Analysis and Control of Glycol

General Considerations

Visual Inspection

Chemical Analysis

Chemical Analysis Interpretation

Troubleshooting

General Considerations

High Dew Points

Glycol Loss from the Contactor

Glycol Loss from the Reconcentrator

Glycol Loss—Glycol Hydrocarbon Separator

Glycol Loss—Miscellaneous

Three-Step Approach to Troubleshooting

Glycol System Cleaning

Eliminating Operating Problems

General Considerations

Inlet Scrubber/Microfiber Filter Separator

Absorber

Glycol-Gas Heat Exchanger

Lean Glycol Storage Tank or Accumulator

Stripper or Still Column

Improving Glycol Filtration

General Considerations

Use of Carbon Purification

General Considerations

References

Index




Details

No. of pages:
260
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Gulf Professional Publishing 2011
Published:
Imprint:
Gulf Professional Publishing
eBook ISBN:
9781856179812
Paperback ISBN:
9781856179805

About the Author

Maurice Stewart

Dr. Maurice Stewart, PE, a Registered Professional Engineer with over 40 years international consulting experience in project management; designing, selecting, specifying, installing, operating, optimizing, retrofitting and troubleshooting oil, water and gas handling, conditioning and processing facilities; designing plant piping and pipeline systems, heat exchangers, pressure vessels, process equipment, and pumping and compression systems; and leading hazards analysis reviews and risk assessments.

Affiliations and Expertise

President, Stewart Training Company

Ken Arnold

Ken Arnold is a Senior Technical Advisor for WorleyParsons in Houston, TX. Spanning over 50 years of experience, he spent 16 years' in facilities engineering, project engineering and engineering management with Shell before forming Paragon Engineering Services in 1980. Arnold retired from Paragon in 2007 and formed K Arnold Consulting, Inc. In 2010, he joined WorleyParsons as part-time advisor while still managing the consulting firm. He participated in the initial development of several API safety related Recommended Practices including RP 75 and RP 14J and most recently was Chair of the National Academies Committee on Evaluating the Effectiveness of Offshore Safety and Environmental Management Systems. He has served on the Board of SPE as its first Director of Projects, Facilities and Construction and then later as VP Finance. He is currently Treasurer of The Academy of Medicine, Engineering and Science of Texas. Arnold has a BSCE degree from Cornell and MS degree from Tulane and has taught facilities engineering in the University of Houston Petroleum Engineering program and for several oil companies. He is a registered professional engineer and serves on the advisory board of the engineering schools of Tulane University, Cornell University and the Petroleum Engineering Advisory Board of the University of Houston. Recently, Ken received the 2013 Distinguished Achievement Award, considered one of the highest recognitions anyone can achieve in the offshore industry, at this year's Offshore Technology Conference in Houston, TX for his outstanding leadership and extensive contributions to the E&P industry. His many achievements include playing an integral role in the offshore industry's focus on safety through the development of Recommended Practices for offshore design and safety management, and he developed approaches to both equipment sizing and facility project management that are still in use today. He has also been instrumental in the effort to establish oilfield facilities engineering as a recognized technical engineering specialty.

Affiliations and Expertise

Ken Arnold Consulting Inc.