Gas Chromatography - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123855404, 9780123855411

Gas Chromatography

1st Edition

Editors: Colin Poole
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123855404
eBook ISBN: 9780123855411
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 19th June 2012
Page Count: 688
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This title provides comprehensive coverage of modern gas chromatography including theory, instrumentation, columns, and applications addressing the needs of advanced students and professional scientists in industry and government laboratories. Chapters are written by recognized experts on each topic. Each chapter offers a complete picture with respect to its topic so researchers can move straight to the information they need without reading through a lot of background information.

Key Features

  • Individual chapters written by recognized experts
  • The big picture of gas chromatography from theory, to methods, to selected applications
  • Provides references to other sources in associated areas of study to facilitate research
  • Gives access to core data for practical work, comparison of results and decision making


university and industrial libraries and individual professionals in different fields who currently use gas chromatography or need to enforce their knowledge of the techniques for project planning and execution.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1. Milestones in the Development of Gas Chromatography

1.1 Introduction

1.2 The Invention of Gas Chromatography

1.3 Early Instrumentation

1.4 Early Column Developments

1.5 Interfacing Glass Capillary Columns to Injectors and Detectors

1.6 The Hindelang Conferences and the Fused-Silica Column

1.7 Increasing Sophistication of Instrumentation

1.8 Decline in the Expertise of the Average Gas Chromatographer


Chapter 2. Theory of Gas Chromatography

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Nomenclature and Other Conventions

2.3 General Definitions

2.4 Solute–Column Interaction

2.5 Properties of an Ideal Gas

2.6 Flow of Ideal Gas in Open Circular Tubes

2.7 Migration and Elution Parameters of the Solutes

2.8 Peak Spacing and Reversal of Peak Order

2.9 Peak Width

2.10 Optimization


Chapter 3. Column Technology

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Overview of the Fused Silica Drawing Process

3.3 The Preform – Raw Material

3.4 Surface Chemistry

3.5 Drawing of the Capillary from the Preform

3.6 Protective Coating

3.7 Alternative Protective Coatings

3.8 Cleanroom Environment

3.9 Quality Monitoring

3.10 Observations on Handling of Fused-Silica Capillary Tubing

3.11 Column Technology – Coating the Stationary Phase

3.12 Stationary Phases

3.13 Coating Techniques

3.14 Column Technology – Quality Evaluation

3.15 Column Technology – Summary


Chapter 4. Packed Columns for Gas–Liquid and Gas–Solid Chromatography

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Gas–Liquid Chromatography

4.3 Gas–Solid Chromatography


Chapter 5. Gas–Solid Chromatography (PLOT Columns)

5.1 Alumina Adsorbents

5.2 Molecular Sieves

5.3 Porous Polymers

5.4 Carbon Adsorbents

5.5 Other Adsorbents


Chapter 6. Classification and Selection of Open-Tubular Columns for Analytical Separations

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Stationary-Phase Classification

6.3 Porous-Layer Open-Tubular Columns

6.4 Temperature-Programmed Separations

6.5 Stationary-Phase Selectivity Tuning


Chapter 7. Multidimensional and Comprehensive Gas Chromatography

7.1 Introduction

7.2 A Graphical Representation of 2D GC Separations

7.3 Backflushing 2D GC

7.4 Heartcutting 2D GC

7.5 Comprehensive 2D GC

7.6 Conclusions


Chapter 8. Sample Introduction Methods

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Choosing a Sample Introduction System

8.3 Supporting Devices

8.4 The Cold On-Column Injector

8.5 The Flash Vaporization Injector

8.6 The Split/Splitless Injector

8.7 The Programmable Temperature Vaporizing (PTV) Injector

8.8 The Gas Sampling Valve

8.9 The Liquid Sampling Valve



Chapter 9. Headspace-Gas Chromatography

9.1 Introduction and History

9.2 Fundamentals of Headspace Extraction

9.3 Instrumentation and Practice

9.4 Method Development Considerations

9.5 Conclusions



Chapter 10. Thermal Desorption for Gas Chromatography

10.1 General Introduction to Thermal Desorption

10.2 Brief History of Thermal Desorption – Essential Functions and Performance Characteristics

10.3 The Evolution of TD Technology

10.4 Sampling Options and the Role of Thermal Desorption as a Frontend Technology for GC

10.5 Method Development and Optimization

10.6 Calibration and Validation

10.7 An Introduction to Thermal Desorption Applications

10.8 Air Monitoring

10.9 Chemical Emissions from Everyday Products to Indoor Air

10.10 Toxic Chemical Agents and Civil Defense

10.11 TD–GC(MS) Analysis of Residual Volatiles

10.12 Flavor, Fragrance, and Odor Profiling

10.13 Forensic Applications

10.14 Monitoring Manufacturing and Other Industrial Chemical Processes

10.15 New GC-Related Technology Developments Which Benefit Thermal Desorption

10.16 Concluding Remarks


Chapter 11. Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography

11.1 Thermal Sampling GC

11.2 Chemical Theory

11.3 Instrumentation

11.4 Applications


Chapter 12. Detectors

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Thermal Conductivity Detector

12.3 Flame Ionization Detector

12.4 Electron-capture Detector

12.5 Alkali Bead Detector

12.6 Flame Photometric Detector

12.7 Photoionization Detector

12.8 Electrolytic Conductivity Detector

12.9 Atomic Emission Detector

12.10 Chemiluminescent Detector


Chapter 13. Hyphenated Spectroscopic Detectors for Gas Chromatography

13.1 Introduction

13.2 GC Interfaces

13.3 Data Analysis

13.4 GC-Atomic Emission-Mass Spectrometry

13.5 Spectroscopic Detectors for GC


Chapter 14. Plasma-Based Gas Chromatography Detectors

14.1 Introduction to Plasma-Based Detectors


14.3 GC-MIP and GC-GD

14.4 Sample Preparation for GC-Plasma Spectroscopy

14.5 Advances in Applications of GC-Plasma Spectroscopy

14.6 Conclusions and Perspectives


Chapter 15. Field and Portable Instruments

15.1 History

15.2 Design Challenges

15.3 Sample Introduction

15.4 Column Configurations

15.5 Detectors

15.6 Gas Supply

15.7 Power Management

15.8 Prototyping

15.9 Future Trends



Chapter 16. Preparative Gas Chromatography

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Application Scale of Preparative Gas Chromatography

16.3 Experimental Techniques for Analytical-Scale Prep-GC

16.4 Case Studies: Applications

16.5 Conclusions



Chapter 17. Data Analysis Methods

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Preprocessing

17.3 Pattern Recognition

17.4 Calibration

17.5 Experimental Method Optimization

17.6 Conclusion


Chapter 18. Validation of Gas Chromatographic Methods

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Regulatory Aspects

18.3 Method Validation Items

18.4 Accuracy Profiles

18.5 Conclusions



Chapter 19. Quantitative Structure–Retention Relationships

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Historical Perspective

19.3 Most Frequent Errors

19.4 Recommendations to Avoid the Most Common Errors

19.5 Correct Validation

19.6 Recent Developments


Chapter 20. Physicochemical Measurements (Inverse Gas Chromatography)

20.1 Gas–Solid IGC

20.2 Bulk Properties of Polymers and Polymer Blends


Chapter 21. Separation of Enantiomers

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Chiral Stationary Phases Based on α-Amino Acid Derivatives

21.3 Chiral Stationary Phases Based on Metal Chelates

21.4 Chiral Stationary Phases Based on Modified Cyclodextrins (CDs)

21.5 The Temperature Dependence of Enantioselectivity, Enthalpy/Entropy Compensation, and the Isoenantioselective Temperature Tiso

21.6 Applications

21.7 Hyphenated Approaches in Enantioselective GC

21.8 Two-Dimensional Approaches in Enantioselective GC

21.9 Enantioselective Stopped-Flow Multidimensional Gas Chromatography (sf-MDGC)

21.10 Practical Aspects of Enantioselective GC

21.11 (Semi)Preparative-Scale Enantioseparations by GC


Chapter 22. Analysis of Essential Oils and Fragrances by Gas Chromatography

22.1 Definitions: What is Essential Oil? What are Fragrances?

22.2 GC Phases used in the Analysis of Essential Oils and Aroma Chemicals

22.3 Separation Criteria and Techniques

22.4 Retention Index

22.5 Qualitative and Quantitative Aspects

22.6 GC-MS Libraries

22.7 Conclusions


Chapter 23. Analysis of Lipids by Gas Chromatography

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Fatty Acid Analysis by GC as Methyl Ester Derivatives

23.3 Analysis of Free Fatty Acids

23.4 Analysis of acylglycerols

23.5 Analysis of Sterols, Sterol Esters, and Steryl Glycosides

23.6 Analysis of Waxes

23.7 Analysis of Lipid Classes


Chapter 24. Metabonomics

24.1 Overview of Metabonomics

24.2 Analytical Tools in Metabonomic Research

24.3 GC-MS-Based Metabonomics

24.4 GC-MS-Based Tissue Metabonomics

24.5 GC-MS-Based Urine Metabonomics

24.6 Future Directions

24.7 Conclusion


Chapter 25. Applications of Gas Chromatography in Forensic Science

25.1 Introduction and Scope

25.2 Analysis of Bulk Drug for Identification, Impurity Profiling, and Drug Intelligence Purpose

25.3 Gas Chromatography in Forensic Toxicology

25.4 Analysis of Ignitable Liquid Residues from Fire Debris

25.5 Analysis of Explosives

25.6 Gas Chromatographic Analysis of Organic Gunshot Residues (OGSRS)

25.7 Analysis of Forensic Trace Evidence

25.8 Forensic Environmental Analysis

25.9 Analysis of Human Odor Profile

25.10 Analysis of Human Decomposition Products

25.11 Field-Portable Gas Chromatograph for Onsite Sample Analysis

25.12 Gas Chromatography in Food Forensics

25.13 Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAS)

25.14 New Developments in Gas Chromatography with Forensic implications

25.15 Conclusions


Chapter 26. Application of Gas Chromatography to Multiresidue Methods for Pesticides and Related Compounds in Food

26.1 Introduction

26.2 Multiresidue Methods for Pesticides in Crops

26.3 Multiresidue Methods for Pesticides in Animal Origin Products

26.4 Multiresidue Methods for Pesticides in Processed Food

26.5 Multiresidue Methods for Pesticides in Baby Food

26.6 Conclusions



Chapter 27. Chemical Warfare Agents

27.1 Introduction and Background

27.2 Analytical Considerations for Sampling and Gas Chromatographic Analysis of CWA-Related Compounds

27.3 GC Applications for Biomedical CWA Analyses

27.4 Conclusion


Chapter 28. Emerging and Persistent Environmental Compound Analysis

28.1 Introduction

28.2 Polychlorinated Biphenyls

28.3 Dioxins

28.4 Organochlorine Pesticides

28.5 Halogenated Flame Retardants

28.6 Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers

28.7 Other Halogenated Flame Retardants

28.8 Perfluorinated Compounds

28.9 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

28.10 Other Compounds Not Specifically Discussed

28.11 Summary


Chapter 29. Role of Gas Chromatography in the Identification of Pheromones and Related Semiochemicals

29.1 Introduction

29.2 Coupled Gas Chromatography-Electroantennogram Detection (GC-EAD)

29.3 Use of Comparative GC Retention Indices in Structure Identification

29.4 Determination of Enantiomeric Purity and Absolute Configuration

29.5 Microscale Preparative Gas Chromatography

29.6 Summary


Chapter 30. Gas Chromatographic Analysis of Wines

30.1 Introduction

30.2 Columns

30.3 Multidimensional Separations

30.4 Detectors and Hyphenated Techniques

30.5 Sample Preparation

30.6 Summary



Chapter 31. Gas Chromatography in Space Exploration

31.1 Introduction

31.2 Technological and Operating Constraints in Space GC

31.3 Prebiotic Chemistry in Titan’s Atmosphere: The Cassini–Huygens Mission

31.4 Prebiotic Chemistry in Comet Environments: Rosetta Mission

31.5 Search for Key Chemical Biomarkers: Mars Exploration

31.6 Search for Chirality in Space

31.7 Conclusions and Perspectives




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About the Editor

Colin Poole

Professor Colin Poole is internationally known in the field of thin-layer chromatography and is an editor of the Journal of Chromatography and former editor of the Journal of Planar Chromatography – Modern TLC. He has authored several books on chromatography, recent examples being “The Essence of Chromatography” published by Elsevier (2003), and “Gas Chromatography” published by Elsevier (2012). He is the author of approximately 400 research articles, many of which deal with thin-layer chromatography, and is co-chair of the biennial “International Symposium on High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography”.

Affiliations and Expertise

Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA


"The book presents important research into and reviews of new methods, and also provides an update on applications of gas chromatography in various fields…The wide coverage makes this an excellent reference book on the subject for scientists and for graduate students."--Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry online, May 18, 2013
"…recommend this work for its high-level coverage of the fundamentals…written by experts in the field…for advanced students and professionals."--CHOICE,
March 2013