Gas Chromatography with Glass Capillary Columns

Gas Chromatography with Glass Capillary Columns

1st Edition - January 1, 1978

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  • Author: Walter Jennings
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323141062

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Gas Chromatography with Glass Capillary Columns describes glass capillary technology and the selection, installation, evaluation, and use of glass open tubular columns for gas chromatography. Discussions are organized around the glass capillary column; column coating and installation; inlet systems; measurement of column efficiency; temperature programming and carrier flow; and retention behavior. Column selection and stability and sample preparation are also covered. This text is comprised of 13 chapters; the first of which introduces the reader to the practical considerations involved in the selection, installation, evaluation, and use of high-resolution open tubular glass capillary columns, along with the theory of the chromatographic process. The discussion then turns to the influence of operating parameters and storage conditions on the interrelated forces involved in coating glass capillary columns; the dynamic and static techniques of column coating; and design defects in the inlet system caused by excessive volume and dead space. The chapters that follow focus on general considerations in column attachment, measurement of column efficiency, and retention behavior of carrier gas, along with the operating temperature of the column, the choice of carrier gas, and carrier gas velocity. This book also looks at the factors that affect column stability, materials of restricted volatility, and some applications of glass capillary gas chromatography. This reference material is intended primarily for students and researchers interested in gas chromatography with glass capillary columns.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    Chapter 1 Introduction

    1.1 General Considerations

    1.2 Theory of the Chromatographic Process

    1.3 Separation of Components


    Chapter 2 The Glass Capillary Column

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Surface Pretreatments


    Chapter 3 Column Coating

    3.1 General Considerations

    3.2 Dynamic Techniques

    3.3 Static Techniques

    3.4 PLOT and SCOT Columns

    3.5 Bonded Phases

    3.6 Packed Capillary and Micropacked Columns


    Chapter 4 Inlet Systems

    4.1 General Considerations

    4.2 Precolumn Concentration

    4.3 Splitless Injection

    4.4 Inlet Splitters


    Chapter 5 Column Installation

    5.1 General Considerations

    5.2 Unitized Assemblies

    5.3 Make-Up Gas

    5.4 Initial Evaluation


    Chapter 6 Measuring Column Efficiency

    6.1 General Considerations

    6.2 Separation Number, Trennzahl (TZ)

    6.3 Other Concepts of Column Performance


    Chapter 7 Treatment of Retention Data

    7.1 General Considerations

    7.2 Calculation of the Hold-up Volume, tM

    7.3 The Kovats Retention Index System, I

    7.4 Effects of Temperature on I

    7.5 Other Retention Systems

    7.6 Retention Data as Identification Criteria


    Chapter 8 Temperature Programming and Carrier Flow Considerations

    8.1 General Considerations

    8.2 Special Problems with Capillary Systems

    8.3 Optimum Practical Gas Velocity

    8.4 Retention Temperature and Analysis Time versus Program and Flow Rates


    Chapter 9 Column Stability

    9.1 General Considerations

    9.2 Effects of Temperature

    9.3 Effect of Injection Size and Sample Composition

    9.4 Salvaging Columns


    Chapter 10 Column Selection

    10.1 General Comments

    10.2 The Rohrschneider Concept of Polarity

    10.3 Other Methods of Selection

    10.4 Role of Column Efficiency


    Chapter 11 Sample Preparation

    11.1 General Considerations

    11.2 Headspace Concentrates versus Total Volatile Analysis

    11.3 Direct Headspace Analysis

    11.4 General Considerations on Methods of Isolation and Concentration

    11.5 Distillation

    11.6 Freeze Concentration

    11.7 Extraction

    11.8 Zone Refining

    11.9 Adsorptive Methods

    11.10 Porous Polymer Absorption


    Chapter 12 Analysis of Materials of Restricted Volatility

    12.1 General Comments

    12.2 Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography

    12.3 Silylation

    12.4 Silylation Methods


    Chapter 13 Applications of Glass Capillary Gas Chromatography

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Air and Smoke Analyses

    13.3 Amino Acid Analysis

    13.4 Drug and Pharmaceuticals

    13.5 Fatty Acid Analysis

    13.6 Food and Beverage Analysis

    13.7 Pesticides

    13.8 Saccharide Analysis

    13.9 Steroid Analysis

    13.10 Miscellaneous


    Appendix I Nomenclature

    Appendix II Liquid Phases

    Appendix III Porous Polymer Data

    Appendix IV Silylation and Derivatization Reactions


Product details

  • No. of pages: 192
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1978
  • Published: January 1, 1978
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323141062

About the Author

Walter Jennings

Affiliations and Expertise

Dept. of Food Science and Technology, University of California, Davis

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