Fusion Research

Fusion Research

Principles

1st Edition - January 1, 1982

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  • Author: Thomas James Dolan
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483152998

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Description

Fusion Research, Volume I: Principles provides a general description of the methods and problems of fusion research. The book contains three main parts: Principles, Experiments, and Technology. The Principles part describes the conditions necessary for a fusion reaction, as well as the fundamentals of plasma confinement, heating, and diagnostics. The Experiments part details about forty plasma confinement schemes and experiments. The last part explores various engineering problems associated with reactor design, vacuum and magnet systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, neutronics, environment, and fusion-fission hybrids. The book will be of value to those entering the field and to those already engaged in fusion research.

Table of Contents


  • Volume I: Principles includes chapters 1-10

    Volume II: Experiments includes chapters 11-17

    Volume III: Technology includes chapters 18-30

    Preface

    Acknowledgments

    Principles

    1. Energy Sources

    1A. Forms of Energy

    1B. Energy Demand

    1C. Energy Sources

    1D. Solar Energy

    1E. Fusion Reactions

    1F. Fusion Reactors

    1G. Summary

    Problems

    Bibliography

    2. Nuclear Reactions and Coulomb Collisions

    2A. Distribution Functions and Averages

    2B. Cross Sections and Reaction Rates

    2C. Nuclear Fusion Reaction Rates

    2D. Power Density and Pressure

    2E. Coulomb Collisions

    Problems

    Bibliography

    3. Atomic Collisions and Radiation

    3A. Types of Collisions

    3B. Scattering and Momentum Transfer

    3C. Molecular Collisions

    3D. Atomic Collision Phenomena

    3E. Equilibrium Degree of Ionization

    3F. Radiation Losses

    Problems

    Bibliography

    4. Fusion Reactor Power Balance

    4A. Conservation Equations

    4B. Equilibrium and Ignition

    4C. Energy Cycle

    4D. Required Values of nτE

    4E. Mirror Reactors

    4F. Beam-driven Toroidal Reactors

    4G. Non-uniform and Time-varying Plasmas

    4H. Comparison of Reactor Types

    summary

    Problems

    Bibliography

    5. Plasma Fundamentals

    5A. Introduction

    5B. Electromagnetic Fields and Forces

    5C. Kinetic Theory

    5D. Fluid Equations

    5E. Plasma Waves

    5F. Debye Shielding and Plasma Sheaths

    5G. Quasineutrality

    5H. Computer Methods

    Problems

    Bibliography

    6. Gas Discharges and Breakdown

    6A. Background

    6B. Townsend Discharges

    6C. Simplified Breakdown Condition

    6D. Other Phenomena Influencing Breakdown

    6E. Glow and Arc Discharges

    6F. Space Charge Limitation of Current

    Problems

    Bibliography

    7. Charged Particle Trajectories

    7A. Guiding Center Approximation

    7B. Diamagnetism

    7C. Drift Velocities

    7D. Adiabatic Invariants and Magnetic Mirrors

    7E. Particle Orbits in Tokamaks

    summary

    Problems

    Bibliography

    8. Plasma Confinement

    8A. Introduction

    8B. Magnetic Confinement

    8C. Axisymmetric Toroidal Equilibrium

    8D. MHD Instabilities

    8E. Microinstabilities

    8F. Transport

    8G. Confinement Times

    Problems

    Bibliography

    9. Plasma Heating

    9A. Methods

    9B. Ohmic Heating

    9C. Compression

    9D. Charged Particle Injection

    9E. Neutral Beam Injection

    9F. Wave Heating

    Problems

    Bibliography

    10. Plasma Diagnostics

    10A. Introduction

    10B. Electrical Probes

    10C. Magnetic Flux Measurements

    10D. Passive Particle Diagnostics

    10E. Active Particle Diagnostics

    10F. Passive Wave Diagnostics

    10G. Active Wave Diagnostics

    10H. TFTR Diagnostics

    10J. Summary

    Problems

    Bibliography

    Experiments

    11. Mirrors and Cusps

    11A. Coil Geometries

    11B. Mirror Loss Boundaries

    11C. Instabilities

    11D. 2X11B Experiment

    11E. Tandem Mirrors

    11F. Field Reversed Mirrors

    11G. Multiple Mirrors

    11H. Rotating Plasmas

    11J. Cusps

    Bibliography

    12. Pinches and Compact Toroids

    12A. Types of Pinches

    12B. Field-Reversed Theta Pinch

    12C. Spheromak

    12D. Reversed Field Pinch (RFP)

    12E. Pitch-Reversed Helical Pinch

    12F. Topolotron

    Bibliography

    13. Tokamaks

    13A. MHD Stability

    13B. Transport

    13C. Heating

    13D. Current Drive

    13E. Runaway Electrons

    13F. Scaling

    Bibliography

    14. Other Toroidal Devices

    14A. Stellarators and Torsatrons

    14B. Internal Rings

    14C. Electron and Ion Rings

    14D. Elmo Bumpy Torus (EBT)

    14E. Electric Field Bumpy Torus

    Bibliography

    15. Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF)

    15A. Introduction

    15B. Energy Gain

    15C. Laser-Plasma Interactions

    15D. Compression

    15E. Targets

    15F. Diagnostics

    Bibliography

    16. ICF Drivers and Chambers

    16A. Glass Lasers

    16B. CO2 Lasers

    16C. Rare Gas Halide Lasers

    16D. Other Lasers

    16E. Electron Beams

    16F. Light Ion Beams

    16G. Heavy Ion Beams

    16H. Chambers

    Bibliography

    17. Other Fusion Concepts

    17A. Radiofrequency Confinement

    17B. Radiofrequency Plugging

    17C. Electrostatic Confinement

    17D. Electrostatic Plugging

    17E. Wall Confinement

    17F. Imploding Liner

    17G. Colliding-beam Mirror

    17H. Hypervelocity Impact

    Bibliography

    Technology

    18. Fusion Engineering Problems

    18A. Problem Areas

    18B. Maintenance

    18C. A Tokamak Reactor Design

    18D. A Mirror Reactor Design

    Bibliography

    19. Vacuum Systems

    19A. Background

    19B. Viscous and Molecular Flow

    19C. Pumps

    19D. Pressure Gages

    19E. Chambers and Components

    19F. Techniques

    Problems

    Bibliography

    20. Water-cooled Magnets

    20A. Background

    20B. Magnetic Field Calculations

    20C. Coil Forces

    20D. Power and Cooling Water Requirements

    20E. Coil Windings

    Problems

    Bibliography

    21. Pulsed Magnet Systems

    21A. Introduction

    21B. RLC Circuit Equations

    21C. Distribution of →J and →B

    21D. Energy Storage Systems

    21E. Switching and Transmission

    21F. Magnetic Flux Compression

    21G. Component Reliability

    Problems

    Bibliography

    22. Superconducting Magnets

    22A. Superconductivity

    22B. Superconductors

    22C. Stabilization

    22D. Coil Protection

    22E. Coil Design Considerations

    22F. Large Coils

    22G. Superconducting Magnetic

    Energy Storage

    Problems

    Bibliography

    23. Cryogenics

    23A. Introduction

    23B. Properties of Materials at Low Temperatures

    23C. Refrigeration and Liquefaction

    23D. Insulation

    23E. Cryostat Design

    23F. Cryogenic Systems

    Problems

    Bibliography

    24. Materials Problems

    24A. Introduction

    24B. Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies

    24C. Analysis and Evaluation

    24D. Mechanical Behavior

    24E. In-Reactor Deformation

    24F. Hydrogen Recycling

    24G. Impurity Introduction

    24H. Near-Surface Wall Modifications

    24J. Special Purpose Materials

    Problems

    Bibliography

    25. Plasma Purity and Fueling

    25A. Impurities

    25B. Divertors

    25C. Neutral Gas Blankets

    25D. Other Impurity Control Techniques

    25E. Fueling

    Problems

    Bibliography

    26. Blankets

    26A. Introduction

    26B. Blanket Materials

    26C. Heat Transfer Processes

    26D. Coolant Tube Stresses

    26E. Coolant Flow Rate and Pumping Power

    26F. Blanket Designs

    26G. Direct Energy Conversion

    26H. Fuel Production

    Problems

    Bibliography

    27. Neutronics

    27A. Introduction

    27B. Transport Theory

    27C. The Monte Carlo Method

    27D. Blanket and Shield Designs

    Problems

    Bibliography

    28. Environment and Economics

    28A. Introduction

    28B. Tritium

    28C. Other Radioisotopes

    28D. Hazards and Materials Shortages

    28E. Economics

    Problems

    Bibliography

    29. Fusion-Fission Hybrids

    29A. Need

    29B. Blanket Design

    29C. Tokamak Hybrids

    29D. Mirror Hybrids

    29E. Catalyzed DD Hybrids

    Bibliography

    30. The Future

    30A. Experimental Progress

    30B. Remarks

    Appendices

    Appendix A. SI units

    Appendix B. Fundamental Constants

    Appendix C. Integrals

    Appendix D. Important Plasma Equations

    Appendix E. Error Function

    Appendix F. Vector Relations

    Appendix G. Table of Symbols

    Appendix H. Abbreviations

    Appendix I. Answers to Problems

    Name Index

    Subject Index

    About the Author




Product details

  • No. of pages: 348
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1982
  • Published: January 1, 1982
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483152998

About the Author

Thomas James Dolan

Professor Dolan has worked on nuclear technology and international relations issues for three universities, five national laboratories and in nine countries, including in his position as Physics Section Head for the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna. Dolan’s primary research interests are concerned with molten salt fission reactors and nuclear fusion technology. He developed three courses at the University of Missouri-Rolla on fusion research principles, fusion experiments, and fusion technology. As well as the numerous academic positions he has held, he also has experience working in industry (Phillips Petroleum Company) on fusion research and other nuclear topics. As Head of the Physics Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) he helped facilitate international cooperation in fusion research, including organization of the semi-annual IAEA Fusion Energy Conferences. Since then he has taught courses on fusion research at the University of Illinois, in China, and in India.

Affiliations and Expertise

Adjunct Professor, Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering Department, University of Illinois, USA.

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