Fusion Research - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080255668, 9781483152998

Fusion Research

1st Edition

Principles

Authors: Thomas James Dolan
eBook ISBN: 9781483152998
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1982
Page Count: 348
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Description

Fusion Research, Volume I: Principles provides a general description of the methods and problems of fusion research. The book contains three main parts: Principles, Experiments, and Technology. The Principles part describes the conditions necessary for a fusion reaction, as well as the fundamentals of plasma confinement, heating, and diagnostics. The Experiments part details about forty plasma confinement schemes and experiments. The last part explores various engineering problems associated with reactor design, vacuum and magnet systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, neutronics, environment, and fusion-fission hybrids. The book will be of value to those entering the field and to those already engaged in fusion research.

Table of Contents


Volume I: Principles includes chapters 1-10

Volume II: Experiments includes chapters 11-17

Volume III: Technology includes chapters 18-30

Preface

Acknowledgments

Principles

1. Energy Sources

1A. Forms of Energy

1B. Energy Demand

1C. Energy Sources

1D. Solar Energy

1E. Fusion Reactions

1F. Fusion Reactors

1G. Summary

Problems

Bibliography

2. Nuclear Reactions and Coulomb Collisions

2A. Distribution Functions and Averages

2B. Cross Sections and Reaction Rates

2C. Nuclear Fusion Reaction Rates

2D. Power Density and Pressure

2E. Coulomb Collisions

Problems

Bibliography

3. Atomic Collisions and Radiation

3A. Types of Collisions

3B. Scattering and Momentum Transfer

3C. Molecular Collisions

3D. Atomic Collision Phenomena

3E. Equilibrium Degree of Ionization

3F. Radiation Losses

Problems

Bibliography

4. Fusion Reactor Power Balance

4A. Conservation Equations

4B. Equilibrium and Ignition

4C. Energy Cycle

4D. Required Values of nτE

4E. Mirror Reactors

4F. Beam-driven Toroidal Reactors

4G. Non-uniform and Time-varying Plasmas

4H. Comparison of Reactor Types

summary

Problems

Bibliography

5. Plasma Fundamentals

5A. Introduction

5B. Electromagnetic Fields and Forces

5C. Kinetic Theory

5D. Fluid Equations

5E. Plasma Waves

5F. Debye Shielding and Plasma Sheaths

5G. Quasineutrality

5H. Computer Methods

Problems

Bibliography

6. Gas Discharges and Breakdown

6A. Background

6B. Townsend Discharges

6C. Simplified Breakdown Condition

6D. Other Phenomena Influencing Breakdown

6E. Glow and Arc Discharges

6F. Space Charge Limitation of Current

Problems

Bibliography

7. Charged Particle Trajectories

7A. Guiding Center Approximation

7B. Diamagnetism

7C. Drift Velocities

7D. Adiabatic Invariants and Magnetic Mirrors

7E. Particle Orbits in Tokamaks

summary

Problems

Bibliography

8. Plasma Confinement

8A. Introduction

8B. Magnetic Confinement

8C. Axisymmetric Toroidal Equilibrium

8D. MHD Instabilities

8E. Microinstabilities

8F. Transport

8G. Confinement Times

Problems

Bibliography

9. Plasma Heating

9A. Methods

9B. Ohmic Heating

9C. Compression

9D. Charged Particle Injection

9E. Neutral Beam Injection

9F. Wave Heating

Problems

Bibliography

10. Plasma Diagnostics

10A. Introduction

10B. Electrical Probes

10C. Magnetic Flux Measurements

10D. Passive Particle Diagnostics

10E. Active Particle Diagnostics

10F. Passive Wave Diagnostics

10G. Active Wave Diagnostics

10H. TFTR Diagnostics

10J. Summary

Problems

Bibliography

Experiments

11. Mirrors and Cusps

11A. Coil Geometries

11B. Mirror Loss Boundaries

11C. Instabilities

11D. 2X11B Experiment

11E. Tandem Mirrors

11F. Field Reversed Mirrors

11G. Multiple Mirrors

11H. Rotating Plasmas

11J. Cusps

Bibliography

12. Pinches and Compact Toroids

12A. Types of Pinches

12B. Field-Reversed Theta Pinch

12C. Spheromak

12D. Reversed Field Pinch (RFP)

12E. Pitch-Reversed Helical Pinch

12F. Topolotron

Bibliography

13. Tokamaks

13A. MHD Stability

13B. Transport

13C. Heating

13D. Current Drive

13E. Runaway Electrons

13F. Scaling

Bibliography

14. Other Toroidal Devices

14A. Stellarators and Torsatrons

14B. Internal Rings

14C. Electron and Ion Rings

14D. Elmo Bumpy Torus (EBT)

14E. Electric Field Bumpy Torus

Bibliography

15. Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF)

15A. Introduction

15B. Energy Gain

15C. Laser-Plasma Interactions

15D. Compression

15E. Targets

15F. Diagnostics

Bibliography

16. ICF Drivers and Chambers

16A. Glass Lasers

16B. CO2 Lasers

16C. Rare Gas Halide Lasers

16D. Other Lasers

16E. Electron Beams

16F. Light Ion Beams

16G. Heavy Ion Beams

16H. Chambers

Bibliography

17. Other Fusion Concepts

17A. Radiofrequency Confinement

17B. Radiofrequency Plugging

17C. Electrostatic Confinement

17D. Electrostatic Plugging

17E. Wall Confinement

17F. Imploding Liner

17G. Colliding-beam Mirror

17H. Hypervelocity Impact

Bibliography

Technology

18. Fusion Engineering Problems

18A. Problem Areas

18B. Maintenance

18C. A Tokamak Reactor Design

18D. A Mirror Reactor Design

Bibliography

19. Vacuum Systems

19A. Background

19B. Viscous and Molecular Flow

19C. Pumps

19D. Pressure Gages

19E. Chambers and Components

19F. Techniques

Problems

Bibliography

20. Water-cooled Magnets

20A. Background

20B. Magnetic Field Calculations

20C. Coil Forces

20D. Power and Cooling Water Requirements

20E. Coil Windings

Problems

Bibliography

21. Pulsed Magnet Systems

21A. Introduction

21B. RLC Circuit Equations

21C. Distribution of →J and →B

21D. Energy Storage Systems

21E. Switching and Transmission

21F. Magnetic Flux Compression

21G. Component Reliability

Problems

Bibliography

22. Superconducting Magnets

22A. Superconductivity

22B. Superconductors

22C. Stabilization

22D. Coil Protection

22E. Coil Design Considerations

22F. Large Coils

22G. Superconducting Magnetic

Energy Storage

Problems

Bibliography

23. Cryogenics

23A. Introduction

23B. Properties of Materials at Low Temperatures

23C. Refrigeration and Liquefaction

23D. Insulation

23E. Cryostat Design

23F. Cryogenic Systems

Problems

Bibliography

24. Materials Problems

24A. Introduction

24B. Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies

24C. Analysis and Evaluation

24D. Mechanical Behavior

24E. In-Reactor Deformation

24F. Hydrogen Recycling

24G. Impurity Introduction

24H. Near-Surface Wall Modifications

24J. Special Purpose Materials

Problems

Bibliography

25. Plasma Purity and Fueling

25A. Impurities

25B. Divertors

25C. Neutral Gas Blankets

25D. Other Impurity Control Techniques

25E. Fueling

Problems

Bibliography

26. Blankets

26A. Introduction

26B. Blanket Materials

26C. Heat Transfer Processes

26D. Coolant Tube Stresses

26E. Coolant Flow Rate and Pumping Power

26F. Blanket Designs

26G. Direct Energy Conversion

26H. Fuel Production

Problems

Bibliography

27. Neutronics

27A. Introduction

27B. Transport Theory

27C. The Monte Carlo Method

27D. Blanket and Shield Designs

Problems

Bibliography

28. Environment and Economics

28A. Introduction

28B. Tritium

28C. Other Radioisotopes

28D. Hazards and Materials Shortages

28E. Economics

Problems

Bibliography

29. Fusion-Fission Hybrids

29A. Need

29B. Blanket Design

29C. Tokamak Hybrids

29D. Mirror Hybrids

29E. Catalyzed DD Hybrids

Bibliography

30. The Future

30A. Experimental Progress

30B. Remarks

Appendices

Appendix A. SI units

Appendix B. Fundamental Constants

Appendix C. Integrals

Appendix D. Important Plasma Equations

Appendix E. Error Function

Appendix F. Vector Relations

Appendix G. Table of Symbols

Appendix H. Abbreviations

Appendix I. Answers to Problems

Name Index

Subject Index

About the Author




Details

No. of pages:
348
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Pergamon 1982
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
eBook ISBN:
9781483152998

About the Author

Thomas James Dolan

Professor Dolan has worked on nuclear technology and international relations issues for three universities, five national laboratories and in nine countries, including in his position as Physics Section Head for the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna.

He developed three courses at the University of Missouri-Rolla on fusion research principles, fusion experiments, and fusion technology, where he also was awarded the Outstanding Teacher Award in 1975, 1979, 1981, 1984 and 1986. As well as the numerous academic positions he has held, he also has experience working in industry (Phillips Petroleum Company) on fusion research and other nuclear topics. As Head of the Physics Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) he helped facilitate international cooperation in fusion research, including organization of the semi-annual IAEA Fusion Energy Conferences. Since then he has taught courses on fusion research at the University of Illinois, in China, and in India.

Dolan’s primary research interests are concerned with molten salt fission reactors and nuclear fusion technology.

He is the editor of Magnetic Fusion Technology, published by Springer in 2014, and also contributed a chapter on “Nuclear Fusion” for Springer’s Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology.

Affiliations and Expertise

Adjunct Professor, Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering Department, University of Illinois, USA.