Fundamentals of Toxicology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128054260, 9780128054031

Fundamentals of Toxicology

1st Edition

Essential Concepts and Applications

Authors: PK Gupta
eBook ISBN: 9780128054031
Paperback ISBN: 9780128054260
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 24th August 2016
Page Count: 422
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Description

Fundamentals of Toxicology: Essential Concepts and Applications provides a crisp, easy-to-understand overview of the most important concepts, applications, and ideas needed to learn the basics of toxicology. Written by a pre-eminent toxicologist with over five decades of teaching experience, this comprehensive resource offers the hands-on knowledge needed for a strong foundation in the wide field of toxicology. Fundamentals of Toxicology includes a clear structure divided into five units to assist learning and understanding.

The first unit provides extensive coverage on the background of toxicology including commonly used definitions and historical perspective, while following units cover: basic concepts; regulatory requirements and good laboratory practices, including types of toxicology testing and evaluation; toxic agents and adverse effects on health; and analytical, forensic, and diagnostic toxicology. This is an essential book for advanced students in toxicology and across the biomedical sciences, life sciences, and environmental sciences who want to learn the concepts of toxicology, as well as early researchers needing to refresh outside of their specialty.

Key Features

  • Explains the essential concepts of toxicology in a clear fashion
  • Provides in-depth coverage of testing protocols, common drugs, chemicals, and laboratory-based diagnostic and analytical toxicology
  • Explores the history, foundations, and most recent concepts of toxicology
  • Serves as an essential reference for advanced students in toxicology and across the biomedical, life, and environmental sciences who want to learn the concepts of toxicology

Readership

Graduate-level students and professors in the field of toxicology, researchers in interdisciplinary fields bordering toxicology that need to know basic toxicology concepts, such as pharmacy and pharmaceutical science, medicine, forensics, veterinary science and chemistry.

Table of Contents

  • About the Author
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Unit I
    • Chapter 1. Introduction and historical background
      • Abstract
      • 1.1 Introduction
      • 1.2 Historical Background
      • 1.3 Modern Toxicology
    • Chapter 2. Definitions and scope of toxicology
      • Abstract
      • 2.1 Definitions
      • 2.2 Sub-disciplines of Toxicology
      • 2.3 Toxicant and Types of Toxicants
      • 2.4 Toxicity and Toxic Effects
      • 2.5 Dose and Related Terms
      • 2.6 Other Common Terms
      • 2.7 Sources of Poisoning
      • 2.8 Duration and Frequency of Exposure
    • Chapter 3. Classification of poisons/toxicants
      • Abstract
      • 3.1 Introduction
      • 3.2 Classification of Poisons
      • 3.3 Actions of Poisons
    • Chapter 4. Factors affecting toxicity
      • Abstract
      • 4.1 Introduction
      • 4.2 Factors Affecting Toxicity
    • Chapter 5. Natural laws concerning toxicology
      • Abstract
      • 5.1 Introduction
      • 5.2 Tolerance
      • 5.3 Dose
      • 5.4 Time Action Curves
      • 5.5 Dose–Response Relationship
      • 5.6 Statistical Concept of Toxicity
      • 5.7 Variables of Dose–Response Curve
      • 5.8 Frequently Used Terms for Safety Evaluation of Drugs
      • 5.9 Interaction With Receptors
      • 5.10 Types of Xenobiotics
      • 5.11 Xenobiotic/Drug Interaction
      • 5.12 Nature and Extent of Toxicity Testing
    • Chapter 6. Hazard and risk assessment
      • Abstract
      • 6.1 Introduction
      • 6.2 Risk Assessment Approach
      • 6.3 Conclusion
  • Unit II
    • Chapter 7. Absorption, distribution, and excretion of toxicants
      • Abstract
      • 7.1 Introduction
      • 7.2 Translocation of Xenobiotics Across Membranes
      • 7.3 Absorption
      • 7.4 Distribution
      • 7.5 Excretion
    • Chapter 8. Biotransformation
      • Abstract
      • 8.1 Introduction
      • 8.2 Functions of Biotransformation
      • 8.3 Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzymes
      • 8.4 Pathways of Biotransformation
      • 8.5 Complex Nature of Biotransformation
      • 8.6 Induction and Inhibition of Metabolizing Enzymes
      • 8.7 Bioactivation and Tissue Toxicity
    • Chapter 9. Principles and basic concepts of toxicokinetics
      • Abstract
      • 9.1 Introduction
      • 9.2 Essentials of Toxicokinetics/Pharmacokinetics Principles
      • 9.3 Plasma Drug Concentration Versus Time
      • 9.4 Orders of Rate Processes
      • 9.5 Toxicokinetics Models
      • 9.6 Determination of Dose/Dosage Regimen
      • 9.7 Conclusion
  • Unit III
    • Chapter 10. Toxicological testing: Genesis
      • Abstract
      • 10.1 Introduction
      • 10.2 Laws and Regulations
      • 10.3 International Harmonization
      • 10.4 Role of Animal Testing
      • 10.5 Standard Information Requirements
      • 10.6 Recent Trends
      • 10.7 Good Laboratory Practices
    • Chapter 11. Toxicological testing: In vitro models
      • Abstract
      • 11.1 Introduction
      • 11.2 Animal Welfare Legislation
      • 11.3 In Vitro Models
      • 11.4 In Vitro Embryotoxicity Testing
      • 11.5 Conclusion
    • Chapter 12. Toxicological testing: In vivo systems
      • Abstract
      • 12.1 Introduction
      • 12.2 Administration of Toxicants
      • 12.3 In Vivo Tests
      • 12.4 Development and Reproductive Toxicity
      • 12.5 Special Tests
      • 12.6 In Vitro and Other Short-Term Tests
      • 12.7 Ecological Effects
      • 12.8 Risk Analysis
    • Chapter 13. Genotoxicity
      • Abstract
      • 13.1 Introduction
      • 13.2 Historical Background
      • 13.3 Germ Cell Mutation
      • 13.4 DNA Mutations
      • 13.5 Mutagens are Carcinogens
      • 13.6 Impact on Human Health
      • 13.7 DNA Damage and Mechanism
      • 13.8 Regulatory Requirements/Guidelines
      • 13.9 Assays for Detection of Genetic Alterations
      • 13.10 Conclusion
    • Chapter 14. Preclinical toxicological investigations of pharmaceutical products
      • Abstract
      • 14.1 Introduction
      • 14.2 Safety Evaluation of Pharmaceutical Products
      • 14.3 Conclusion
    • Chapter 15. Preclinical safety evaluation of biotechnology-derived products
      • Abstract
      • 15.1 Introduction
      • 15.2 Background
      • 15.3 Regulatory Considerations
      • 15.4 General Principles
      • 15.5 General Toxicological Profile
      • 15.6 Conclusion
    • Chapter 16. Preclinical regulatory toxicology for biomaterials and medical devices
      • Abstract
      • 16.1 Introduction
      • 16.2 Regulations
      • 16.3 Objectives
      • 16.4 Extract Preparations
      • 16.5 Test Protocols
      • 16.6 Short-Term Tests
      • 16.7 Long-Term Tests
      • 16.8 Supplementary Tests
      • 16.9 Conclusion
  • Unit IV
    • Chapter 17. Toxic effects of pesticides (agrochemicals)
      • Abstract
      • 17.1 Introduction
      • 17.2 Historical Background
      • 17.3 Definition and Classification
      • 17.4 Insecticides
      • 17.5 Herbicides
      • 17.6 Fungicides
      • 17.7 Rodenticides
      • 17.8 Fumigants
    • Chapter 18. Toxic effects of metals
      • Abstract
      • 18.1 Introduction
      • 18.2 Arsenic (Sankhyal, Somalkar)
      • 18.3 Mercury (Quick Silver, Liquid Metal, Para, Padarasa)
      • 18.4 Lead (Shisha)
      • 18.5 Copper (Thambe, Blue Vitriol)
      • 18.6 Iron
    • Chapter 19. Toxic effects of nonmetallics
      • Abstract
      • 19.1 Introduction
      • 19.2 Toxicity of Nonmetallics
      • 19.3 Phosphorus
      • 19.4 Chlorine
      • 19.5 Bromine
      • 19.6 Iodine
      • 19.7 Formaldehyde (Formalin, Methyl Aldehyde, Methylene Oxide)
    • Chapter 20. Neurotoxic agents
      • Abstract
      • 20.1 Introduction
      • 20.2 Opium (Afim) Derivatives
      • 20.3 Pethidine (Meperidine)
      • 20.4 Alcohol
      • 20.5 Ethylene Glycol
      • 20.6 Chloroform
      • 20.7 Ether
      • 20.8 Chloral Hydrate (Trichloroacetaldehyde)
      • 20.9 Barbiturates
      • 20.10 Benzodiazepines
      • 20.11 Hydrocarbons
      • 20.12 Insecticides
      • 20.13 Datura
      • 20.14 Cannabis
      • 20.15 Cocaine
      • 20.16 Strychnine
    • Chapter 21. Toxic effects of cardiac poisons
      • Abstract
      • 21.1 Introduction
      • 21.2 Oleanders
      • 21.3 Aconite
      • 21.4 Nicotine (Tobacco)
    • Chapter 22. Toxic effects of asphyxiants
      • Abstract
      • 22.1 Definition
      • 22.2 Classification
      • 22.3 Carbon Monoxide
      • 22.4 Carbon Dioxide
      • 22.5 Cyanide (Prussic Acid, Cyanogen)
      • 22.6 Ammonia (NH3)
      • 22.7 War Gases
    • Chapter 23. Toxic effects of caustics (corrosives)
      • Abstract
      • 23.1 Introduction
      • 23.2 Classification
      • 23.3 Acids
      • 23.4 Alkalis
    • Chapter 24. Drug toxicity, dependence, and abuse
      • Abstract
      • 24.1 Introduction
      • 24.2 Aspirin and Other Salicylates
      • 24.3 Paracetamol
      • 24.4 Drug Dependence and Abuse
      • 24.5 Withdrawal Symptoms (Abstinence Syndrome)
    • Chapter 25. Toxic effects of domestic chemicals
      • Abstract
      • 25.1 Domestic/Household Poisons Classification
      • 25.2 Hydrocarbons
      • 25.3 Other Than Hydrocarbons
    • Chapter 26. Toxic effects of poisonous plants
      • Abstract
      • 26.1 Introduction
      • 26.2 Abrus precatorius
      • 26.3 Ricinus communis (Castor Oil Plant)
      • 26.4 Croton
      • 26.5 Calotropis
      • 26.6 Semecarpus anacardium
      • 26.7 Capsicum annuum
      • 26.8 Eucalyptus Globulus
      • 26.9 Colchicum (Colchicum autumnale)
      • 26.10 Ergot
    • Chapter 27. Poisonous foods and food poisoning
      • Abstract
      • 27.1 Introduction
      • 27.2 Microbial Toxins
      • 27.3 Food Poisoning
      • 27.4 Mycotoxins
      • 27.5 Algal Toxins
    • Chapter 28. Poisons of animal origin
      • Abstract
      • 28.1 Introduction
      • 28.2 Animal Poisons
      • 28.3 Arthropods
      • 28.4 Mollusks
      • 28.5 Reptiles
    • Chapter 29. Chemical food poisoning
      • Abstract
      • 29.1 Introduction
      • 29.2 Mushrooms
      • 29.3 Poisonous Plant Toxins
      • 29.4 Poisonous Marine Bites and Stings
    • Chapter 30. Health effects of radioactive materials
      • Abstract
      • 30.1 Introduction
      • 30.2 Types of Radiation
  • Unit V
    • Chapter 31. Basic concepts of forensic toxicology
      • Abstract
      • 31.1 Introduction
      • 31.2 History and Background
      • 31.3 Courtroom Testimony
      • 31.4 Investigation
    • Chapter 32. Applications in toxicology
      • Abstract
      • 32.1 Introduction
      • 32.2 Objectives of Analytical Toxicology
      • 32.3 Analytical Schemes for Toxicant Detection
      • 32.4 Laboratory Analyses
      • 32.5 Wet Chemistry
    • Chapter 33. Clinical toxicology
      • Abstract
      • 33.1 Introduction
      • 33.2 Historical Background
      • 33.3 Introduction of the Poison Control Center
      • 33.4 Acute Poisoning Deaths
      • 33.5 Causes of Poisoning
      • 33.6 Principles of Diagnosis
      • 33.7 General Management of Poisoning
      • 33.8 Dialysis
      • 33.9 Nursing and Psychiatric Care
    • Chapter 34. Treatment of poisoning
      • Abstract
      • 34.1 Introduction
      • 34.2 Specific Treatment (Administration of Antidotes)
  • Further Reading
    • Chapter 1
    • Chapter 2
    • Chapter 3
    • Chapter 4
    • Chapter 5
    • Chapter 6
    • Chapter 7
    • Chapter 8
    • Chapter 9
    • Chapter 10
    • Chapter 11
    • Chapter 12
    • Chapter 13
    • Chapter 14
    • Chapter 15
    • Chapter 16
    • Chapter 17
    • Chapter 18
    • Chapter 19
    • Chapter 20
    • Chapter 21
    • Chapter 22
    • Chapter 23
    • Chapter 24
    • Chapter 25
    • Chapter 26
    • Chapter 27
    • Chapter 28
    • Chapter 29
    • Chapter 30
    • Chapter 31
    • Chapter 32
    • Chapter 33
    • Chapter 34
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
422
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2016
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780128054031
Paperback ISBN:
9780128054260

About the Author

PK Gupta

Prof. Dr. Gupta is an internationally known toxicologist having 48 years of experience in the field of teaching, research and research management. He has guided many post-graduate students for their thesis work in toxicology and was honored with several National and International Awards including best teachers, best researcher, Alarsin award, Lifetime achievements, and IUTOX-Astra Zeneca Award (USA). To his credit he has several books, book chapters (Elsevier, Academic Press, John Wiley, Merck Manual etc) as well as scientific research publications (550) published in National and International peer reviewed Journals of repute. His contribution in the publication of Indian Veterinary Pharmacopeia is highly praise worthy. He is the founder Editor-in-Chief of a peer reviewed scientific journal “Toxicology International”, and Book Review Editor, Marcel Dekker, USA; Expert member Consultant and Advisor to WHO, Geneva; Consultant United Nations FAO, Rome; IAEA, Vienna; Founder Academy of Sciences for Animal Welfare; Founder and Past President, Society of Toxicology of India; Adjunct Professor, SRMS; founder director and member nominating committee of International Union of Toxicology; founder President of Society of Toxicology of India, and has held several prominent positions of scientific organizations in India and abroad.

In addition to this Dr Gupta has also been biographer in several WHO's WHO from all over the world including Marquis WHOs WHO (USA), IBC (UK) and other leading publications of the World. .At present Dr Gupta is a Director of Toxicology Consultant Group, Patron and Founder President of the Society of Toxicology of India, and President of the Academy of Sciences for Animal Welfare.

Affiliations and Expertise

Director of Toxicology Consultant Group, Patron and Founder President of the Society of Toxicology of India and President of the Academy of Sciences for Animal Welfare, Rajendra Nagar, Bareilly (UP), India