Fundamentals of Radiobiology - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780080094069, 9781483184524

Fundamentals of Radiobiology

2nd Edition

International Series of Monographs in Pure and Applied Biology: Modern Trends in Physiological Sciences

Editors: Z. M. Bacq Peter Alexander
eBook ISBN: 9781483184524
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1961
Page Count: 576
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Description

Fundamentals of Radiobiology presents a clear picture of the effects of radiation to living organisms. It discusses the steps leading from the absorption of energy to death or final injury. The focus of study is the changes induced at the molecular level by absorbing energy. Some of the topics covered in the book are the methods for determining the direct and indirect action in biological systems, the nature of the initial chemical lesion in cellular radiobiology, the definition of target theory and the meaning of poison theory. The subjects on general radiation chemistry are also covered. The fields of radiation chemistry that will be discussed are the role of excitation, the variation of reactions between gases, liquids, and solids; and the status of free radicals created. The effects of radiation on macromolecules are discussed. The text defines the important role of metabolism in the development of the lesions. An analysis of the interactions of ionizing radiations with is presented. A chapter of the volume is devoted to the radiation chemistry of aqueous systems. Another section of the book focuses on the chemicals which simulate the biological effects of ionizing radiations. The book will provide useful information to doctors, chemists, biologists, radiologists, students and researchers.

Table of Contents


Foreword

Introduction—The Stepwise Development of Radiation Injury

Chapter 1. Interaction of Ionizing Radiations with Matte

Comparison of the Different Radiations

Mechanism of Energy Loss by X- And Y-Radiations

Energy Loss by Particulate Radiations

Units of Radiation Dose and Radioactivity

Measurement of Dose

Ionization Density

Excitations Produced by Ionizing Radiation

Chapter 2. Direct and Indirect Action in Biological Systems

Methods For Distinguishing Between Direct And Indirect Action

Relative Effectiveness of Direct and Indirect Action in Vitro

Relative Effectiveness of Direct and Indirect Action in Cells

Chapter 3. Dose-Response Relationships in Chemical and Biological Systems

The D 3 7 Dose and "Single-Hit" Concept

"Multi-Hit" Effects

Threshold—A Problem of Mammalian Radiobiology

Chapter 4. The Nature of the Initial Chemical Lesion in Cellular Radiobiology

The Target Theory

Application of Target Theory to Radiation Effects Produced In Vivo

The Relative Biological Effectiveness of Different Ionizing Radiations

The Poison Theory

Conclusions

Chapter 5. General Radiation Chemistry

Role Of Excitation

Difference Between the Reactions in Gases and Those in Liquids and Solids

Protection and Energy Transfer

Fate of Free Radicals Produced

Chapter 6. The Radiation Chemistry of Aqueous Systems

Introduction

Historical Development

Primary Products in the Radiolysis of Water

Reactions of Free Radicals

Reactions of Organic Substances Dissolved in Water

Chapter 7. Effect of Radiation on Macromolecules

Radiation Changes in Synthetic Polymers Produced by Indirect Action

Radiation Changes in Synthetic Polymers Produced by Direct Action

Protection of Molecules

Physical and Chemical Changes Produced in Proteins by Direct Action

Physical and Chemical Changes in Proteins Produced by Indirect Action

Crosslinking And Degradation of Deoxyribonucleic Acid

Changes Produced in Dna Following Irradiation In Vivo

Changes Produced in Polysaccharides

The Use Of Radiation as an Analytical Tool

Chapter 8. Chemical Substances WhichH Simulate the Biological Effect* of Ionizing Radiations

The Chemistry of The Biological Alkylating Agents

Comparison of Biological Effects Produced By The Alkylating Agents And By Radiations

Mechanism of Action Of The Alkylating Agents

Radiomimetic Properties Of Peroxides and Oxygen at High Concentrations

Chapter 9. Effects at the Cellular Level

Introduction

Mitosis

Meiosis

Mitosis in a Complex Organism

Reversible Cell Damage and Mitotic Delay Cell Death

Breakage of Chromosomes

Genetic Effects of Ionizing Radiations

Chapter 10. Biochemical Mechanism for Cellular Effects—The Enzyme Release Hypothesis

Nucleus Versus Cytoplasm

Chromosome Breakage

Interruption of Energy Supply

The Enzyme-Release Hypothesis

Chapter 11. The Effect of Oxygen in Radiobiology

Time at Which Oxygen Acts

Concentration of Oxygen Required

The Oxygen Effect in Mammals

Application of Oxygen Effect to Radiotherapy

Mechanism of Action

Chapter 12. Comparative Radiosensitivity of Living Organisms

Chapter 13. Pathological Biochemisty of Irradiated Living Organisms

Oxygen Consumption

Carbohydrate Metabolism After Irradiation

Disturbances in Fat Metabolism

Protein Metabolism

Changes in Electrolyte Concentration

Sulphydryl Enzymes and Proteins

Increased Enzymic and Synthetic Activity After Irradiation

Inhibition of Isolated Enzyme Systems In Vivo

Biosynthesis of Nucleic Acids

Mechanisms Responsible for Decreased Biosynthesis of DNA and RNA

The Nucleases

Summary

Chapter 14. Processes of Restoration After Irradiation

Restoration of Genetic Damage and of Reproductive Capacity

Recovery from Physiological Injuries

Repair In Mammals

Chapter 15. Neuro-Endocrine Reactions in Radiation Sickness

Stress and the Adaptation Syndrome

Do Ionizing Radiations Act as Stresses?

Difficulties in Facts and Interpretations

First and Second Reactions

Chapter 16. Physiopathology of Radiation Sickness in Mammals

Hyperacute Syndrome

The First Stage of Radiation Sickness

Changes in Permeability

Blood Changes

The Second Stage of Acute Radiation Sickness

Chapter 17. Delayed Effects

Shortening of Life Span

Cancer and Leukemia Induction

Damage to Embryos

Other Late Effects

Chapter 18. Interaction Between Cells and Tissues Following

Irradiation

Chapter 19. Chemical Protection Against X- and Gamma-Rays

Techniques

The Protective Substances

Mechanism of Action of Radioprotectors

Cysteamine and -Sh Protectors

Histamine, Adrenaline, 5-Hydroxytryptamine

Substances Which Intensify the Effects of X-Rays

Chapter 20. Treatment by Bone-Marrow and Spleen Cells

Physical Protection of the Spleen, Liver, Bones and Other Organs

Injections of Homogenates of Spleen or Bone-Marrow After Irradiation

Chapter 21. Human Experience

Source of Radiations to World Population and Their Importance

Possible Biological Effects of Natural and Artificial Background Radiations

Acute Radiation Syndrome in Man

Applications to Therapy

Postscript—The Role of Radiobiology in the World

Author Index


Details

No. of pages:
576
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Pergamon 1961
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
eBook ISBN:
9781483184524

About the Editor

Z. M. Bacq

Peter Alexander