Fundamentals of Radiobiology

Fundamentals of Radiobiology

International Series of Monographs in Pure and Applied Biology: Modern Trends in Physiological Sciences

2nd Edition - January 1, 1961

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  • Editors: Z. M. Bacq, Peter Alexander
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483184524

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Description

Fundamentals of Radiobiology presents a clear picture of the effects of radiation to living organisms. It discusses the steps leading from the absorption of energy to death or final injury. The focus of study is the changes induced at the molecular level by absorbing energy. Some of the topics covered in the book are the methods for determining the direct and indirect action in biological systems, the nature of the initial chemical lesion in cellular radiobiology, the definition of target theory and the meaning of poison theory. The subjects on general radiation chemistry are also covered. The fields of radiation chemistry that will be discussed are the role of excitation, the variation of reactions between gases, liquids, and solids; and the status of free radicals created. The effects of radiation on macromolecules are discussed. The text defines the important role of metabolism in the development of the lesions. An analysis of the interactions of ionizing radiations with is presented. A chapter of the volume is devoted to the radiation chemistry of aqueous systems. Another section of the book focuses on the chemicals which simulate the biological effects of ionizing radiations. The book will provide useful information to doctors, chemists, biologists, radiologists, students and researchers.

Table of Contents


  • Foreword

    Introduction—The Stepwise Development of Radiation Injury

    Chapter 1. Interaction of Ionizing Radiations with Matte

    Comparison of the Different Radiations

    Mechanism of Energy Loss by X- And Y-Radiations

    Energy Loss by Particulate Radiations

    Units of Radiation Dose and Radioactivity

    Measurement of Dose

    Ionization Density

    Excitations Produced by Ionizing Radiation

    Chapter 2. Direct and Indirect Action in Biological Systems

    Methods For Distinguishing Between Direct And Indirect Action

    Relative Effectiveness of Direct and Indirect Action in Vitro

    Relative Effectiveness of Direct and Indirect Action in Cells

    Chapter 3. Dose-Response Relationships in Chemical and Biological Systems

    The D 3 7 Dose and "Single-Hit" Concept

    "Multi-Hit" Effects

    Threshold—A Problem of Mammalian Radiobiology

    Chapter 4. The Nature of the Initial Chemical Lesion in Cellular Radiobiology

    The Target Theory

    Application of Target Theory to Radiation Effects Produced In Vivo

    The Relative Biological Effectiveness of Different Ionizing Radiations

    The Poison Theory

    Conclusions

    Chapter 5. General Radiation Chemistry

    Role Of Excitation

    Difference Between the Reactions in Gases and Those in Liquids and Solids

    Protection and Energy Transfer

    Fate of Free Radicals Produced

    Chapter 6. The Radiation Chemistry of Aqueous Systems

    Introduction

    Historical Development

    Primary Products in the Radiolysis of Water

    Reactions of Free Radicals

    Reactions of Organic Substances Dissolved in Water

    Chapter 7. Effect of Radiation on Macromolecules

    Radiation Changes in Synthetic Polymers Produced by Indirect Action

    Radiation Changes in Synthetic Polymers Produced by Direct Action

    Protection of Molecules

    Physical and Chemical Changes Produced in Proteins by Direct Action

    Physical and Chemical Changes in Proteins Produced by Indirect Action

    Crosslinking And Degradation of Deoxyribonucleic Acid

    Changes Produced in Dna Following Irradiation In Vivo

    Changes Produced in Polysaccharides

    The Use Of Radiation as an Analytical Tool

    Chapter 8. Chemical Substances WhichH Simulate the Biological Effect* of Ionizing Radiations

    The Chemistry of The Biological Alkylating Agents

    Comparison of Biological Effects Produced By The Alkylating Agents And By Radiations

    Mechanism of Action Of The Alkylating Agents

    Radiomimetic Properties Of Peroxides and Oxygen at High Concentrations

    Chapter 9. Effects at the Cellular Level

    Introduction

    Mitosis

    Meiosis

    Mitosis in a Complex Organism

    Reversible Cell Damage and Mitotic Delay Cell Death

    Breakage of Chromosomes

    Genetic Effects of Ionizing Radiations

    Chapter 10. Biochemical Mechanism for Cellular Effects—The Enzyme Release Hypothesis

    Nucleus Versus Cytoplasm

    Chromosome Breakage

    Interruption of Energy Supply

    The Enzyme-Release Hypothesis

    Chapter 11. The Effect of Oxygen in Radiobiology

    Time at Which Oxygen Acts

    Concentration of Oxygen Required

    The Oxygen Effect in Mammals

    Application of Oxygen Effect to Radiotherapy

    Mechanism of Action

    Chapter 12. Comparative Radiosensitivity of Living Organisms

    Chapter 13. Pathological Biochemisty of Irradiated Living Organisms

    Oxygen Consumption

    Carbohydrate Metabolism After Irradiation

    Disturbances in Fat Metabolism

    Protein Metabolism

    Changes in Electrolyte Concentration

    Sulphydryl Enzymes and Proteins

    Increased Enzymic and Synthetic Activity After Irradiation

    Inhibition of Isolated Enzyme Systems In Vivo

    Biosynthesis of Nucleic Acids

    Mechanisms Responsible for Decreased Biosynthesis of DNA and RNA

    The Nucleases

    Summary

    Chapter 14. Processes of Restoration After Irradiation

    Restoration of Genetic Damage and of Reproductive Capacity

    Recovery from Physiological Injuries

    Repair In Mammals

    Chapter 15. Neuro-Endocrine Reactions in Radiation Sickness

    Stress and the Adaptation Syndrome

    Do Ionizing Radiations Act as Stresses?

    Difficulties in Facts and Interpretations

    First and Second Reactions

    Chapter 16. Physiopathology of Radiation Sickness in Mammals

    Hyperacute Syndrome

    The First Stage of Radiation Sickness

    Changes in Permeability

    Blood Changes

    The Second Stage of Acute Radiation Sickness

    Chapter 17. Delayed Effects

    Shortening of Life Span

    Cancer and Leukemia Induction

    Damage to Embryos

    Other Late Effects

    Chapter 18. Interaction Between Cells and Tissues Following

    Irradiation

    Chapter 19. Chemical Protection Against X- and Gamma-Rays

    Techniques

    The Protective Substances

    Mechanism of Action of Radioprotectors

    Cysteamine and -Sh Protectors

    Histamine, Adrenaline, 5-Hydroxytryptamine

    Substances Which Intensify the Effects of X-Rays

    Chapter 20. Treatment by Bone-Marrow and Spleen Cells

    Physical Protection of the Spleen, Liver, Bones and Other Organs

    Injections of Homogenates of Spleen or Bone-Marrow After Irradiation

    Chapter 21. Human Experience

    Source of Radiations to World Population and Their Importance

    Possible Biological Effects of Natural and Artificial Background Radiations

    Acute Radiation Syndrome in Man

    Applications to Therapy

    Postscript—The Role of Radiobiology in the World

    Author Index


Product details

  • No. of pages: 576
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1961
  • Published: January 1, 1961
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483184524

About the Editors

Z. M. Bacq

Peter Alexander

Peter Alexander is a senior lecturer at University of Edinburgh jointly between the School of Geosciences and the Global Academy of Agriculture and Food Security. Peter’s research aims to better understand the socio-economic and environmental interactions and trade-offs associated with the global food system. Approaches use high-performance computing to apply data and computationally intensive techniques, such as agent-based modelling, to explore the complex interactions inherent with the system. Work has included developing a new global agricultural land use model (LandSyMM) integrated with an ecosystem model to represent the two-way and spatially specific interactions and trade flows. Interests include how changes in food consumption and preferences, e.g., dietary shifts, impact environmental outcomes such as biodiversity loss and climate regulation. He is the principal investigator on the Resilience of the UK food system to Global Shocks project (RUGS).

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