Fundamentals of Radiation and Chemical Safety - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128020265, 9780128020531

Fundamentals of Radiation and Chemical Safety

1st Edition

Authors: Ilya Obodovskiy
eBook ISBN: 9780128020531
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128020265
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 4th February 2015
Page Count: 264
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Description

Fundamentals of Radiation and Chemical Safety covers the effects and mechanisms involved in radiation and chemical exposure on humans. The mechanisms and effects of these damaging factors have many aspects in common, as do their research methodology and the methods used for data processing. In many cases of these types of exposures the same final effect can also be noted: Cancer. Low doses of radiation and small doses of chemical exposure are continuously active and they could influence the entire population. The analysis of these two main source hazards on the lives of the human population is covered here for the first time in a single volume determining and demonstrating their common basis. Fundamentals of Radiation and Chemical Safety includes the necessary knowledge from nuclear physics, chemistry and biology, as well the methods of processing the experimental results. This title focuses on the effects of low radiation dosage and chemical hormesis as well as the hazards associated with, and safety precautions in radiation and chemicals, rather than the more commonly noted safety issues high level emergencies and disasters of this type.

Key Features

  • Brings together, for the first time, the problems of radiation and chemical safety on a common biophysical basis.
  • Relates hazards caused by ionizing radiation and chemicals and discusses the common effective mechanisms
  • Outlines common methodology and data processing between radiation and regular chemical hazards
  • Concerns primarily with low levels of radiation and chemical exposure

Readership

Chemists, physical chemists, chemical engineers, physicists, biologists and radiation experts and safety officers, governments and radiation protection agents.

Table of Contents

  • Introduction
  • 1: Basics of Nuclear Physics
    • Abstract
    • 1.1. Peculiarities of the Processes in Microcosm
    • 1.2. Constitution of Nucleus
    • 1.3. Radioactive Decay and Radioactive Radiations
    • 1.4. The Radioactive Decay Law
    • 1.5. The Radioactive Chains
    • 1.6. X-rays
    • 1.7. Interaction of Ionizing Radiation With Matter
    • 1.8. Elements of Dosimetry
    • 1.9. Radiation Detection
    • 1.10. Natural Radiation Background
  • 2: Basics of Biology
    • Abstract
    • 2.1. Cell Structure
    • 2.2. Genetic Processes
    • 2.3. Abnormalities in the Genetic Apparatus: Mutations
    • 2.4. Carcinogenesis
    • 2.5. Cancer and Age
  • 3: Evaluation of the Action of Hazardous Factors on a Human
    • Abstract
    • 3.1. Calculating Risks
    • 3.2. Verification of Tests
    • 3.3. Probit Analysis
  • 4: Effect of Ionizing Radiation on Biological Structures
    • Abstract
    • 4.1. Physical Stage
    • 4.2. Physicochemical Stage
    • 4.3. Chemical Stage
    • 4.4. Biological Effects of Exposure to Radiation
    • 4.5. Radiation Sickness
    • 4.6. Radon and Internal Exposure
  • 5: The Effect of Chemicals on Biological Structures
    • Abstract
    • 5.1. Chemicals
    • 5.2. The Toxic Effects of Chemicals
    • 5.3. Methods of Carcinogen Screening
    • 5.4. Chemical Carcinogenesis Databases
  • 6: Radiation and Chemical Hormesis
    • Abstract
    • 6.1. Definition of “Hormesis”: Arndt–Schulz Law
    • 6.2. The Definition of “Low Doses”
    • 6.3. Radiobiology Paradigm
    • 6.4. Chemical Hormesis
    • 6.5. Radiation Hormesis
    • 6.6. Danger and Safety of Low-Dose Radiation and Chemicals
  • 7: The Synergic Effect of Radiation and Chemical Agents
    • Abstract
    • 7.1. Smoking
    • 7.2. The Diet
    • 7.3. Problems of Radiation Therapy
  • 8: The Methods of Pharmacological Defense: Antidotes, Antimutagens, Anticarcinogens, and Radioprotectors
    • Abstract
    • 8.1. Antidotes
    • 8.2. Methods of Chemical Defense From Carcinogens
    • 8.3. Radioprotectors
  • 9: The Regulation of Radiation and Chemical Safety
    • Abstract
    • 9.1. The Regulation of Radiation Safety
    • 9.2. Chemical (Carcinogenic) Safety Regulation
  • Conclusion
  • Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
264
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 2015
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9780128020531
Hardcover ISBN:
9780128020265

About the Author

Ilya Obodovskiy

Ilya Obodovskiy graduated from Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute (MEPhI) and then for more than 40 years followed his lecturing and research work in this Institute. His research interests are focused on radiation detection and measurement, on the effects of radiation on matter. His Ph.D. was devoted to scintillations in alcali-halide cristalls. During long period the main object of reseach for him and his laboratory was radiation processes in liquid and solid noble gases. The results of these investigations could be found in more than 70 published papers, together with his collaborators he received several patents. He was also invited as an expert to survey some radiation environment in the areas of underground nuclear explosions.

In the 1990-s Obodovskiy became interested in the physico-chemical methods of detection of mutagen and carcinogen hazard. As a result he has managed a number of national and international collaborative projects, in particularly, the Project of the International Science and Technology Center.

Currently I. Obodovskiy is an independent researcher, the author of some recently published books and he also continues his scientific research.

Affiliations and Expertise

Frankfurt, Germany