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Fundamentals of Psychology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122786303, 9781483271491

Fundamentals of Psychology

1st Edition

An Introduction

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Author: Michael S. Gazzaniga
eBook ISBN: 9781483271491
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1973
Page Count: 674
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Fundamentals of Psychology: An Introduction focuses on issues that cut through the artificial boundaries commonly held in the study of behavior. The book reviews the nature of the organism in terms of basic neurology, including the neurological organization of the central nervous system and the general features of brain development. The author also examines the normal course of development of the visual systems. He discusses fixed patterns of behavior and the developmental processes that include emotional behavior, self-control, language use, perceptual, and cognitive development. The author then explains the use of statistical concept in psychological research, as well as the psychological methods of inquiry that involves variable manipulation and observation of effects. The author also discusses learning and motivation theory including the theories of Pavlov, Skinner, and Premack. He discusses the organism as an information processor using short- and long-term memory, and the mind as having physical aspects such as brain codes and a brain structure known as the corpus callosum. This book is helpful for psychiatrists, psychologists, behavioral scientists, students and professors in psychology.

Table of Contents



I. Nature of the Organism

1. Physical Aspects of Behavior: Basic Neurology

Neurological Organization of Central Nervous System

General Features of Brain Development


Suggested Readings

2. The Course of Normal Development: The Visual System

The Developing Visual System

The Retina

Visual Pathways from the Retina to the Brain

The Visual Cortex

Changing the Normal Brain by Changing the Environment

Some Characteristics of Normal Adult Visual Organization



Suggested Readings

3. Fixed Patterns of Behavior

Inborn Behavior


The Development and Unfolding of Instinctive Patterns

Inborn Behavior and Learning



Suggested Readings

II. Developmental Processes

4. Emotional Behavior

Biological Mechanisms

Effects of Stimulation in Infancy

Emotional States

Psychoanalytical View of Sexual Development



Cognitive Control of Emotional Behavior


Suggested Readings

5. Self-Control

Inculcation of Moral Values

Behavioral Theory and Techniques Used in Gaining Self-Control

Reinforcement and Punishment

Skinner's Définition of Self-Control

Self-Control Viewed as Behavioral Techniques

The Control of Overeating

The Control of Studying

Delay of Gratification

Didactic Self-Control

The Coverant and an Original View of Reinforcement

The Role of Modeling in Self-Control

The Role of Anxiety in Self-Control


Suggested Readings

6. The Development of Language

Skinner's View of Language

Inadequacy of the Associationistic Model

Chomsky's Description of the Sentence

Psychological Reality of the Transformation

How the Child Acquires Language: Chomsky's Model

Experimental Approaches to Child Language

Development of the Phonological System

Relationship of Babbling to Phonology

The Pivot-Open Grammar; First Sentences

General Principles of Language Acquisition

Language in Animals

Language and the Brain


Suggested Readings

7. Perceptual and Cognitive Development

Cognitive Development

The Piagetian View of Cognitive Development


Perceptual Development


Conceptual Development


Suggested Readings

III. Measuring Behavior

8. Statistical Concepts in Psychological Research

The Problem

Beyond Common Sense

Three Areas of Measurement

Evaluation of Psychological Measurement

Samples and Populations: Whom Do You Measure?

Sampling Variability

The Kinsey Report: A Survey of Group Characteristics and Differences

Intelligence: Tests of Individual Differences

Heritability of I.Q

Perils of Correlation

ESP: A Case of Experimental Analysis


Suggested Readings

9. Psychological Methods of Inquiry

Curiosity and Ideas

Real Life Approaches to Research

The Scientific Method: A Simple Experiment


Control Group

Simple versus Complex Designs

Problems in Research: Experimenter Effects and Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

Ethical Considerations


Suggested Readings

VI. Sensation and Perception

10. Visual Sensitivity

The Problem of Detecting

Structure and Function

Selective Sensitivity of Receptors

Color Vision

Theories of Color Vision


Suggested Readings

Legends for Color Figures

11. The Perception of Things

Brightness Contrast

Brightness Constancy

Steady-State Stimulation

The Perception of Pattern

Simplicity, Information Theory, and Pattern Perception

The Nature-Nurture Question

Cortical Analyzers and Form Perception


Suggested Readings

12. Perception of Space and Movement

The Constancy of Perceived Size

The Perception of Distance

Space and Illusions

The Nature-Nurture Question Again

The Perception of Movement


Suggested Readings

13. The Auditory Stimulus

Physical Properties

The Ear

The Perception of Sound


Suggested Readings

14. The Measurement of Sensitivity

Absolute Threshold

Difference Thresholds and Weber's Law

Fechner's Law

Stevens' Power Law

Theory of Signal Detection


Suggested Readings

V. The Changing Organism

15. Learning and Motivation Theory

Basic Issues in Learning

General Discussion

Vocabulary of Learning Theory

Theories of Learning

Additional Theories


Suggested Readings

16. The Organism as an Information Processor

The Experimental Analysis of Memory

Short-Term Memory

Short-Term Memory: A Brief Recapitulation

Long-Term Memory

Long-Term Memory: A Recapitulation

Suggested Readings

17. Motivation and Evolution

Motivation Revisited

Functional Evolution: A Perspective

Aspects of Cell Development and Physiology

Origins of the Behavioral Response

Primitive Behavioral Patterns in Man

Regulatory Drives

Innateness of Taste Preference

The Physical Basis of Hunger

Evidence against Drive-Reduction Hypothesis

Evidence for Behavioral Specificity in Hypothalamic Functioning

Brain Stimulation and Reward


Suggested Readings

VI. Personality and Social Behavior in Perspective

18. Biological Aspects of Personality

Genetic Factors

Personality Correlates of Body Type

Social-Experiential Influences


Suggested Readings

19. Theory and Measurement in Personality

Freud and the Psychoanalytic Approach

The Mechanisms of Defense

The Learning Theory Approach

Trait Theories

Self Theory: Carl Rogers

The Measurement of Personality


Suggested Readings

20. The Abnormal Personality

Paranoid Schizophrenia

Normality and Abnormality

The Psychoneuroses

The Psychoses


Suggested Readings

21. The Treatment of Psychological Disorders

Therapy: The Treatment of Psychological Disorders

Medical Therapies

Drug Therapy



Suggested Readings

22. Aspects of Social Behavior

Theory of Cognitive Dissonance

Cognitive Control of Motivation

Attribution Theory

Theory of Social Comparison

Social Influence and Conformity

Group Dynamics

Risky Shift


Suggested Readings

23. Social Psychology and Social Problems

The Impact of Television Violence

Intergroup Prejudice and Conflict

Riots and Their Causes


Urban Stress


Suggested Readings

VII. The Mind of Man

24. Physical Aspects of Mind

Conscious Experience

Language Training

Brain Code and the Corpus Callosum


Suggested Readings



Human Brain Model Assembly Instructions


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 1973
1st January 1973
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

Michael S. Gazzaniga

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