# Fundamentals of Interface and Colloid Science

## 1st Edition

### Liquid-Fluid Interfaces

**Editors:**J. Lyklema

**Hardcover ISBN:**9780124605237

**eBook ISBN:**9780080507132

**Imprint:**Academic Press

**Published Date:**10th July 2000

**Page Count:**751

## Description

General Preface

Preface to Volume III: Liquid-Fluid Interfaces

Co-operation and acknowledgements

List of Frequently Used Symbols (Volumes I, II and III)

Superscripts

Subscripts

Recurrent special symbols

Some mathematical signs and operators

Latin

Greek

Chapter 1: Interfacial Tension: Measurement

1.1 General introduction to capillarity and the measurement of interfacial tensions

1.2 On the mathematics of curvature

1.3 Capillary rise

1.4 Shapes of drops and bubbles on surfaces4)

1.5 Free drops in a density gradient or electric field

1.6 Drop weight method

1.7 Maximum bubble pressure

1.8 Force required to hold objects at an interface or to pull them through it

1.9 Spinning drops and bubbles

1.10 Surface light scattering

1.11 Miscellaneous other static methods

1.12 A case study: the surface tension of water

1.12a a Room temperature

1.12b From 0° – 100°C

1.13 Measuring the surface tension of solids

1.14 Surface tensions under dynamic conditions

1.14a Pure liquids

1.14b Solutions

1.14c A note on the pristine state of LG and LL surfaces

1.15 Bending moduli

1.16 Applications

Chapter 2: Interfacial Tension: Molecular Interpretation

2.1 Introductory considerations

2.2 Thermodynamic and statistical thermodynamic fundamentals. Flat interfaces

2.3 Interfacial tension and interfacial pressure tensor1)

2.4 Interfacial tensions and distribution functions

2.5 Van der Waals theory

2.5a Some elements of van der Waals’ theory

2.5b Comments and consequences

2.5c Van der Waals theory in the Hamaker-de Boer approximation

2.6 Cahn-Hilliard theory

2.7 Interfacial tensions from simulations

2.8 The thickness of the interfacial region

2.9 Quasi-thermodynamic approaches. Effects of temperature and pressure. Corresponding states

2.9a Influence of temperature. Energetic and entropic contributions

2.9b Influence of pressure

2.9c Surface tensions as capillary waves

2.10 Lattice theories for the interpretation of interfacial tensions

2.11 Empirical relationships

2.11a Relations containing molar volumes and compressibilities

2.11b Relationships for interfacial tensions, containing geometric means

2.11c Other empirical relationships

2.12 Conclusions and applications

Chapter 3: Langmuir Monolayers

3.1 Langmuir- and Gibbs monolayers. Distinctions and analogies

3.2 How to make monolayers

3.3 Two-dimensional phases and surface pressure

3.4 Monolayer thermodynamics

3.5 Monolayer molecular thermodynamics

3.6 Interfacial rheology

3.7 Measuring monolayer properties

3.8 Case studies

Chapter 4: Gibbs Monolayers

4.1 Introduction

4.2 The surface tension of miscible binary mixtures

4.3 Dilute solutions of simple molecules

4.4 Simple electrolytes

4.5 Rheology and kinetics

4.6 Surfactants

4.7 Curved interfaces

4.8 Applications

Chapter 5: Wetting

5.1 General considerations

5.2 Thermodynamics of wetting and adhesion

5.3 The relation between adsorption and wetting. Wetting films

5.4 Measuring contact angles

5.5 Contact angle hysteresis

5.6 Line tensions

5.7 Interpretation of static contact angles

5.8 Dynamics

5.9 Porous systems

5.10 Influence of surfactants

5.11 Applications

Appendices

Appendix 1: Surface Tensions of Pure Liquids and Mixtures

a. Surface tension of some inorganic fluids

b. Surface tensions of some molten metals

c. Surface tension of some molten halides

d. Surface tensions of some low boiling point liquids.

e. Surface tensions of linear alkanes

f. Surface tensions of linear aliphatic n-alcohols

g. Surface tensions of linear aliphatic n-aldehydes

h. Surface tensions of linear n-amines.

i. Surface tensions of n-aliphatic acids

j. Surface tensions of n-aliphatic nitrites

k. Surface tensions of n-aliphatic isomers compared

l. Surface tensions of some other common aliphatic compounds

m. Surface tensions of some triglycerides

n. Surface tensions of benzene and some mono-substituted benzenes

o. Surface tensions of some other cyclic compounds

p. Surface tensions of some binary mixtures

Appendix 2

a Integral characteristic functions of flat interfaces

b Differential characteristic functions of flat interfaces

Appendix 3: Some principles of variational calculus

Appendix 4: Contact angles

a. Contact angles on metals

b. Contact angles on polymers

c. Contact angles on oxides, minerals and metalloids

Cumulative Subject Index of Volumes I (Fundamentals), II (Solid-Fluid Interfaces) and III (Liquid-Interfaces)

## Key Features

- Accessible to a wide audience without a detailed knowledge of physics and chemistry
- Complex mathematical derivations are kept to a minimum
- Treats interfacial and colloidal phenomena from first principles (advanced command of physics and chemistry not required)
- Takes the reader from elementary to expert level
- Acts as a reference and a textbook
- Contains extensive and detailed cumulative subject index

## Readership

Physical chemists working in colloid, interface and surface science; Industrial/applied chemists working on pigment, emulsion, dispersion and powder research; Pharmaceutical chemists working on membranes and drug formation.

## Table of Contents

General Preface

Preface to Volume III: Liquid-Fluid Interfaces

Co-operation and acknowledgements

List of Frequently Used Symbols (Volumes I, II and III)

Superscripts

Subscripts

Recurrent special symbols

Some mathematical signs and operators

Latin

Greek

Chapter 1: Interfacial Tension: Measurement

1.1 General introduction to capillarity and the measurement of interfacial tensions

1.2 On the mathematics of curvature

1.3 Capillary rise

1.4 Shapes of drops and bubbles on surfaces4)

1.5 Free drops in a density gradient or electric field

1.6 Drop weight method

1.7 Maximum bubble pressure

1.8 Force required to hold objects at an interface or to pull them through it

1.9 Spinning drops and bubbles

1.10 Surface light scattering

1.11 Miscellaneous other static methods

1.12 A case study: the surface tension of water

1.12a a Room temperature

1.12b From 0° – 100°C

1.13 Measuring the surface tension of solids

1.14 Surface tensions under dynamic conditions

1.14a Pure liquids

1.14b Solutions

1.14c A note on the pristine state of LG and LL surfaces

1.15 Bending moduli

1.16 Applications

Chapter 2: Interfacial Tension: Molecular Interpretation

2.1 Introductory considerations

2.2 Thermodynamic and statistical thermodynamic fundamentals. Flat interfaces

2.3 Interfacial tension and interfacial pressure tensor1)

2.4 Interfacial tensions and distribution functions

2.5 Van der Waals theory

2.5a Some elements of van der Waals’ theory

2.5b Comments and consequences

2.5c Van der Waals theory in the Hamaker-de Boer approximation

2.6 Cahn-Hilliard theory

2.7 Interfacial tensions from simulations

2.8 The thickness of the interfacial region

2.9 Quasi-thermodynamic approaches. Effects of temperature and pressure. Corresponding states

2.9a Influence of temperature. Energetic and entropic contributions

2.9b Influence of pressure

2.9c Surface tensions as capillary waves

2.10 Lattice theories for the interpretation of interfacial tensions

2.11 Empirical relationships

2.11a Relations containing molar volumes and compressibilities

2.11b Relationships for interfacial tensions, containing geometric means

2.11c Other empirical relationships

2.12 Conclusions and applications

Chapter 3: Langmuir Monolayers

3.1 Langmuir- and Gibbs monolayers. Distinctions and analogies

3.2 How to make monolayers

3.3 Two-dimensional phases and surface pressure

3.4 Monolayer thermodynamics

3.5 Monolayer molecular thermodynamics

3.6 Interfacial rheology

3.7 Measuring monolayer properties

3.8 Case studies

Chapter 4: Gibbs Monolayers

4.1 Introduction

4.2 The surface tension of miscible binary mixtures

4.3 Dilute solutions of simple molecules

4.4 Simple electrolytes

4.5 Rheology and kinetics

4.6 Surfactants

4.7 Curved interfaces

4.8 Applications

Chapter 5: Wetting

5.1 General considerations

5.2 Thermodynamics of wetting and adhesion

5.3 The relation between adsorption and wetting. Wetting films

5.4 Measuring contact angles

5.5 Contact angle hysteresis

5.6 Line tensions

5.7 Interpretation of static contact angles

5.8 Dynamics

5.9 Porous systems

5.10 Influence of surfactants

5.11 Applications

Appendices

Appendix 1: Surface Tensions of Pure Liquids and Mixtures

a. Surface tension of some inorganic fluids

b. Surface tensions of some molten metals

c. Surface tension of some molten halides

d. Surface tensions of some low boiling point liquids.

e. Surface tensions of linear alkanes

f. Surface tensions of linear aliphatic n-alcohols

g. Surface tensions of linear aliphatic n-aldehydes

h. Surface tensions of linear n-amines.

i. Surface tensions of n-aliphatic acids

j. Surface tensions of n-aliphatic nitrites

k. Surface tensions of n-aliphatic isomers compared

l. Surface tensions of some other common aliphatic compounds

m. Surface tensions of some triglycerides

n. Surface tensions of benzene and some mono-substituted benzenes

o. Surface tensions of some other cyclic compounds

p. Surface tensions of some binary mixtures

Appendix 2

a Integral characteristic functions of flat interfaces

b Differential characteristic functions of flat interfaces

Appendix 3: Some principles of variational calculus

Appendix 4: Contact angles

a. Contact angles on metals

b. Contact angles on polymers

c. Contact angles on oxides, minerals and metalloids

Cumulative Subject Index of Volumes I (Fundamentals), II (Solid-Fluid Interfaces) and III (Liquid-Interfaces)

## Details

- No. of pages:
- 751

- Language:
- English

- Copyright:
- © Academic Press 2000

- Published:
- 10th July 2000

- Imprint:
- Academic Press

- eBook ISBN:
- 9780080507132

- Hardcover ISBN:
- 9780124605237

## About the Editor

### J. Lyklema

### Affiliations and Expertise

Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands

## Reviews

@from:REVIEWS OF PREVIOUS VOLUMES
@qu:"Lyklema is a teachers' teacher who has done an outstanding service to the profession through this volume. I recommend the volume very strongly to anyone interested in colloid and interface science."
@source:--Raj Rajagopalan, PARTICLES NEWSLETTER
@qu: "*Fundamentals of Interface and Colloid Science*" as a whole is a tremendous work, which in a consistent way covers the entire field. The five volume set of *Fundamentals of Interface and Colloid Science* is a work that ought to be at hand at every institution that carries out surface chemistry research. It is important also in these days, when information is so easily obtained through the internet, to have the fundamentals and principles complied in a consistent way by someone skilled in the art. And the author (and editor) of *Fundamentals of Interface and Colloid Science* is well suited for the task. He has been in the midst of the development of the science for half a century, he has either been engaged in or has closely followed the research in the various sub-areas, and he has acquired a broad scientific network, a range of colleagues from which the co-authors of Volumes IV and V were selected."
@source: Krister Holmberg, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, COLLOIDS AND SURFACES A, 2005