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Fundamentals of Gas Lift Engineering - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128041338, 9780128041468

Fundamentals of Gas Lift Engineering

1st Edition

Well Design and Troubleshooting

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Author: Ali Hernandez
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128041338
eBook ISBN: 9780128041468
Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
Published Date: 26th February 2016
Page Count: 980
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Fundamentals of Gas Lift Engineering: Well Design and Troubleshooting discusses the important topic of oil and gas reservoirs as they continue to naturally deplete, decline, and mature, and how more oil and gas companies are trying to divert their investments in artificial lift methods to help prolong their assets.

While not much physically has changed since the invention of the King Valve in the 1940s, new developments in analytical procedures, computational tools and software, and many related technologies have completely changed the way production engineers and well operators face the daily design and troubleshooting tasks and challenges of gas lift, which can now be carried out faster, and in a more accurate and productive way, assuming the person is properly trained. This book fulfills this training need with updates on the latest gas lift designs, troubleshooting techniques, and real-world field case studies that can be applied to all levels of situations, including offshore.

Making operational and troubleshooting techniques central to the discussion, the book empowers the engineer, new and experienced, to analyze the challenge involved and make educated adjustments and conclusions in the most economical and practical way. Packed with information on computer utilization, inflow and outflow performance analysis, and worked calculation examples made for training, the book brings fresh air and innovation to a long-standing essential component in a well’s lifecycle.

Key Features

  • Covers essential gas lift design, troubleshooting, and the latest developments in R&D
  • Provides real-world field experience and techniques to solve both onshore and offshore challenges
  • Offers past and present analytical and operational techniques available in an easy-to-read manner
  • Features information on computer utilization, inflow and outflow performance analysis, and worked calculation training examples


Production Engineers, Completion Engineers, Well Operators, Well Engineers, Well Analysts, Petroleum Engineering Students (both undergrad and graduate level)

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 1: Gas properties
    • Abstract
    • 1.1. Equation of state
    • 1.2. Gas viscosity
    • 1.3. Solubility of natural gas in water
    • 1.4. Solubility of water vapor in natural gas
    • 1.5. Hydrates
    • 1.6. Specific heat ratio
  • Chapter 2: Single-phase flow
    • Abstract
    • 2.1. Single-phase gas flow
    • 2.2. Single-phase liquid flow
  • Chapter 3: Multiphase flow
    • Abstract
    • 3.1. Qualitative aspects
    • 3.2. General quantitative aspects in multiphase flow
    • 3.3. Examples of correlations and mechanistic models developed for vertical upward multiphase flow
    • 3.4. Horizontal multiphase flow
    • 3.5. Unified models
    • 3.6. Fluid flow through annular cross-sections
  • Chapter 4: Single and multiphase flow through restrictions
    • Abstract
    • 4.1. Gas flow through restrictions
    • 4.2. Liquid flow through restrictions
    • 4.3. Multiphase flow through restrictions
  • Chapter 5: Total system analysis applied to gas lift design
    • Abstract
    • 5.1. Determination of the depth of the operating point of injection
    • 5.2. Examples of the effect that different gas lift system’s components or fluid properties might have on the liquid production of a well on gas lift
    • 5.3. Calculation examples
  • Chapter 6: Gas lift equipment
    • Abstract
    • 6.1. Gas lift valves and latches
    • 6.2. Gas lift mandrels
    • 6.3. Wireline equipment
    • 6.4. Types of completions for gas lift installations
  • Chapter 7: Gas lift valve mechanics
    • Abstract
    • 7.1. Force-balance equations for the different types of gas lift valves
    • 7.2. Calculation of the nitrogen pressure at different conditions
    • 7.3. Determination of the port and bellows areas
    • 7.4. Examples of Problems Using the Force-Balance Equations for Designing and Troubleshooting Gas Lift Installations
  • Chapter 8: Gas flow through gas lift valves
    • Abstract
    • 8.1. Use of the Thornhill–Craver equation for gas lift valves
    • 8.2. Mathematical models for the dynamic behavior of gas lift valves
    • 8.3. Use of chokes installed downstream of the seat
    • 8.4. Use of chokes installed upstream of the seat
    • 8.5. Orifice valves with special geometry seats
  • Chapter 9: Design of continuous gas lift installations
    • Abstract
    • 9.1. Determination of the operating injection point depth, target injection gas flow rate, and the liquid flow rate the well can produce
    • 9.2. Gas lift mandrel spacing procedures and valve design calculations
    • 9.3. Stability check of the gas lift design
    • 9.4. Examples of gas lift designs
  • Chapter 10: Design of intermittent gas lift installations
    • Abstract
    • 10.1. Description of the production cycle
    • 10.2. General fundamentals and implementation guidance for intermittent gas lift
    • 10.3. Types of completions for intermittent gas lift
    • 10.4. Description of pilot valves
    • 10.5. Types of control of the surface gas injection
    • 10.6. Intermittent gas lift design for simple type completions
    • 10.7. Design of accumulation chambers
    • 10.8. Simple type accumulator
    • 10.9. Inserted chambers and inserted accumulators
    • 10.10. Intermittent gas lift in dual wells
    • 10.11. Plunger-assisted intermittent gas lift
    • 10.12. General considerations for gas lift systems with wells on intermittent gas lift
  • Chapter 11: Continuous gas lift troubleshooting
    • Abstract
    • 11.1. Introduction
    • 11.2. General difficulties encountered when trying to perform troubleshooting analyses of gas lift wells
    • 11.3. Causes and corrective actions for possible failures and/or loss of lifting efficiency
    • 11.4. Methodology for troubleshooting analyses
    • 11.5. Field techniques for troubleshooting a gas lift well
    • 11.6. Automated systems to detect and analyze wells with operational problems in gas lift fields with a large number of wells (i-Field solution)
    • 11.7. Troubleshooting examples
    • 11.8. Gas lift troubleshooting guide
  • Chapter 12: Intermittent gas lift troubleshooting
    • Abstract
    • 12.1. Introduction
    • 12.2. Analysis of the operation of wells with intermittent gas injection
    • 12.3. Pressure and temperature surveys for wells on intermittent gas lift
    • 12.4. Use of sonic devices and distributed temperature sensor (DTS) using fiber optics
    • 12.5. Wellhead pressure chart interpretation
    • 12.6. Intermittent gas lift troubleshooting examples
  • Subject Index


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© Gulf Professional Publishing 2016
26th February 2016
Gulf Professional Publishing
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

Ali Hernandez

Ali Hernandez is currently a Gas Lift Specialist with Zakum Development Company. Previously, he worked for NExT (Network of Excellence in Training) with Schlumberger teaching multiple courses worldwide on gas lift, and for close to 30 years he worked for PDVSA in Venezuela as a project leader, instructor, and lead advisor and was accredited by the PDVSA Education and Training Center. Hernandez has published in multiple journals and conferences and remains very active as Chairman on the API Committee's Gas Lift Task Force. He earned a Bachelor and Masters, both in Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering from the University of Delaware.

Affiliations and Expertise

Gas Lift Specialist, Zakum Development Company, UAE

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