1. Introduction. Physical and mathematical models. Models as a management tool. Models as a scientific tool. 2. Concepts of Modelling. Elements of modelling. Modelling procedure. Classes of ecological models. Selection of model complexity and structure. Verification. Sensitivity analysis. Parameter estimation. Validation. Constraints on models. Computers and ecological modelling. 3. Ecological Modelling. Application of unit processes in ecological modelling. Physical processes. Chemical processes. Photosynthesis. 4. Conceptual Models. Application of conceptual models. Types of conceptual diagrams. The conceptual diagram as a modelling tool. 5. Static Models. Application of static models. Input/output environ analysis. Response models. 6. Modelling Population Dynamics. Basic concepts. Growth models. Interactions between population. Matrix models. Harvest models. 7. Dynamic Biogeochemical Models. Application of dynamic models. BOD/DO models. Application of hydrodynamics in biogeochemical models. Eutrophication models. Wetland models. Models in ecotoxicology. Models in toxicology. Distribution of air pollutants. Models of soil processes, plant growth and crop production. 8. Application of Ecological Models in Environmental Management. Environmental management models. Environmental problems and models. Management examples. 9. Ecosystems Characteristics and Models. Characteristic features of ecosystems. Ecosystem dynamics. Ecological models with goal functions. Application of catastrophe theory to ecological modelling. References. Index.