Fundamentals of Chemistry: A Modern Introduction (1966)

Fundamentals of Chemistry: A Modern Introduction (1966)

1st Edition - January 1, 1966

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  • Author: Frank Brescia
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323142311

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Fundamentals of Chemistry: A Modern Introduction focuses on the formulas, processes, and methodologies used in the study of chemistry. The book first looks at general and historical remarks, definitions of chemical terms, and the classification of matter and states of aggregation. The text then discusses gases. Ideal gases; pressure of a gas confined by a liquid; Avogadro's Law; and Graham's Law are described. The book also discusses aggregated states of matter, atoms and molecules, chemical equations and arithmetic, thermochemistry, and chemical periodicity. The text also highlights the electronic structures of atoms. Quantization of electricity; spectra of elements; quantization of the energy of an electron associated with nucleus; the Rutherford-Bohr nuclear theory; hydrogen atom; and representation of the shapes of atomic orbitals are explained. The text also highlights the types of chemical bonds, hydrocarbons and their derivatives, intermolecular forces, solutions, and chemical equilibrium. The book focuses as well on ionic solutions, galvanic cells, and acids and bases. It also discusses the structure and basicity of hydrides and oxides. The reactivity of hydrides; charge of dispersal and basicity; effect of anionic charge; inductive effect and basicity; and preparation of acids are described. The book is a good source of information for readers wanting to study chemistry.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    1: Introduction

    1.1 General and Historical Remarks

    1.2 Definitions of Some Chemical Terms

    1.3 The Classification of Matter; States of Aggregation


    2: Gases

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Ideal Gases

    2.3 The Law of Charles and Gay-Lussac; Absolute Temperature; V ∞ T, or V = Constant X T

    2.4 Boyle's Law; V ∞ 1/F , Or Pv = Constant

    2.5 Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures; P ∞ Ν; Ρ = Constant X N; PT = P1 + P2 + . . .

    2.6 The Pressure of a Gas Confined by a Liquid

    2.7 Avogadro's Law; V ∞ N; V = Constant X N

    2.8 Graham's Law; U ∞ L/√m; u = Constant/√m

    2.9 The Ideal Gas Law; The Mole; Gas Densities; PV = nRT

    2.10 Deviations from Ideal Behavior


    Additional Problems

    3: Aggregated States of Matter

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Solids; Methods of Investigation

    3.3 The Space Lattice; The Unit Cell

    3.4 The Tetrahedron; The Octahedron

    3.5 Real Crystals; Crystal Habits; Lattice Defects

    3.6 Liquids; Glasses

    3.7 Viscosity; Fluidity; Surface Tension; Wetting; Capillarity

    3.8 Changes of State

    3.9 Spontaneous Change; Entropy

    3.10 Liquid-Gas Interconversion; Vapor Pressure

    3.11 The Vapor Pressure of Water; Humidity

    3.12 Critical Constants

    3.13 Boiling

    3.14 Melting Point; Freezing Point; Warming and Cooling Curves

    3.15 The Phase Diagram

    3.16 Colloid.; Adsorbents


    Additional Problems

    4: Atoms and Molecules

    4.1 The Law of Conservation of Matter

    4.2 The Law of Definite Proportions

    4.3 The Atomic Theory

    4.4 The Law of Multiple Proportions

    4.5 The Law of Combining Volumes; The Avogadro Hypothesis

    4.6 Molecular Weights of Gases

    4.7 Atomic Weights from Molecular Weights; The Cannizzaro Method

    4.8 Atomic Weights from Specific Heats; The Method of Petit and Dulong

    4.9 Molecular Formulas

    4.10 Empirical Formulas; Ionic Solids

    4.11 More Accurate Atomic Weights

    4.12 Mass Spectroscopy

    4.13 Inertial and Gravitational Mass


    Additional Problems

    5: Chemical Equations and Chemical Arithmetic

    5.1 Formulas and Valence

    5.2 Nomenclature

    5.3 Chemical Equations

    5.4 Quantitative Information from Chemical Equations

    5.5 Percent Yield


    Additional Problems

    6: Thermochemistry; The First Law of Thermodynamics

    6.1 Thermochemistry

    6.2 Hess's Law

    6.3 Bond Dissociation Energy

    6.4 The Interconvertibility of Matter and Energy

    6.5 The First Law of Thermodynamics


    Additional Problems

    7: Chemical Periodicity

    7.1 Before Mendeleev

    7.2 Mendeleev; Meyer

    7.3 The Periodic Law and The Periodic Table

    7.4 The Periodicity of Valence

    7.5 The Periodicity of Chemical Properties


    8: Electronic Structures of Atoms

    8.1 Quantization of Electricity

    8.2 The Positive Ions (Positive Rays)

    8.3 The Rutherford-Bohr Nuclear Theory of The Atom

    8.4 The Nature of Light

    8.5 Spectra of Elements

    8.6 Quantization of The Energy of an Electron Associated with Nucleus

    8.7 Modification of The Bohr Theory

    8.8 Matter Waves

    Wave (Quantum) Mechanics

    8.9 The Wave Equation

    8.10 The Oscillating Electron

    8.11 The Hydrogen Atom

    8.12 Atomic Orbitals; Shells and Subshells

    8.13 Energy of an Orbital; Degeneracy; Distribution of Electrons In Atoms

    8.14 The Physical Significance of "Psi Square"

    8.15 The Sign of a Wave Function

    8.16 Representations of The Shapes of Atomic Orbitals

    8.17 Electron Revolution and Spin

    8.18 Paramagnetism

    8.19 Atomic Structure and Periodic Properties of Atoms


    Additional Problems

    9: Types of Chemical Bonds

    9.1 Lewis Symbols

    9.2 Ionic Bond

    9.3 Energetics of Formation of Ionic Solids; Born-Haber Cycle

    9.4 Ionic Crystals; Radius Ratio Rule

    9.5 Covalent Bond

    9.6 Multiple Bonds

    9.7 Multiple Bonding and Size of Atoms

    9.8 Comparison of Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds

    9.9 Polar Covalent Bonds; Electronegativity

    9.10 Exceptions To The Octet Rule

    9.11 Coordinate Covalent Bond

    9.12 Formal Charge and Oxidation Number

    9.13 Writing Lewis Structures

    9.14 Periodicity of Chemical Bonding and Oxidation Number

    9.15 Epilogue


    Additional Problems

    10: Hydrocarbons and Their Derivatives

    10.1 Bonding of Carbon

    10.2 Alkane Hydrocarbons

    10.3 Isomerism

    10.4 Nomenclature of Alkanes

    10.5 Alkenes and Alkynes; Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

    10.6 Addition Reaction of Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

    10.7 Cycloalkanes and Cycloalkenes

    10.8 Dienes; Benzene and Aromatic Compounds

    10.9 Functional Group Derivatives

    10.10 Summary


    Additional Problems

    11: The Covalent Bond

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Molecular Orbital Method

    11.3 Valence Bond Approach

    11.4 Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals

    11.5 Multiply Bonded Organic Molecules

    11.6 Hybridization of Atoms with More than an Octet of Electrons

    11.7 Relative Energy Levels of The s-p Type of Hybrid Orbital

    11.8 Localized Molecular Orbitals

    11.9 Properties of Covalent Bonds

    11.10 Resonance and Delocalized p Electrons

    11.11 Delocalization Or Resonance Energy


    Additional Problems

    12: Intermolecular Forces

    12.1 Dipole-Dipole Interaction

    12.2 Ion-Dipole Attractions

    12.3 Hydrogen Bonding

    12.4 London Forces

    12.5 London Forces and Molecular Shape

    12.6 Van Der Waals Radii


    13: Solutions

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Liquid Solutions

    13.3 Saturation: Gases in Liquids

    13.4 Saturation: Solids in Liquids Or Liquids in Liquids

    13.5 Dependence of Solubility on Temperature and Pressure

    13.6 Supersaturation

    13.7 Solubility and Molecular Structure

    13.8 Detergency

    13.9 Solid Solutions

    13.10 Measures of Composition for Solutions

    Vapor Pressures of Solutions

    13.11 General Remarks

    13.12 Raoult's Law

    13.13 Deviations from Raoult's Law

    13.14 Activity

    13.15 Henry's Law

    13.16 Vapor Pressure and Equilibrium

    13.17 Deliquescence

    Colligative Properties of Solutions

    13.18 Vapor Pressure Depression

    13.19 Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point Depression

    13.20 Osmotic Pressure

    13.21 Determination of Molecular Weights


    Additional Problems

    14: Chemical Equilibrium

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Equilibrium in Gases

    14.3 The Sulfur Dioxide-Sulfur Trioxide Equilibrium

    14.4 Change of Κ with Form of Equation

    14.5 Combination of Equilibria

    14.6 The Equilibrium Condition in Terms of Concentrations

    14.7 Principle of Le Châtelier

    14.8 Equilibrium and Catalysis

    14.9 Heterogeneous Equilibrium

    14.10 Equilibrium in Solutions

    14.11 The Distribution Law (Or Law of Partition)

    14.12 Equilibrium Calculations


    Additional Problems

    15: Ionic Solutions

    15.1 Electrical Conductance

    15.2 Colligative Properties of Solutions of Electrolytes

    15.3 Electronic Conduction

    15.4 Ionic Conduction

    15.5 Solvation of Ions

    15.6 Dielectric Constant

    15.7 Other Evidence for Ions

    15.8 Covalent Electrolytes

    15.9 Net Ionic Equations

    15.10 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations by the Ion-Electron Method

    15.11 Electrode Processes

    15.12 Electrolysis of Fused Salts

    15.13 Faraday’s Laws

    15.14 Measurement of Conductivity

    15.15 Equivalent Conductance

    15.16 Change of Equivalent Conductance with Concentration

    15.17 Strong Electrolytes

    15.18 Conductances of Individual Ions

    15.19 Association in Strong Electrolytes

    15.20 Weak Electrolytes

    15.21 Degree of Dissociation

    15.22 Activities of Electrolytes

    15.23 Activity and Interionic Forces


    Additional Problems

    16: Galvanic Cells and The Driving Force of Chemical Reactions

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Electricity From a Chemical Reaction

    16.3 A Galvanic Cell with One Solution

    16.4 Electrical Work

    16.5 Measurement of Electromotive Force

    16.6 Free Energy and Entropy

    16.7 Cells with Liquid Junctions

    16.8 Conventional Notation for Cells

    16.9 The Hydrogen Half-Cell; Concentration Cells

    16.10 The Sign of an Electrode

    16.11 The Nernst Equation

    16.12 Dependence of E.M.F. on Concentrations

    16.13 Determination of Standard E.M.F. and Activity Coefficients

    16.14 Half-Cell Potentials

    16.15 Calculation of Equilibrium Constants

    16.16 Free Energy and Equilibrium

    16.17 Predicting The Direction of a Reaction

    16.18 Oxidation and Reduction Potentials

    16.19 Decomposition Potential; Overvoltage and Polarization

    16.20 Selection of Electrode Process

    16.21 The Dry Cell and The Storage Cell

    16.22 Corrosion


    Additional Problems

    17: Acids and Bases

    17.1 Nomenclature of Oxyacids and Their Anions

    17.2 Early Definitions

    17.3 Brönsted-Lowry Concept of Acid-Base Reactions

    17.4 Amphoterism; Autoprotolysis (Self-Ionization)

    17.5 Types of Protolytic Reaction

    17.6 Protolysis in Nonaqueous Media

    17.7 Lewis Acid-Base Concept

    17.8 Examples of Lewis Acids

    17.9 Mechanism of Proton Transfer

    17.10 Energetics of Acid Dissociation

    17.11 Industrial Applications of Acid-Base Reactions


    Additional Problems

    18: Hydrides and Oxides; Structure and Basicity

    18.1 Reactivity of Hydrides

    18.2 The Periodicity of Properties of The Oxides

    18.3 Structure of Oxyanions; p-dπ Bondin

    18.4 Relationship of Structure To Acidity and Basicity

    18.5 Charge Dispersal and Basicity

    18.6 Effect of Anionic Charge

    18.7 s Character and Basicity

    18.8 Inductive Effect and Basicity

    18.9 Preparation of Acids


    19: Calculations of Ionic Equilibrium

    Acid-Base Equilibria

    19.1 The Ionization of Water

    19.2 pH and pOH

    19.3 Acidic, Basic, and Neutral Solutions

    19.4 Ionization of Weak Acids

    19.5 Ionization of Weak Bases

    19.6 Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs

    19.7 Charged Acids and Bases

    19.8 Polyprotic Acids and Bases

    19.9 Weak Acid (Or Base) in The Presence of Strong Acid (Or Base)

    19.10 Buffer Solutions

    19.11 Indicators

    Slightly Soluble Salts and Complex Ions

    19.12 Solubility Products

    19.13 Effect of Ph on Solubility

    19.14 Complex Ions

    19.15 Effect of Complex-Ion Formation on Solubility

    Calculations Using Activities

    19.16 Activity Coefficients

    19.17 Ionic Strength

    19.18 Calculation of Activity Coefficients

    19.19 Application of Activity Coefficients to Equilibrium Calculations


    Additional Problems

    20: Chemistry of the Common Cations and Anions: Background for Qualitative Inorganic Analysis

    20.1 Solubility of Salts

    20.2 Summary of Solubilities of Inorganic Salts

    20.3 Color

    20.4 Washing Precipitates; Peptization

    20.5 Qualitative Cation Analysis

    20.6 Chemistry of the Cations

    20.7 Qualitative Analysis of Anions


    Additional Problems

    21: Quantitative Analysis

    21.1 Gravimetric Analysis

    21.2 Volumetric Analysis; Titrations and Normality

    21.3 Titration Curves

    21.4 Calculation of Titration Curves

    21.5 Combined Volumetric and Gravimetric Analysis

    21.6 Precision and Accuracy


    Additional Problems

    22: Modern Approaches To Analytical Chemistry: Chromatography and Spectrometry

    22.1 General

    22.2 Criteria of Purity and Methods of Purification

    22.3 Chromatographic Methods

    22.4 Solid-Liquid Adsorption Chromatography

    22.5 Liquid-Liquid Partition Chromatography

    22.6 Gas Chromatography

    22.7 Ion-Exchange Chromatography

    22.8 Electrochromatography

    22.9 Spectrometric Methods

    22.10 an Example of Absorption Spectrometry: The Infrared Spectrum


    23: Chemical Kinetics

    23.1 Introduction

    23.2 Conditions Affecting Reaction Rates

    23.3 Theory of Reaction Rates

    23.4 Mechanism of Reaction from Rate Equation

    23.5 Molecularity of a Reaction

    23.6 Catalysis

    23.7 Half-Life for First Order Reactions

    23.8 Chain Mechanism


    Additional Problems

    24: Molecular Geometry and Bonding; Symmetry

    24.1 Introduction

    24.2 Principal Factors Determining Molecular Shape

    24.3 Principal Effect of a Lone Pair

    24.4 Molecules Whose Central Atoms Use Unhybridized p Orbitals

    24.5 Shapes of Multiple-Bonded Molecules

    24.6 Secondary Effects; Modifications in Bond Angles

    24.7 Deviated Bond Angles and Hybridization

    24.8 Molecular Shape and Dipole Moments

    24.9 Molecular Symmetry

    24.10 Stereoisomerism


    Additional Problems

    25: Transition Metal Complexes

    25.1 Complex Formation

    25.2 Coordination Number or Ligancy

    25.3 Werner's Coordination Theory

    25.4 Nomenclature

    25.5 Coordination Number and Shape

    Bonding in Transition Metal Complexes

    25.6 Valence Bond Theory

    25.7 Crystal Field Theory

    25.8 Geometrical Isomerism


    Additional Problems

    26: Reactions of Covalent Bonds

    26.1 Decomposition

    26.2 Displacement or Substitution Reactions

    26.3 Nucleophilic Displacement on a δ-Bonded Atom

    26.4 Nucleophilic Displacement on a δ-Bonded Carbon Atom

    26.5 Nucleophilic Displacement on Atoms Able to Acquire More than an Octet of Electrons

    26.6 Nucleophilic Displacement on π-Bonded Atoms

    26.7 Electrophilic Displacement on δ-Bonded Atoms

    26.8 Electrophilic Displacement on π-Bonded Atoms

    26.9 Free Radical Substitutions

    26.10 Rearrangements


    Additional Problems

    27: Metals and Metallurgy

    27.1 The Properties of Metals

    27.2 The Metallic Bond; Early Ideas of the "Electron Gas"

    27.3 The Band Theory of Metals

    27.4 Metallic Properties in Terms of the Band Theory

    27.5 Insulators and Semiconductors

    27.6 Metallic Valence

    27.7 Periodicity of Heats of Fusion and Vaporization of Metals and Nonmetals

    27.8 Periodicity of Electrical and Thermal Conductivities of Metals and Nonmetals

    27.9 Allotropy and Metallic Character

    Metallurgical Processes

    27.10 Sources of Metals: Thermodynamic Considerations

    27.11 The Winning of Metals from Ores: General Considerations

    27.12 Preliminary Physical Treatment

    27.13 Physical Concentration

    27.14 Chemical Leaching

    27.15 Roasting: Thermodynamic Considerations

    27.16 Reduction

    27.17 Electrometallurgy

    27.18 Refining: Electrolytic Method

    27.19 Refining: Nonelectrolytic Methods


    Additional Problems

    28: Nuclear Chemistry

    28.1 Radioactivity

    28.2 Nuclear Energy

    28.3 The Stability of Nuclei

    28.4 Nuclear Reactions

    28.5 Rate of Radioactive Decay Processes

    28.6 Radiochemistry

    28.7 Units for Reference


    Additional Problems

    29: Polymers

    Background and Definitions

    The Decomposition of Natural High Polymers; Monomeric Units (Mers)

    The Production of Synthetic High Polymers; C-Polymerization


    The Molecular Weight of Macromolecules

    The Orientation of Monomeric Units in Macromolecules

    Crystallinity of Polymers

    Properties of Polymers



    Appendix I: Definitions and Review of Physical Concepts

    Appendix II: Review of some Mathematical Operations

    Appendix III: Bohr Theory of the Hydrogen Atom

    Appendix IV: Fundamental Constants

    Appendix V: Vapor Pressure of Water


Product details

  • No. of pages: 832
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1966
  • Published: January 1, 1966
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323142311

About the Author

Frank Brescia

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