Fundamentals of Bionanomaterials

Fundamentals of Bionanomaterials

1st Edition - January 26, 2022

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  • Editors: Ahmed Barhoum, Jaison Jeevanandam, Michael Danquah
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128241479
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128241486

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Bionanomaterials are identified as a perfect replacement, in the quest for the search of an alternative to toxic conventional nanomaterials for biomedical applications. Bionanomaterials are the nanomaterials, that are fabricated via biomolecules or encapsulate or immobilize a conventional nanomaterial with a biomolecule. The biomolecules extracted from the microbes, plants, agricultural wastes, insects, marine organisms and certain animals are used for the formation of bionanomaterials. These bionanomaterials exhibited low or negligible toxicity towards humans, other organisms and the environment with enhanced biocompatibility, bioavailability and bioreactivity. Thus, the aim of this book is to provide an overview of various bionanomaterials, their synthesis, characterization and their application-oriented properties. The book is divided into two parts – Part 1 discusses about the bionanomaterials of exclusive natural origin, self-assembled bionanomaterials and their environmental application and Part 2 focuses on applications of distinct bionanomaterials in biomedical sciences. The ‘Chapter 1 – Bionanomaterials: Definitions, sources, types, properties, market, toxicity and regulations’ aims to provide an extensive overview of bionanomaterials, their definitions, sources, types and their properties. In addition, the toxicity of bionanomaterials and their regulations implied in recent times were also discussed. ‘Chapter 2 – Nature inspired bionanomaterials’ highlights different types of nature-inspired biosynthesized nanomaterials and their green synthesis methods, as well as some of their emerging applications, especially in the fields of nanomedicine, cosmetics, drug delivery, molecular imaging, and catalytic precursors. Further, the chapter also covers different types of bionanomaterials (e.g., viruses, protein cages, and phages) and highlights their unique properties and potential applications. ‘Chapter 3 – Culinary spices mediated biogenesis of nanoparticles for cancer and diabetes treatment’ deals with bionanomaterials synthesized by using extracts of culinary spices and its vital role in the treatment of distinct types of cancer and diabetes. In ‘Chapter 4 – Environment friendly superhydrophobic bioactive nanocoatings’, the authors have discussed the basics of exceptional water repellence behaviour and recent developments in the area of bioactive-SHC for various applications. In addition, the current and projected requirements for bioactive-SHC were also addressed. The authors of ‘Chapter 5 – Self-assembly of nanobionics: from theory to application’ reviewed, discussed, addressed and highlighted the recent advancements in bionics as an interdisciplinary field to understand the bionic materials and particles, that are mainly fabricated via self-assembly approach. In part 2, the ‘Chapter 6 – Inorganic bionanomaterials for biomedical applications’ provides an overview of inorganic bionanomaterials, its distinct types, synthesis procedures, properties and characteristics, which is essential for desired applications. ‘Chapter 7 – Polymer nanomaterials for biomedical applications’ is a comprehensive review of various polymer nanocomposite types, and further describes the synthesis, preparation, structure and biomedical application of nanocomposites. In addition, the recent developments in the field of polymer nanocomposites for biomedical applications were also discussed. ‘Chapter 8 – Lignin nanoparticles and their biomedical applications’ aims in highlighting the current trends in lignin nanoparticle depolymerization approach, focusing on microbial lignin degradation, optimization, and its biomedical applications. The authors of ‘Chapter 9 – Polymer-based nanomaterials for targeted drug delivery’ addressed the use of polymeric bionanomaterials, including hydrogels, electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds, nanocellulose, and carbohydrate nanocarriers with special emphasis to their material properties, fabrication technologies and applicability in specific targeted anatomical sites. Moreover, ‘Chapter 10 – Cationic nanoparticles for treatment of neurological diseases’ discusses about brain disorders, the role of nutraceuticals, mechanisms, delivery challenges, as well as formulation techniques and prospects of cationic nanoparticles in the therapeutic management of neuronal disorders, i.e., brain as site of drug target. Besides, ‘Chapter 11 – Carbon nanomaterials for therapeutic applications’ has highlighted the cutting-edge properties, mechanism of action, and advancements of carbon nanomaterials as drug delivery system in various diseases, such as cancer and inflammatory disorders. Further, the chapter also sheds light on the potential challenges, limitations, and future outlook for improving and growing carbon-based bionanomaterials. The final chapter ‘Chapter 12 – Liposomal bionanomaterials for nucleic acid delivery’ is a brief summary of various nucleic acid-based cationic liposomes as a potential bionanomaterial and its recent progress in the application of therapeutic nucleic acid delivery. We hope that this book will enlighten undergraduates, graduates, and industrial as well as academic researchers on the synthesis, characterization and property-oriented applications of certain exclusive bionanomaterials.

Key Features

  • Explains the major properties and characterization techniques for a range of bionanomaterial classes
  • Discusses the commercialization of different types of bionanomaterials for a variety of industry sectors
  • Highlights the challenges and interdisciplinary perspective of bionanomaterials in science, biology, engineering, medicine, and technology, incorporating both fundamentals and applications


Materials scientists and engineers

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • List of contributors
  • About the editors
  • Preface
  • Key features
  • Chapter 1. Bionanomaterials: definitions, sources, types, properties, toxicity, and regulations
  • Abstract
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Definitions of bionanomaterials
  • 1.3 Sources of bionanomaterials
  • 1.4 Types of bionanomaterials
  • 1.5 Properties of bionanomaterials
  • 1.6 Toxicity of bionanomaterials
  • 1.7 Regulations of bionanomaterials
  • 1.8 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 2. Nature bioinspired and engineered nanomaterials
  • Abstract
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Inorganic nanomaterials
  • 2.3 Organic nanomaterials
  • 2.4 Carbon nanomaterials
  • 2.5 Hybrid nanomaterials
  • 2.6 Molecular bionanomaterials
  • 2.7 Naturally inspired nanomaterials in human body
  • 2.8 Bone as natural nanomaterials
  • 2.9 Naturally inspired nanomaterials in animals, birds, and insects
  • 2.10 Naturally inspired nanomaterials in plants
  • 2.11 Naturally inspired nanomaterials in microorganisms
  • 2.12 Conclusion and remarks
  • References
  • Chapter 3. Culinary spices mediated biogenesis of nanoparticles for cancer and diabetes treatment
  • Abstract
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Overview of culinary spices
  • 3.3 Extraction of secondary metabolites from culinary spices
  • 3.4 Medicines prepared from spices
  • 3.5 Overview of nanoparticles
  • 3.6 Cancer
  • 3.7 Diabetes
  • 3.8 Future perspective and conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 4. Environmental-friendly superhydrophobic bioactive nanocoatings
  • Abstract
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Fundamentals of superhydrophobic surface engineering
  • 4.3 Bioactive additives as coating material
  • 4.4 Low surface energy nanocoating of bioactive materials
  • 4.5 Challenges in fabrication
  • 4.6 Limitations of bioactive nanocoating materials
  • 4.7 Outlook and future perspectives
  • References
  • Chapter 5. Self-assembling of nanobionics: from theory to applications
  • Abstract
  • 5.1 Introduction and definitions
  • 5.2 Types, applications, and current fields of interest
  • 5.3 Bionic particles
  • 5.4 Self-assembly and molecular self-assembly
  • 5.5 Cases of nature inspired bionic self-assembly
  • 5.6 Self-assembly of proteins and peptides
  • 5.7 Self-assembly of organic molecules and polymers
  • 5.8 Applications of self-assembled nanostructures
  • 5.9 Preparation and characterization of bionic self-assembled structures
  • 5.10 Protein-functionalized gold nanoparticles (P-Au-NP)
  • 5.11 Conclusions and future perspective
  • References
  • Chapter 6. Synthesis, properties, and biomedical applications of inorganic bionanomaterials
  • Abstract
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Classification of inorganic bionanomaterial
  • 6.3 Synthesis of bionanomaterials
  • 6.4 Structural characterizations
  • 6.5 Unique characteristics of inorganic bionanomaterials
  • 6.6 Applications of inorganic bionanomaterials
  • 6.7 Future perspective and conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 7. Polymer nanocomposites for biomedical applications
  • Abstract
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Polymeric matrices for biomedical application
  • 7.3 Nano-reinforcements
  • 7.4 Nanocomposite preparation
  • 7.5 Biomedical applications of nanocomposites
  • 7.6 Conclusion and future perspective
  • References
  • Chapter 8. Lignin nanoparticles and their biomedical applications
  • Abstract
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Lignin biodegradation
  • 8.3 Environmental factors affecting lignin biodegradation
  • 8.4 Pretreatments and molecular methods engaged in lignin biodegradation
  • 8.5 Biomedical applications of lignin nanoparticles
  • 8.6 Conclusion and future perspective
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 9. Polymer-based bionanomaterials for targeted drug delivery
  • Abstract
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Hydrogel-based polymeric bionanomaterials
  • 9.3 Electrospun nanofiber scaffolds
  • 9.4 Nanocellulose polymeric bionanomaterials in nanomedicine
  • 9.5 Nanocarriers in drug delivery systems
  • 9.6 Future perspectives
  • 9.7 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 10. Cationic nanoparticles for treatment of neurological diseases
  • Abstract
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Nutraceuticals in neurodegeneration disorders
  • 10.3 Pharmaceutical challenges with nutraceutical delivery systems
  • 10.4 Conventional delivery approaches in brain disorders
  • 10.5 Overview of lipid nanoparticles
  • 10.6 Limitations of lipid nanoparticles
  • 10.7 Role of cationic polymers in brain disease
  • 10.8 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 11. Carbon nanomaterials for therapeutic applications
  • Abstract
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 Types of carbon nanomaterials
  • 11.3 Synthesis of carbon nanomaterials
  • 11.4 Functionalization of carbon nanomaterials
  • 11.5 Drug delivery mechanism
  • 11.6 Therapeutic applications of carbon nanomaterial
  • 11.7 Cytotoxicity evaluation
  • 11.8 Future prospective and conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 12. Liposomal bionanomaterials for nucleic acid delivery
  • Abstract
  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 Liposomes: structure and composition
  • 12.3 Methods for liposome preparation
  • 12.4 Characterization of liposomes
  • 12.5 Nucleic acid as therapeutics
  • 12.6 Liposomal drug delivery
  • 12.7 Liposomal bionanomaterials: other applications
  • 12.8 Conclusion and future perspective
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 394
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2022
  • Published: January 26, 2022
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128241479
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128241486

About the Editors

Ahmed Barhoum

Dr. Ahmed Barhoum is a Senior Researcher based at the National Centre for Sensor Research, School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University, in Ireland. He is also Senior Lecturer of Nanotechnology and Head of the NanoStruc. Research Group, in the Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, in Egypt. Dr. Barhoum obtained his Ph.D. and Postdoc-fellow in Chemical Engineering from Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium. With more than 15 years of experience in materials science and nanomanufacturing engineering, his current research interests are related to developing nanostructured materials for applications in the fields of drug delivery, biosensing, energy production, and water treatment. Dr. Barhoum has won several scientific grants and prizes for his academic excellence, including a Government of Ireland Fellowship (Ireland, 2020), first place researcher prize at Helwan University, Chinese Academy of Science (China, 2019), Institut français d'Égypte (France, 2018), Research Foundation Flanders (Belgium, 2016), Research Foundation Flanders (Belgium, 2015), Medastar Erasmus Mundus (Belgium, 2012), Welcome Erasmus Mundus (Italy, 2012), Institut français d'Égypte and Campus France (France, 2012), Gold Medal from Egyptian Syndicate of Scientific Professions (2007), and Gold Medal from Helwan University (2007). He is an expert evaluator for several funding organizations, including the National Science Center (Poland), Czech Science Foundation (Russia), Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF, Switzerland), and a reviewer for over 20 peer-reviewed journals. Dr. Barhoum is also PI/Co-PI of 6 Research Projects, a member of 10 Research Projects, editor of 6 handbooks, co-author of over 80 publications, and supervising 10 Ph.D. and master’s students.

Affiliations and Expertise

Head of NanoStruc. Research Group, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Egypt; National Centre for Sensor Research, School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University, Ireland

Jaison Jeevanandam

Dr. Jaison Jeevanandam is currently working as a senior researcher in Centro De Quimica Da Madeira (CQM – Center for Chemistry), University of Madeira, Portugal. He obtained his Ph.D. in the Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science from Curtin University, Malaysia. He has experience in nanoparticle synthesis, especially in the green synthesis using plant extracts, characterization, cytotoxic analysis of nanoparticles, and in vitro analysis in diabetic models. His current research focuses on the application of nanobiotechnology in the development of nanoformulations for drug delivery systems. He has won several awards, including ‘Best teacher award 2019’ from Academy of competitive exam and research training (ACERT, Chennai), India; Gold medal in 3rd World Invention Innovation Contest (WiC) in 2017 from Korea Invention News (South Korea); Special honor of invention award, 3rd World Invention Innovation Contest (WiC) in 2017 from Toronto International Society of Innovation & Advanced Skills (TISIAS) (Canada). Dr. Jaison has authored +50 articles. Further, Dr. Jaison serves as a journal editor for Bio-integration (China) and International Archives of Biomedical and Engineering Sciences (India), as well as an invited editor for special issue in applied sciences (MDPI), Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology (Research topic coordinator) and Frontiers in molecular biosciences; and reviewer for 10+ journals.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Researcher, CQM - Centro De Quimica Da Madeira, MMRG, Universidade Da Madeira, Funchal, Madeira, Portugal

Michael Danquah

Dr. Danquah is a Full Professor, Associate Dean for the College of Engineering and Computer Science, and the Director of Chemical Engineering Program at the University of Tennessee, Chattanooga, United States. He is a Chartered Engineer (CEng), Chartered Professional Engineer (CPEng), Chartered Scientist (CSci), Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry, and a Fellow of the Institution of Chemical Engineers (IChemE). Dr. Danquah’s research focuses on the utilization of bioprocess and biomolecular engineering principles to develop emerging biopharmaceuticals, biosensing and molecular separation systems; environmental bioremediation systems; and biofuels and bio-products. Dr. Danquah’s research findings are well published and cited with over 300 peer-reviewed journal articles, book chapters, conference publications and technical reports, and a current H-index of 39. His research has also resulted in intellectual properties and patent applications, large-scale manufacturing plants, and commercialized products and formulations.

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Dean, College of Engineering and Computer Science, Director of Chemical Engineering Program, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, TN, USA

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