Fundamentals of Air Pollution - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780126665604, 9780323147675

Fundamentals of Air Pollution

1st Edition

Editors: Arthur C. Stern
eBook ISBN: 9780323147675
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1973
Page Count: 508
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Description

Fundamentals of Air Pollution focuses on air quality and the control of air pollution. This book discusses the meteorology of air pollution and the behavior of the atmosphere, which differentiates air pollution from the various aspects of environmental management and protection. Organized into four parts encompassing 28 chapters, this text begins with an overview of the gaseous composition of unpolluted air, including nitrogen, oxygen, water, argon, carbon dioxide, neon, helium, methane, hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and organic vapor. This book then differentiates the primary pollutants that are emitted directly from the source and the secondary pollutants that cause eye irritation, smog, and haze. Other chapters consider the adverse effects of air pollution to human health, environment, and economy. This book is a valuable resource to air pollution, space, atmospheric, and medical scientists, as well as environmentalists, ecologists, biologists, and meteorologists. This text will also be useful to economists, engineers, sanitarians, chemists, public administrators, educators, public relations specialists, researchers, and students.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1. Introduction

I. The Authors' Point of View

II. Units and Nomenclature

III. Problems

IV. Bibliographical Material

V. Other Literature Resources

VI. The Authors' Philosophy

References

Suggested Reading

Questions

Part I The Elements of Air Pollution

Chapter 2. Ecology

I. Air-Water-Soil Interrelations

II. Total Body Burden

III. Recycling

IV. Population

V. Nondegradation

References

Suggested Reading

Questions

Chapter 3. Air Pollution

I. Pollution

II. The Atmosphere

III. Unpolluted Air

IV. Particulate Matter

V. Sources and Sinks

VI. Receptors

VII. Transport and Diffusion

References

Suggested Reading

Questions

Chapter 4. Scales of the Air Pollution Problem

I. Local

II. Urban

III. National

IV. Continental

V. Global

References

Suggested Reading

Questions

Chapter 5. The Air Pollution System

I. Primary and Secondary Pollutants

II. Strategy and Tactics

III. Episode Control

IV. Control Strategy

V. Economic Considerations

References

Suggested Reading

Questions

Chapter 6. History of the Problem

I. Before the Industrial Revolution

II. The Industrial Revolution

III. The Twentieth Century

IV. The 1970's

V. The Future

References

Suggested Reading

Questions

Chapter 7. Air Quality

I. Averaging Time

II. Cyclic Influences

III. Measurement Systems

IV. The Arrowhead Chart

V. Air-Quality Levels

References

Suggested Reading

Questions

Chapter 8. The Chemistry of Air Pollution

I. The Periodic Table

II. Chemical Bonds

III. Gases

IV. Liquids and Solids

V. Chemical Reactions

VI. Reactions in the Atmosphere

VII. Radioactivity

References

Suggested Reading

Questions

Part II The Effects of Air Pollution

Chapter 9. Effects of Air Pollution on Inert Materials

I. Corrosive Atmospheres and Effects

II. Metals

III. Building Stone

IV. Fabrics and Dyes

V. Paper and Leather

VI. Paint

VII. Rubber

VIII. Miscellaneous Materials

References

Suggested Reading

Questions

Chapter 10. Air Pollution Effects on Vegetation and Animals

I. Air Pollution Effects on Vegetation

II. Injury versus Damage

III. Pollutant Effects on Experimental Animals

IV. Pollutant Effects on Large or Commercial Animals

V. Darwin's Missing Evidence

References

Suggested Reading

Questions

Chapter 11. Air Pollution Effects on Humans

I. Man and the Environment

II. Man versus Air Pollution

III. Air Pollution Episodes

IV. Air Pollution Epidemiology

V. Animal Experimentation

VI. Human Health

References

Suggested Reading

Questions

Chapter 12. Aesthetic Effects of Air Pollution

I. Weber-Fechner Relationship

II. Smell

III. Sight

IV. Hearing

V. Touch and Taste

VI. Public Opinion

VII. Sensory Perception

References

Suggested Reading

Questions

Chapter 13. Air-Quality Criteria and Standards

I. Air-Quality Criteria

II. Air-Quality Standards and Goals

III. Conversion of Effects Data to Criteria

IV. Conversion of Physical Criteria to Standards

V. Conversion of Biological Criteria to Standards

VI. United States National Air-Quality Standards

References

Suggested Reading

Questions

Chapter 14. Ambient Air Pollution Sampling

I. Objective and Sequence of Air Pollution Sampling

II. Sampling System for Air Pollution Concentrations

III. Static Samplers for Air Pollution Levels

IV. Statistical Approach to Air Sampling

V. Computer and Telemetering Systems

References

Suggested Reading

Questions

Chapter 15. Air Pollutant Analysis

I. Analysis of Gaseous Pollutants

II. Analysis of Particulate Pollutants

III. Experimental Methods

IV. Radioactivity Analysis

V. Continuous Air-Monitoring Systems

References

Suggested Reading

Questions

Part III The Meteorology of Air Pollution

Chapter 16. Sun, Earth, Atmosphere, Weather, and Climate

I. The Sun-Earth-Atmosphere System

II. Duration and Intensity of Sunshine

III. Composition and Dimension of the Atmosphere

IV. Size and Time Scales of Meteorology and Climatology

V. Determinants of Local Climate

VI. Other Determinants of Climate

VII. Weather versus Climate

References

Suggested Reading

Questions

Chapter 17. Radiation in the Atmosphere

I. The Black Body

II. Solar Radiation and Terrestrial Radiation

III. Absorptivity, Emissivity, and Kirchhoff’s Law

IV. Transmissivity, Depletion, and Beer's Law

V. The Estimation of Net Longwave Radiant Flux in the Lower Atmosphere

VI. The Greenhouse Effect

VII. The Radiation Inversion

VIII. Global Radiation Balance

References

Suggested Reading

Questions

Chapter 18. Atmospheric Thermodynamics

I. Thermodynamics of Dry Air

II. Thermodynamics of Moist Air

III. Lapse Rate and Vertical Stability

IV. Calculations with Surface Variables

V. Convection, Condensation, and Cloud Formation

VI. The Subsidence Inversion

VII. Potential Instability

VIII. Conservatism of Atmospheric Properties

IX. Cross-Sectional Analysis—Air Masses

X. Cross-Sectional Analysis—Dispersion of Pollutants

References

Suggested Reading

Questions

Chapter 19. Atmospheric Precipitation

I. Cloud Droplets and Fog

II. Coalescence, Drizzle, and Warm Cloud Rain

III. The Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen Process, Snow, and Cold Cloud Rain

IV. Types of Precipitation-Producing Storms

V. Scavenging of Pollutants by Precipitation

References

Suggested Reading

Questions

Chapter 20. Motion in the Atmosphere

I. The Microscale—Wind Profiles, Fluctuation, and Turbulence

II. The Microscale—Plume Behavior

III. Models of Diffusion and Dispersion from Point Sources

IV. Models of Diffusion and Dispersion from Area Sources

V. Flow around Obstacles

VI. The Mesoscale—Flow through Rough Terrain

VII. The Mesoscale—Local Wind Systems

VIII. The Macroscale—Balance of Forces and Horizontal Flow

IX. The Macroscale—Upper Air Patterns of Pressure and Wind

X. The Macroscale—Storms and Fronts

References

Suggested Reading

Questions

Chapter 21. Effects of Pollutants on the Atmosphere

I. Seeing through the Atmosphere

II. Mesoscale Topography, Pollutants, and Stagnation

III. Air Pollutants and Urban Climate

IV. Air Pollutants and Weather Modification

V. Air Pollutants and Global Climatic Change

References

Suggested Reading

Questions

Chapter 22. Studies of Air Pollution Climatology

I. Two Conceptual Models

II. Studies in Air Pollution Potential

III. Studies of Interactions between the Atmosphere and Pollutants

IV. Operational Forecasting of Air Pollution Potential

V. Undertaking Future Studies of Air Pollution Climatology

References

Questions

Part IV The Control of Air Pollution

Chapter 23. Sources of Air Pollution

I. General

II. Combustion

III. Stationary Sources

IV. Mobile Sources

V. Radioactive Air Pollution

References

Suggested Reading

Questions

Chapter 24. Emission Inventory

I. Inventory Techniques

II. Emission Factors

III. Data Gathering

IV. Data Reduction and Compilation

V. Inventory Presentation

References

Suggested Reading

Questions

Chapter 25. Source Sampling

I. General

II. Purpose

III. Statistics of Sampling

IV. Sampling Test Preliminaries

V. Calculations and Report

References

Suggested Reading

Questions

Chapter 26. Engineering Control

I. Process Change

II. Fuel Change

III. Pollution Removal

IV. Removal of Particulate Matter

V. Removal of Gaseous Pollutants

References

Suggested Reading

Questions

Chapter 27. Regulatory Control

I. Emission Limits

II. Control of New Installations

III. Control of Existing Sources

IV. Control of Mobile Sources

V. Air-Quality Control Regions

References

Suggested Reading

Questions

Chapter 28. Organization for Control

I. Functions

II. Organization

III. Finance

IV. Personnel

V. Advisory Groups

References

Suggested Reading

Questions

Appendix A. Relative Susceptibility of Plants to Various Air Pollutants

Appendix B. Pseudoadiabatic Chart

Appendix C. Psychrometric Chart

Appendix D. The Gaussian Plume Model

Basic Form of the Model

Aids to Computation

Sample Calculations

Special Forms and Conditions

Concluding Remarks

Appendix E. Wind Roses and Trajectories

Wind Roses

Construction of Trajectories

Meaning of a Constructed Trajectory

Appendix F. Symbols and Definitions

Subject Index


Details

No. of pages:
508
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1973
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323147675

About the Editor

Arthur C. Stern

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