Fundamentals of Air Pollution

Fundamentals of Air Pollution

1st Edition - January 1, 1973

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  • Editor: Arthur C. Stern
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323147675

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Description

Fundamentals of Air Pollution focuses on air quality and the control of air pollution. This book discusses the meteorology of air pollution and the behavior of the atmosphere, which differentiates air pollution from the various aspects of environmental management and protection. Organized into four parts encompassing 28 chapters, this text begins with an overview of the gaseous composition of unpolluted air, including nitrogen, oxygen, water, argon, carbon dioxide, neon, helium, methane, hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and organic vapor. This book then differentiates the primary pollutants that are emitted directly from the source and the secondary pollutants that cause eye irritation, smog, and haze. Other chapters consider the adverse effects of air pollution to human health, environment, and economy. This book is a valuable resource to air pollution, space, atmospheric, and medical scientists, as well as environmentalists, ecologists, biologists, and meteorologists. This text will also be useful to economists, engineers, sanitarians, chemists, public administrators, educators, public relations specialists, researchers, and students.

Table of Contents


  • Chapter 1. Introduction

    I. The Authors' Point of View

    II. Units and Nomenclature

    III. Problems

    IV. Bibliographical Material

    V. Other Literature Resources

    VI. The Authors' Philosophy

    References

    Suggested Reading

    Questions

    Part I The Elements of Air Pollution

    Chapter 2. Ecology

    I. Air-Water-Soil Interrelations

    II. Total Body Burden

    III. Recycling

    IV. Population

    V. Nondegradation

    References

    Suggested Reading

    Questions

    Chapter 3. Air Pollution

    I. Pollution

    II. The Atmosphere

    III. Unpolluted Air

    IV. Particulate Matter

    V. Sources and Sinks

    VI. Receptors

    VII. Transport and Diffusion

    References

    Suggested Reading

    Questions

    Chapter 4. Scales of the Air Pollution Problem

    I. Local

    II. Urban

    III. National

    IV. Continental

    V. Global

    References

    Suggested Reading

    Questions

    Chapter 5. The Air Pollution System

    I. Primary and Secondary Pollutants

    II. Strategy and Tactics

    III. Episode Control

    IV. Control Strategy

    V. Economic Considerations

    References

    Suggested Reading

    Questions

    Chapter 6. History of the Problem

    I. Before the Industrial Revolution

    II. The Industrial Revolution

    III. The Twentieth Century

    IV. The 1970's

    V. The Future

    References

    Suggested Reading

    Questions

    Chapter 7. Air Quality

    I. Averaging Time

    II. Cyclic Influences

    III. Measurement Systems

    IV. The Arrowhead Chart

    V. Air-Quality Levels

    References

    Suggested Reading

    Questions

    Chapter 8. The Chemistry of Air Pollution

    I. The Periodic Table

    II. Chemical Bonds

    III. Gases

    IV. Liquids and Solids

    V. Chemical Reactions

    VI. Reactions in the Atmosphere

    VII. Radioactivity

    References

    Suggested Reading

    Questions

    Part II The Effects of Air Pollution

    Chapter 9. Effects of Air Pollution on Inert Materials

    I. Corrosive Atmospheres and Effects

    II. Metals

    III. Building Stone

    IV. Fabrics and Dyes

    V. Paper and Leather

    VI. Paint

    VII. Rubber

    VIII. Miscellaneous Materials

    References

    Suggested Reading

    Questions

    Chapter 10. Air Pollution Effects on Vegetation and Animals

    I. Air Pollution Effects on Vegetation

    II. Injury versus Damage

    III. Pollutant Effects on Experimental Animals

    IV. Pollutant Effects on Large or Commercial Animals

    V. Darwin's Missing Evidence

    References

    Suggested Reading

    Questions

    Chapter 11. Air Pollution Effects on Humans

    I. Man and the Environment

    II. Man versus Air Pollution

    III. Air Pollution Episodes

    IV. Air Pollution Epidemiology

    V. Animal Experimentation

    VI. Human Health

    References

    Suggested Reading

    Questions

    Chapter 12. Aesthetic Effects of Air Pollution

    I. Weber-Fechner Relationship

    II. Smell

    III. Sight

    IV. Hearing

    V. Touch and Taste

    VI. Public Opinion

    VII. Sensory Perception

    References

    Suggested Reading

    Questions

    Chapter 13. Air-Quality Criteria and Standards

    I. Air-Quality Criteria

    II. Air-Quality Standards and Goals

    III. Conversion of Effects Data to Criteria

    IV. Conversion of Physical Criteria to Standards

    V. Conversion of Biological Criteria to Standards

    VI. United States National Air-Quality Standards

    References

    Suggested Reading

    Questions

    Chapter 14. Ambient Air Pollution Sampling

    I. Objective and Sequence of Air Pollution Sampling

    II. Sampling System for Air Pollution Concentrations

    III. Static Samplers for Air Pollution Levels

    IV. Statistical Approach to Air Sampling

    V. Computer and Telemetering Systems

    References

    Suggested Reading

    Questions

    Chapter 15. Air Pollutant Analysis

    I. Analysis of Gaseous Pollutants

    II. Analysis of Particulate Pollutants

    III. Experimental Methods

    IV. Radioactivity Analysis

    V. Continuous Air-Monitoring Systems

    References

    Suggested Reading

    Questions

    Part III The Meteorology of Air Pollution

    Chapter 16. Sun, Earth, Atmosphere, Weather, and Climate

    I. The Sun-Earth-Atmosphere System

    II. Duration and Intensity of Sunshine

    III. Composition and Dimension of the Atmosphere

    IV. Size and Time Scales of Meteorology and Climatology

    V. Determinants of Local Climate

    VI. Other Determinants of Climate

    VII. Weather versus Climate

    References

    Suggested Reading

    Questions

    Chapter 17. Radiation in the Atmosphere

    I. The Black Body

    II. Solar Radiation and Terrestrial Radiation

    III. Absorptivity, Emissivity, and Kirchhoff’s Law

    IV. Transmissivity, Depletion, and Beer's Law

    V. The Estimation of Net Longwave Radiant Flux in the Lower Atmosphere

    VI. The Greenhouse Effect

    VII. The Radiation Inversion

    VIII. Global Radiation Balance

    References

    Suggested Reading

    Questions

    Chapter 18. Atmospheric Thermodynamics

    I. Thermodynamics of Dry Air

    II. Thermodynamics of Moist Air

    III. Lapse Rate and Vertical Stability

    IV. Calculations with Surface Variables

    V. Convection, Condensation, and Cloud Formation

    VI. The Subsidence Inversion

    VII. Potential Instability

    VIII. Conservatism of Atmospheric Properties

    IX. Cross-Sectional Analysis—Air Masses

    X. Cross-Sectional Analysis—Dispersion of Pollutants

    References

    Suggested Reading

    Questions

    Chapter 19. Atmospheric Precipitation

    I. Cloud Droplets and Fog

    II. Coalescence, Drizzle, and Warm Cloud Rain

    III. The Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen Process, Snow, and Cold Cloud Rain

    IV. Types of Precipitation-Producing Storms

    V. Scavenging of Pollutants by Precipitation

    References

    Suggested Reading

    Questions

    Chapter 20. Motion in the Atmosphere

    I. The Microscale—Wind Profiles, Fluctuation, and Turbulence

    II. The Microscale—Plume Behavior

    III. Models of Diffusion and Dispersion from Point Sources

    IV. Models of Diffusion and Dispersion from Area Sources

    V. Flow around Obstacles

    VI. The Mesoscale—Flow through Rough Terrain

    VII. The Mesoscale—Local Wind Systems

    VIII. The Macroscale—Balance of Forces and Horizontal Flow

    IX. The Macroscale—Upper Air Patterns of Pressure and Wind

    X. The Macroscale—Storms and Fronts

    References

    Suggested Reading

    Questions

    Chapter 21. Effects of Pollutants on the Atmosphere

    I. Seeing through the Atmosphere

    II. Mesoscale Topography, Pollutants, and Stagnation

    III. Air Pollutants and Urban Climate

    IV. Air Pollutants and Weather Modification

    V. Air Pollutants and Global Climatic Change

    References

    Suggested Reading

    Questions

    Chapter 22. Studies of Air Pollution Climatology

    I. Two Conceptual Models

    II. Studies in Air Pollution Potential

    III. Studies of Interactions between the Atmosphere and Pollutants

    IV. Operational Forecasting of Air Pollution Potential

    V. Undertaking Future Studies of Air Pollution Climatology

    References

    Questions

    Part IV The Control of Air Pollution

    Chapter 23. Sources of Air Pollution

    I. General

    II. Combustion

    III. Stationary Sources

    IV. Mobile Sources

    V. Radioactive Air Pollution

    References

    Suggested Reading

    Questions

    Chapter 24. Emission Inventory

    I. Inventory Techniques

    II. Emission Factors

    III. Data Gathering

    IV. Data Reduction and Compilation

    V. Inventory Presentation

    References

    Suggested Reading

    Questions

    Chapter 25. Source Sampling

    I. General

    II. Purpose

    III. Statistics of Sampling

    IV. Sampling Test Preliminaries

    V. Calculations and Report

    References

    Suggested Reading

    Questions

    Chapter 26. Engineering Control

    I. Process Change

    II. Fuel Change

    III. Pollution Removal

    IV. Removal of Particulate Matter

    V. Removal of Gaseous Pollutants

    References

    Suggested Reading

    Questions

    Chapter 27. Regulatory Control

    I. Emission Limits

    II. Control of New Installations

    III. Control of Existing Sources

    IV. Control of Mobile Sources

    V. Air-Quality Control Regions

    References

    Suggested Reading

    Questions

    Chapter 28. Organization for Control

    I. Functions

    II. Organization

    III. Finance

    IV. Personnel

    V. Advisory Groups

    References

    Suggested Reading

    Questions

    Appendix A. Relative Susceptibility of Plants to Various Air Pollutants

    Appendix B. Pseudoadiabatic Chart

    Appendix C. Psychrometric Chart

    Appendix D. The Gaussian Plume Model

    Basic Form of the Model

    Aids to Computation

    Sample Calculations

    Special Forms and Conditions

    Concluding Remarks

    Appendix E. Wind Roses and Trajectories

    Wind Roses

    Construction of Trajectories

    Meaning of a Constructed Trajectory

    Appendix F. Symbols and Definitions

    Subject Index


Product details

  • No. of pages: 508
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1973
  • Published: January 1, 1973
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323147675

About the Editor

Arthur C. Stern

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