Fundamentals and Applications of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (SCO2) Based Power Cycles

Fundamentals and Applications of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (SCO2) Based Power Cycles

1st Edition - January 9, 2017

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  • Editors: Klaus Brun, Peter Friedman, Richard Dennis
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780081008041
  • eBook ISBN: 9780081008058

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Fundamentals and Applications of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (SCO2) Based Power Cycles aims to provide engineers and researchers with an authoritative overview of research and technology in this area. Part One introduces the technology and reviews the properties of SCO2 relevant to power cycles. Other sections of the book address components for SCO2 power cycles, such as turbomachinery expanders, compressors, recuperators, and design challenges, such as the need for high-temperature materials. Chapters on key applications, including waste heat, nuclear power, fossil energy, geothermal and concentrated solar power are also included. The final section addresses major international research programs. Readers will learn about the attractive features of SC02 power cycles, which include a lower capital cost potential than the traditional cycle, and the compounding performance benefits from a more efficient thermodynamic cycle on balance of plant requirements, fuel use, and emissions.

Key Features

  • Represents the first book to focus exclusively on SC02 power cycles
  • Contains detailed coverage of cycle fundamentals, key components, and design challenges
  • Addresses the wide range of applications of SC02 power cycles, from more efficient electricity generation, to ship propulsion


Professional engineers working on SCO2-based power cycles. Researchers in academia at postgraduate level onwards with an interest in SC02-based power cycles

Table of Contents

    • Woodhead Titles
    • List of contributors
    • The Editors
    • Foreword
    • Overview
    • 1. Introduction and background
      • Overview
      • Key Terms
      • 1.1. Introduction
      • 1.2. Overview of supercritical CO2 power cycle fundamentals
      • 1.3. Applications for sCO2 power cycles
      • 1.4. Summary and conclusions
    • 2. Physical properties
      • Overview
      • Key Terms
      • 2.1. Introduction
      • 2.2. Qualities of supercritical CO2
      • 2.3. Equations of state for calculating supercritical CO2 properties
      • 2.4. Overview of thermodynamic property trends
      • 2.5. Impurities of CO2 mixtures
      • 2.6. Summary
    • 3. Thermodynamics
      • Overview
      • Key Terms
      • 3.1. Introduction
      • 3.2. Governing relationships
      • 3.3. Analysis
      • 3.4. Example applications
      • 3.5. Conclusions
    • 4. High-temperature materials
      • Overview
      • Key Terms
      • 4.1. Introduction
      • 4.2. Thermodynamics of oxidation
      • 4.3. Investigations of high-temperature corrosion in ambient and subcritical CO2
      • 4.4. Laboratory investigations of supercritical CO2 corrosion rates and reaction products
      • 4.5. Effect of CO2 on mechanical properties
      • 4.6. Current status and ongoing supercritical CO2 work
      • 4.7. Future directions
      • 4.8. Conclusions
    • 5. Modeling and cycle optimization
      • Overview
      • Key Terms
      • 5.1. Introduction to cycle modeling
      • 5.2. Basics of cycle modeling
      • 5.3. Design point analysis
      • 5.4. Considerations for off-design modeling
      • 5.5. Advanced considerations for steady-state modeling
      • 5.6. Cycle optimization
      • 5.7. Transient code requirements
      • 5.8. Conclusion
    • 6. Economics
      • Overview
      • Key Terms
      • 6.1. Introduction (advantages and disadvantages in potential markets)
      • 6.2. Potential markets
      • 6.3. Introduction to the economics of supercritical CO2 power plants
      • 6.4. Project cost basis
      • 6.5. Summary and conclusions of supercritical CO2 power system economics
    • 7. Turbomachinery
      • Overview
      • Key Terms
      • 7.1. Introduction
      • 7.2. Machinery configurations
      • 7.3. Existing supercritical CO2 turbomachinery designs
      • 7.4. Common design attributes and components
      • 7.5. Compressor and pump design considerations for supercritical CO2
      • 7.6. Turbine design considerations for supercritical CO2
      • 7.7. Summary
    • 8. Heat exchangers
      • Overview
      • Key Terms
      • 8.1. Introduction
      • 8.2. Applications in supercritical CO2 power cycles
      • 8.3. Candidate architectures
      • 8.4. Operating conditions and requirements
      • 8.5. Design considerations
      • 8.6. Design validation
      • 8.7. Conclusion
    • 9. Auxiliary equipment
      • Overview
      • Key Terms
      • 9.1. CO2 supply and inventory control systems
      • 9.2. Filtration
      • 9.3. Dry gas seal supply and vent system
      • 9.4. Instrumentation
      • 9.5. Summary
    • 10. Waste heat recovery
      • Overview
      • Key Terms
      • 10.1. Introduction
      • 10.2. Waste heat recovery overview
      • 10.3. Waste heat recovery applications
      • 10.4. Waste heat exchanger design
      • 10.5. Economics and competitive assessment
      • 10.6. Technology development needs
    • 11. Concentrating solar power
      • Overview
      • Key Terms
      • 11.1. Motivation for integrating supercritical CO2 into CSP systems
      • 11.2. Introduction to concentrating solar power technologies
      • 11.3. Considerations for integrating supercritical CO2 with concentrating solar power
      • 11.4. Potential system designs and current research
      • 11.5. Concluding comments—role of supercritical CO2 in the future of concentrating solar power
    • 12. Fossil energy
      • Overview
      • Key Terms
      • 12.1. Introduction
      • 12.2. Indirect supercritical CO2 cycles
      • 12.3. Direct supercritical CO2 cycles
      • 12.4. Conclusions
    • 13. Nuclear power
      • Overview
      • Key Terms
      • 13.1. Benefits of supercritical CO2 cycles for nuclear power
      • 13.2. Drawbacks of supercritical CO2 cycles
      • 13.3. History of supercritical CO2 cycle development
      • 13.4. Applications to specific reactor types
      • 13.5. Example of a supercritical CO2 power cycle converter for a sodium-cooled fast reactor
      • 13.6. Transient analysis of supercritical CO2 cycles
      • 13.7. Control strategy development
      • 13.8. Examples of specific nuclear power plant transients for a sodium-cooled fast reactor
      • 13.9. Summary and closure
    • 14. Test facilities
      • Overview
      • Key Terms
      • 14.1. Introduction
      • 14.2. Sandia National Laboratories recompression loop
      • 14.3. Naval Nuclear Laboratory Integrated System Test
      • 14.4. Echogen EPS100
      • 14.5. SwRI SunShot test loop
      • 14.6. Other test facilities
      • 14.7. Future trends/conclusions
    • 15. Research and development: Essentials, efforts, and future trends
      • Overview
      • Key Terms
      • 15.1. Introduction: objectives of research and development
      • 15.2. Overall power cycle design
      • 15.3. Working fluid quality
      • 15.4. Compressors
      • 15.5. Turbines
      • 15.6. Heat Exchangers
      • 15.7. Balance of plant design
      • 15.8. Materials
      • 15.9. Conclusion
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 462
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2017
  • Published: January 9, 2017
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780081008041
  • eBook ISBN: 9780081008058

About the Editors

Klaus Brun

Dr. Brun is the Director Research & Development, Elliott Group, USA.In this position he leads an organization of over 60 engineers and scientists that focuses on research and development on energy systems, rotating machinery, and pipeline technology. Dr. Brun’s experience includes positions in engineering, project management, and management at Solar Turbines, General Electric, and Alstom. He holds seven patents, authored over 250 technical papers, and co-authored two textbooks on gas turbines. Dr. Brun won an R&D 100 award in 2007 for his Semi-Active Valve invention and ASME Oil & Gas Committee Best Paper/Tutorial awards in 1998, 2000, 2005, 2009, 2010, 2012, 2014, and 2016. He was chosen to the “40 under 40” by the San Antonio Business Journal. He is the current chair of the ASME Supercritical CO2 Power Plant committee and the past chair of the ASME-IGTI Board of Directors and the ASME Oil & Gas Applications Committee. He is also a member of the Global Power & Propulsion Society Executive Board, the API SOME, the Asia Turbomachinery Symposiums, the Fan Conference Advisory Committee, and the Supercritical CO2 Symposium Advisory Committee. Dr. Brun is the Executive Correspondent of Turbomachinery International Magazine and an Associate Editor of the ASME Journal of Gas Turbines for Power.

Affiliations and Expertise

Elliott Group, Pennsylvania, USA

Peter Friedman

Dr. Peter Friedman is a mechanical and nuclear engineer at Newport News Shipbuilding, a Division of Huntington Ingalls Industries. During a 20 year career in the United States Navy, Dr. Friedman served as a submarine officer, where his assignments included engineering department head on board the nuclear submarine, USS Hyman G. Rickover and mechanical engineering professor at the United Sates Naval Academy. Following retirement from the Navy, Dr. Friedman entered academia at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth and was elected Chairman of the Department of Mechanical Engineering. He was selected as a Legislative Fellow by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, where he advised Congressman Mike Simpson on energy and defense policy issues. Dr. Friedman earned a Bachelor's and Master's degrees in Mechanical Engineering from Georgia Institute of Technology and his PhD from Johns Hopkins University. He is a licensed professional engineer, registered in Virginia and Massachusetts.

Affiliations and Expertise

Mechanical and Nuclear Engineer, Newport News Shipbuilding, a Division of Huntington Ingalls Industries

Richard Dennis

Mr. Richard Dennis is currently the Technology Manager for Advanced Turbines and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle Programs at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). These programs are multi-million dollar per annum R&D activities managed for the US. DOE Office of Fossil Energy. The programs support university, industry and U.S. national laboratory research, development and demonstration projects. Rich has a BS and MS in Mechanical Engineering from West Virginia University. From 1983 to 1992 Mr. Dennis worked in the on-site research group of NETL where he conducted research related to pressurized fluidized bed combustion, gasification and gas stream particulate cleanup for advanced coal based power generation. From 1993 to 2000 Mr. Dennis managed contracted research for the DOE Office of Fossil Energy in advanced fossil fuel power generation including coal combustion, gasification, fuel cells, and gas turbines. In 2002 Richard was selected as the Turbine Technology Manager. In 2014 – 15 Dennis served as the technology manager for the DOE FE Advanced Combustion Systems technology area. Currently Richard is serving as the Technology Manager for Advanced Turbines and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycles programs at NETL.

Affiliations and Expertise

Technology Manager for Advanced Turbines and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle Programs, U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL)

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