Fundamental Neuroscience

Fundamental Neuroscience

4th Edition - November 6, 2012

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  • Editors: Larry Squire, Darwin Berg, Floyd E. Bloom, Sascha du Lac, Anirvan Ghosh, Nicholas C. Spitzer
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123858719
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123858702

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The fourth edition of Fundamental Neuroscience reinvents itself as an engrossing and comprehensive presentation of the discipline of neuroscience, from molecules to cognition. Thorough but succinct, and lavishly illustrated, the book builds from an introductory section that includes fundamental neuroanatomy and goes on to cover cellular and molecular neuroscience, development, sensory systems, motor systems, regulatory systems, and behavioral and cognitive neuroscience. The book has been retooled to better serve its audience in the neuroscience and medical communities. The chapters include more than 100 boxes describing clinical conditions, techniques, and other special topics. Each chapter went through a thorough review process, giving the book an evenness of tone. The chapters are authored by outstanding working scientists who are experts on the topics they cover.

Key Features

  • Selected for inclusion in Doody's Core Titles 2013, an essential collection development tool for health sciences libraries
  • 30% new material including new chapters on dendritic development and spine morphogenesis, chemical senses, cerebellum, eye movements, circadian timing, sleep and dreaming, and consciousness
  • Accompanying website for students and instructors
  • Additional text boxes describing key experiments, disorders, methods, and concepts
  • More than 650 four-color illustrations, micrographs, and neuroimages
  • Multiple model system coverage beyond rats, mice, and monkeys
  • Extensively expanded index for easier referencing


Graduate students in neuroscience, neuroanatomy and neurophysiology, and neurobiology. The secondary market for this book is researchers in neuroscience primarily, but also in the related fields of psychology, cell biology, molecular biology, genetics and any other areas of science with cross over into neuroscience research.

Table of Contents

  • List of Boxes

    Preface to the Fourth Edition

    About the Editors


    I: Fundamental Neuroscience

    Chapter 1. Fundamentals of Neuroscience

    A Brief History of Neuroscience

    The Terminology of Nervous Systems is Hierarchical, Distributed, Descriptive, and Historically Based

    Neurons and Glia Are Cellular Building Blocks of the Nervous System

    Cellular Organization of the Brain

    Organization of this Text

    This Book is Intended for a Broad Range of Scholars of the Neurosciences

    Clinical Issues in the Neurosciences

    The Genomic Inventory is a Giant Step Forward

    Neuroscience Today: a Communal Endeavor

    The Creation of Knowledge

    Responsible Conduct



    Chapter 2. Basic Plan of the Nervous System


    Evolution Highlights: General Organizing Principles

    Development Reveals Basic Vertebrate Parts

    The Basic Plan of Nervous System Connectivity

    Overview of the Adult Mammalian Nervous System


    II: Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

    Chapter 3. Cellular Components of Nervous Tissue


    Specific Examples of Different Neuronal Types


    Cerebral Vasculature


    Chapter 4. Subcellular Organization of the Nervous System: Organelles and Their Functions

    Axons and Dendrites: Unique Structural Components of Neurons

    Protein Synthesis in Nervous Tissue

    Cytoskeletons of Neurons and Glial Cells

    Molecular Motors in the Nervous System

    Building and Maintaining Cells of the Nervous System


    Chapter 5. Membrane Potential and Action Potential

    Membrane Potential

    Passive Electrical Properties of the Neuron

    Action Potential


    Chapter 6. Neurotransmitters

    Several Modes of Neuronal Communication Exist

    Chemical Transmission

    Classical Neurotransmitters

    Nonclassical Neurotransmitters

    Peptide Transmitters

    Unconventional Transmitters

    The Expanding Synapse and Gliotransmission


    Chapter 7. Release of Neurotransmitters

    Transmitter Release is Quantal

    Excitation–Secretion Coupling

    Molecular Mechanisms of the Nerve Terminal

    Quantal Analysis: Probing Synaptic Physiology

    Short-Term Synaptic Plasticity


    Chapter 8. Neurotransmitter Receptors

    Ionotropic Receptors

    G-Protein Coupled Receptors


    Chapter 9. Intracellular Signaling

    Signaling Through G-Protein-Linked Receptors

    Modulation of Neuronal Function by Protein Kinases and Phosphatases

    Intracellular Signaling Affects Nuclear Gene Expression


    Chapter 10. Postsynaptic Potentials and Synaptic Integration

    Ionotropic Receptors: Mediators of Fast Excitatory and Inhibitory Synaptic Potentials

    Metabotropic Receptors: Mediators of Slow Synaptic Potentials

    Integration of Synaptic Potentials

    Synaptic Plasticity


    Chapter 11. Information Processing in Dendrites and Spines


    Synaptic Integration in Passive Dendrites

    Synaptic Integration in Active Dendrites

    Structure and Function of Dendritic Spines

    Computations Performed by Dendrites



    Chapter 12. Brain Energy Metabolism

    Energy Metabolism of the Brain as a Whole Organ

    Tight Coupling of Neuronal Activity, Blood Flow, and Energy Metabolism

    Energy-Producing and Energy-Consuming Processes in the Brain

    Glutamate Metabolism: A Coordinated Shuttle Between Astrocytes and Neurons

    Brain Energy Metabolism at the Cellular Level

    The Astrocyte-Neuron Metabolic Unit


    III: Nervous System Development

    Chapter 13. Neural Induction and Pattern Formation

    Neural Induction

    Early Neural Patterning

    Regionalization of the Central Nervous System



    Chapter 14. Cellular Determination



    The Proneural and Neurogenic Genes

    Transcriptional Hierarchies and Networks

    Asymmetric Cell Division and Cell Fate

    Neurons and Glia

    Sensory Neurons of the Peripheral Nervous System

    The Retina

    The Spinal Cord

    Motor Neurons

    The Cerebral Cortex



    Chapter 15. Neurogenesis and Migration


    Development of the Peripheral Nervous System

    Segmental Migration of Neural Crest Cells

    Cell Migration in the CNS


    Chapter 16. Growth Cones and Axon Pathfinding

    Growth Cones are Actively Guided

    Guidance Cues for Developing Axons

    Guidance Cues and the Control of Cytoskeletal Dynamics

    Guidance at the Midline: Changing Responses to Multiple Cues

    Topographic Mapping


    Chapter 17. Synapse Formation

    Development of the Neuromuscular Synapse

    Synapse Formation in the Central Nervous System


    Chapter 18. Programmed Cell Death and Neurotrophic Factors

    Cell Death and the Neurotrophic Hypothesis

    The Origins of Programmed Cell Death and its Widespread Occurrence in the Developing Nervous System

    Functions of Neuronal Programmed Cell Death

    Modes of Cell Death in Developing Neurons

    The Mode of Neuronal Cell Death Reflects the Activation of Distinct Biochemical and Molecular Mechanisms

    Nerve Growth Factor: the Prototype Target-Derived Neuronal Survival Factor

    The Neurotrophin Family

    Neurotrophin Receptors

    Secretion and Axonal Transport of Neurotrophins and Pro-Neurotrophins

    Signal Transduction Through TRK Receptors

    Multiple Cytokines and Growth Factors Implement Neurotrophic Activities

    Programmed Cell Death is Regulated by Interactions with Targets, Afferents, and Nonneuronal Cells

    The Role of Trophic Factors and Programmed Cell Death in Neuropathology


    Chapter 19. Synapse Elimination


    The Purpose of Synapse Elimination

    A Structural Analysis of Synapse Elimination at the Neuromuscular Junction

    A Role for Interaxonal Competition and Activity

    Is Synapse Elimination Strictly a Developmental Phenomenon?


    Chapter 20. Dendritic Development

    Dynamics of Dendritic Arbor Development

    Transcriptional Control of Dendrite Development

    Extracellular Regulation of Dendritic Development

    Dendritic Development and Circuit Formation in Mammalian Retina

    Laminar Specificity in the Inner Plexiform Layer

    Activity-Dependent Dendritic Development

    The Synaptotrophic Model Of Dendrite Development

    Branch Retraction and Synapse Elimination

    Calcium-Dependent Mechanisms That Mediate Dendritic Growth

    Protein Synthesis Dependent Regulation of Dendrite Development

    Convergence And Divergence



    Chapter 21. Early Experience and Sensitive Periods

    Birdsong: Learned by Experience

    Sound Localization: Calibrated by Early Experience in the Owl

    Binocular Processing in the Mammalian Visual Cortex Depends on Early Experience

    A Sensitive Period for Shaping the Temperament of Rats

    Principles of Sensitive Period Learning


    IV: Sensory Systems

    Chapter 22. Fundamentals of Sensory Systems

    Sensation and Perception


    Peripheral Organization and Processing

    Central Pathways and Processing

    Sensory Cortex



    Chapter 23. Chemical Senses: Taste and Olfaction



    Different Odors Activate Different Combinations of Glomeruli

    Pheromone Detection


    Chapter 24. The Somatosensory System

    Peripheral Mechanisms of Somatic Sensation


    CNS Components of Somatic Sensation

    Thalamic Mechanisms of Somatic Sensation

    The Path from Nociception to Pain

    Cortical Representation of Touch


    Chapter 25. Audition

    External and Middle Ear

    The Cochlea

    The Auditory Nerve

    Central Nervous System


    Chapter 26. Vision


    Sensory Systems Detect Contrast or Change

    The Eye and the Retina

    The Retinogeniculocortical Pathway


    V: Motor Systems

    Chapter 27. Fundamentals of Motor Systems

    Basic Components of the Motor System

    Motor Programs Coordinate Basic Motor Patterns

    Roles of Different Parts of the Nervous System in the Control of Movement


    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 28. The Spinal and Peripheral Motor System

    Locomotion is A Cycle

    Connecting the Spinal Cord to the Periphery

    Spinal Interneuron Networks

    Descending Control of Spinal Circuits

    Sensory Modulation


    Chapter 29. Control of Movement

    The Medial Postural System

    The Lateral Voluntary System



    Chapter 30. The Basal Ganglia

    Anatomy of the Basal Ganglia

    Signaling in Basal Ganglia

    The Effect of Basal Ganglia Damage on Behavior

    Principles of Basal Ganglia Operation for Motor Control

    Basal Ganglia Participation in Nonmotor Functions


    Chapter 31. Cerebellum

    Cerebellar Anatomy and Circuit

    Cellular and Synaptic Performance of the Cerebellar Circuit

    Cerebellar Function


    Chapter 32. Eye Movements

    Eye Movements are Used to Stabilize Gaze or to Redirect Gaze

    The Mechanics of Moving the Eyes

    The Fundamental Circuits for Stabilizing Gaze

    The Commands for Redirecting Gaze are Formed in the Brainstem

    Gaze Movements are Controlled by the Midbrain and Forebrain

    The Control of Gaze Movements Involves Higher-Order Processes



    VI: Regulatory Systems

    Chapter 33. The Hypothalamus: An Overview of Regulatory Systems

    Historical Perspective

    Hypothalamic Cytoarchitecture

    Functional Organization of the Hypothalamus

    Effector Systems of the Hypothalamus are Hormonal and Synaptic


    Chapter 34. Central Control of Autonomic Functions: Organization of the Autonomic Nervous System

    Sympathetic Division: Organized to Mobilize the Body for Activity

    Parasympathetic Division: Organized for Energy Conservation

    The Enteric Division of the Ans: The Nerve Net Found in the Walls of Visceral Organs

    Ans Pharmacology: Transmitter and Receptor Coding

    Autonomic Coordination of Homeostasis

    Hierarchically Organized ANS Circuits in the CNS

    Perspective: Future of the Autonomic Nervous System


    Chapter 35. Neural Control of Respiratory and Cardiovascular Functions


    Where are the Neurons Generating the Respiratory Pattern?

    Discharge Patterns of Respiratory Neurons

    Models for Respiratory Pattern Generation

    Mechanoreceptors in the Lungs Adjust Breathing Pattern and Initiate Protective Reflexes


    Sensory Regulation of Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems

    Modulation and Plasticity of Respiratory Motor Output


    Chapter 36. Food Intake and Metabolism

    Caloric Homeostasis

    Role of Caloric Homeostasis in Control of Food Intake

    Central Control of Food Intake

    Neuropeptides and the Control of Food Intake


    Chapter 37. Water and Salt Intake and Body Fluid Homeostasis

    Body Fluid Physiology

    Osmotic Homeostasis

    Volume Homeostasis


    Chapter 38. Neuroendocrine Systems

    The Hypothalamus is the Central Neuroendocrine Organ

    Hypothalamic Control of Anterior Pituitary Hormones and their Regulated Functions

    Hypothalamic Control of Posterior Pituitary Hormones and their Regulated Functions

    Hormones, the Brain, and Behavior


    Chapter 39. Circadian Timekeeping


    Overview of the Mammalian Circadian Timing System

    A Hierarchy of Cell-Autonomous Circadian Oscillators

    The Molecular Basis for Circadian Oscillation is A Transcriptional Feedback Loop

    Circadian Photoreception in Mammals

    Circadian Output Mechanisms

    Diversity of Output Pathways Leading to Physiological Rhythms

    General Summary


    Chapter 40. The Neurobiology of Sleep and Dreaming

    The Two States of Sleep: Rapid Eye Movement (REM) and Non–Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) Sleep

    Neural Control of the Sleep–Wake and REM/NREM Cycles

    Systems Neuroscience of Sleep and Dreaming

    Development and Phylogeny of Sleep

    Sleep Disorders

    The Purpose of Sleep


    Chapter 41. Reward, Motivation, and Addiction

    Reward and Motivation



    VII: Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience

    Chapter 42. Human Brain Evolution

    Human Brain Evolution

    The Brains of Early Mammals

    Evolution of Primate Brains



    Chapter 43. Cognitive Development and Aging

    Brain Development

    Cognitive Development and Aging: A Life Span Perspective

    Cognitive Aging

    Pathological Processes in Cognitive Development and Aging

    Pathological Manifestations of Cognitive Aging: Dementia


    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 44. Visual Perception of Objects

    The Problem of Object Recognition

    Substrates for Object Perception and Recognition: Early Evidence from Brain Damage

    Visual Pathways for Object Processing in Nonhuman Primates

    Neuronal Properties within the Object Recognition Pathway

    Functional Neuroimaging of Object Recognition

    Perception and Recognition of Specific Classes of Objects

    Overall Summary


    Chapter 45. Spatial Cognition

    Neural Systems for Spatial Cognition

    Parietal Cortex

    Frontal Cortex

    Medial Temporal Lobe

    Spatial Cognition and Spatial Action


    Chapter 46. Attention


    Definitions and Varieties of Attention

    Neglect Syndrome: A Deficit of Spatial Attention

    Attention Affects Neural Activity in the Human Visual Cortex in the Presence and Absence of Visual Stimulation

    Single Unit Recording Studies in Nonhuman Primates Provide Convergent Evidence for A Fronto-Parietal Attentional Control System

    Attention Increases Neuronal Responses and Boosts the Clarity of Signals Generated by Neurons in Parts of the Visual System Devoted to Processing Information about Objects

    Attention Modulates Neural Responses in the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus

    The Visual Search Paradigm has been used to Study the Role of Attention in Selecting Relevant Stimuli from within A Cluttered Visual Environment

    Where is the Computational Bottleneck as Revealed by Search Tasks?

    Neuronal Receptive Fields are A Possible Neural Correlate of Limited Capacity

    Filtering of Unwanted Information in Humans

    Competition can be Biased by Nonspatial Feedback



    Chapter 47. Learning and Memory: Basic Mechanisms

    Paradigms have been Developed to Study Associative and Nonassociative Learning

    Invertebrate Studies: Key Insights from Aplysia into Basic Mechanisms of Learning

    Vertebrate Studies: Long-Term Potentiation

    Long-Term Depression

    How Does a Change in Synaptic Strength Store a Complex Memory?


    Chapter 48. Learning and Memory: Brain Systems


    Behavior Supported by Multiple Memory Systems



    Chapter 49. Language

    Animal Communication

    Human Language

    Neural Organization for Language



    Chapter 50. The Prefrontal Cortex and Executive Brain Functions


    Anatomy and Organization of the Prefrontal Cortex

    Effects of Damage to the Prefrontal Cortex in Humans

    Neuroimaging Studies and PFC

    Effects of Damage to the Prefrontal Cortex in Monkeys

    Neurophysiology of the Prefrontal Cortex

    Theories of Prefrontal Cortex Function


    Chapter 51. The Neuroscience of Consciousness

    What Phenomena does Consciousness Encompass?

    The Neurobiology of Free Will

    Consciousness in other Species

    Arousal and States of Consciousness

    The Neuronal Correlates of Consciousness

    The Neuronal Basis of Perceptual Illusions

    Perceptual Puzzles of Contemporary Interest

    Forward Versus Feedback Projections

    An Information-Theoretical Theory of Consciousness




Product details

  • No. of pages: 1152
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2012
  • Published: November 6, 2012
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123858719
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123858702

About the Editors

Larry Squire

Affiliations and Expertise

University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA

Darwin Berg

Affiliations and Expertise

University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA

Floyd E. Bloom

Affiliations and Expertise

Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA

Sascha du Lac

Affiliations and Expertise

The Salk Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA

Anirvan Ghosh

Affiliations and Expertise

University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA

Nicholas C. Spitzer

Affiliations and Expertise

University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA

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  • Alexandre V. Sun Oct 10 2021

    Great book

    Great content. It explains several fundamental and advanced concepts very well. Great pictures also.