Functional Neural Transplantation III

Functional Neural Transplantation III

Primary and Stem Cell Therapies for Brain Repair, Part II

1st Edition - December 13, 2012

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  • Editors: Stephen B Dunnett, Anders Bjorklund
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444595454
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444595447

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This issue of Progress in Brain Research is split over 2 volumes, bringing together cutting-edge research on Functional Neural Transplantation. The 2 volumes review current knowledge and understanding, provide a starting point for researchers and practitioners entering the field, and build a platform for further research and discovery.

Key Features

  • Leading authors review the state-of-the-art in their field of investigation, and provide their views and perspectives for future research
  • Chapters are extensively referenced to provide readers with a comprehensive list of resources on the topics covered
  • All chapters include comprehensive background information and are written in a clear form that is also accessible to the non-specialist


Neuroscientists, psychologists, neurologists

Table of Contents

  • Advisory Editors


    Chapter 1. Introduction (Part II)


    Chapter 2. Transplantation in the future

    1 Constraints

    2 Future directions

    Chapter 3. Neural differentiation and support of neuroregeneration of non-neural adult stem cells


    1 Introduction

    2 Adult non-neural stem cells

    3 Bone marrow cells/umbilical cord blood cells

    4 Endothelial cells/endothelial progenitor cells

    5 Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells

    6 Adult stem cells with greater potency

    7 Adult stem cell grafts for stroke

    8 Conclusions


    Chapter 4. Stem cell repair of striatal ischemia

    1 Introduction

    2 Transplantation of NSPCs in stroke

    3 Endogenous neural stem cells in stroke

    4 Conclusions


    Chapter 5. In vivo imaging of cell transplants in experimental ischemia


    1 Introduction

    2 Cell tracking by MRI

    3 Cell tracking by OI

    4 Cell tracking by PET

    5 Multimodal cell tracking approaches

    6 Conclusions


    Chapter 6. Bone marrow stem cells in experimental stroke

    1 Introduction

    2 The impact of MSC transplantation in experimental stroke models: structural and functional changes

    3 Intravenous delivery of human MSCs in a nonhuman primate model of stroke as a prelude to Phase I human clinical study

    4 Clinical studies in stroke patients utilizing intravenously applied hMSCs

    5 Prospects


    Further reading

    Chapter 7. Advantages and challenges of alternative sources of adult-derived stem cells for brain repair in stroke

    1 Introduction

    2 Adult stem cells

    3 Neural stem cells

    4 Mesenchymal stromal cells

    5 Extraembryonic tissue stem cells

    6 Umbilical cord blood

    7 Adipose tissue

    8 Menstrual blood

    9 Breast milk

    10 Teeth

    11 Induced pluripotent stem cells

    12 Autologous versus allogeneic

    13 Co-transplantation and combination therapy

    14 Other factors

    15 Mode of action

    16 Conclusions


    Chapter 8. Prospects for stem cell-derived therapy in stroke


    1 Introduction

    2 Early clinical experience

    3 Trials using neural cells

    4 Trials using bone marrow-derived cells

    5 Trials using autologous mesenchymal or marrow stromal cells

    6 Increasing translational success for future clinical application

    7 Current clinical products and approaches

    8 Current cell therapies targeting the acute phase

    9 Cell therapies targeting the subacute phase

    10 Cell therapies targeting chronic stroke

    11 Factors to enhance endogenous stem cell therapy

    12 Cell delivery approaches

    13 Patient selection

    14 Clinical trial development

    15 Future prospects


    Chapter 9. Generation of retinal cells from pluripotent stem cells

    1 Introduction

    2 Embryogenesis and retinal development

    3 Induction of retinal progenitors from pluripotent stem cells

    4 Directed differentiation of mature retinal photoreceptor cells

    5 Generation of retinal pigment epithelial cells

    6 Differentiation of other types of retinal neural cells

    7 Producing three-dimensional retinal tissue

    8 Perspective on pluripotent stem cell-derived retinal cells


    Chapter 10. Generation of cortical neurons from pluripotent stem cells

    1 Introduction

    2 A primitive pathway of specification of the forebrain/telencephalon

    3 Modulating dorsoventral identity and neuronal specification

    4 Generation of a diverse array of pyramidal neurons in vitro

    5 Specification of cortical areal identity from ESCs: Surprising insights from in vivo transplantation

    6 Corticogenesis from pluripotent stem cells: perspectives and challenges for models of disease and brain repair


    Chapter 11. Repair involves all three surfaces of the glial cell

    1 Three surfaces of glia

    2 Responses to injury

    3 The olfactory system

    4 Repair by OEC transplants

    5 The pathway hypothesis


    Chapter 12. Current status of myelin replacement therapies in multiple sclerosis

    1 Inflammatory destruction of central nerve cables

    2 Myelin maintains axonal integrity

    3 Obstacles facing remyelination

    4 Regenerative medicine in MS

    5 Exogenous cell therapy

    6 Endogenous cell therapy

    7 Future outlook


    Chapter 13. Stem cell-based treatments for spinal cord injury

    1 Introduction

    2 Epidemiology

    3 Pathogenesis

    4 Stem cells

    5 Embryonic stem cells

    6 Oligodendrocyte progenitors cells

    7 Motor neuron progenitors

    8 Neural stem cells

    9 Mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cells

    10 Purity

    11 Challenges for clinical translation

    12 Regulatory agencies


    Chapter 14. The challenges of long-distance axon regeneration in the injured CNS


    1 Spinal cord injury demographics and general information

    2 Pathology of SCI: Acute

    3 Pathology of SCI: Subacute/chronic

    4 Cases of successful CNS regeneration

    5 Extrinsic factors that impede axon regeneration in the injury spinal cord

    6 Intrinsic factors that limit the neuronal growth response after injury

    7 Conclusions


    Chapter 15. Schwann cell transplantation

    1 Introduction

    2 Earlier studies of SC transplantation

    3 More recent SC transplantation studies

    4 The SC graft/host spinal cord interface


    Chapter 16. Generation of motor neurons from pluripotent stem cells

    1 Introduction

    2 Toward the genesis of motor neurons from stem cells

    3 Derivation of motor neurons from ES cells

    4 iPS cell-derived motor neurons

    5 Direct conversion of fibroblasts into induced motor neurons

    6 Summary and future directions



    Chapter 17. Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells in ALS

    1 Introduction

    2 Stem cell transplantation as a therapeutic strategy

    3 Growth factors and ALS

    4 Mesenchymal stem cells

    5 Translation into the clinic

    6 Allogenic versus autologous MSCs for transplantation

    7 Characterization and manufacture of cell product for transplantation

    8 How to get cells where they are needed?

    9 Intraparenchymal delivery

    10 Intramuscular grafting

    11 MSCs as immunomodulatory agents: Intravenous and intrathecal delivery

    12 How many cells need to be injected?

    13 Clinical trial design

    14 Conclusions



    Combined Index

    Volume in Series

Product details

  • No. of pages: 408
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2012
  • Published: December 13, 2012
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444595454
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444595447

About the Serial Volume Editors

Stephen B Dunnett

Dunnett is a behavioural neuroscientist who started a lifelong collaboration with the Björklund team in 1979 to explore the functional consequences of cell transplantation method in animal models of neurodegenerative disease, in particular involving cell replacement and repair of the basal ganglia. He has developed models and novel methods of motor and cognitive assessment to apply behavioural analysis not simply to assess functional efficacy of implanted cells, but as a tool to study the mechanisms of cell integration, circuit reconstruction and functional repair. In parallel his laboratory originated the first UK trial of cell transplantation in Huntington’s disease, and provides the source of clinical grade cells for further ongoing trials in Parkinson’s disease.

Affiliations and Expertise

Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK

Anders Bjorklund

As a neuroanatomist and developmental neurobiologist, during the 1970s Björklund’s lab originated reliable methods for transplantation of embryonic tissues into brain that pioneered practical cell transplantation in the central nervous system, providing the basis for technologies that are now used by laboratories world-wide. In parallel, work in the field has progressed from basic anatomical and developmental studies in experimental animals, via applications for assessing cell replacement and repair using primary and stem cells in the damaged brain, and now underpinning the majority of methods in development for cell therapy in patients. His laboratory continues to analyse the fundamental neurobiology and principles of cell transplantation, regeneration and integration in the CNS, as well as originating the first trials of effective clinical cell transplantation (for Parkinson’s disease) in patients

Affiliations and Expertise

Lund University, Lund, Sweden

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