Functional Materials for Sustainable Energy Applications - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780857090591, 9780857096371

Functional Materials for Sustainable Energy Applications

1st Edition

Editors: J A Kilner S J Skinner S J C Irvine P P Edwards
Hardcover ISBN: 9780857090591
eBook ISBN: 9780857096371
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 28th September 2012
Page Count: 708
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Table of Contents

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Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy


Part I: Functional materials for solar power

Chapter 1: Silicon-based photovoltaic solar cells


1.1 Introduction

1.2 Polysilicon production

1.3 Crystallisation and wafering

1.4 Solar cells: materials issues and cell architectures

1.5 Conclusions

Chapter 2: Photovoltaic (PV) thin-films for solar cells


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Amorphous silicon thin-film photovoltaic (PV)

2.3 Cadmium telluride thin-film PV

2.4 Copper indium diselenide thin-film PV

2.5 Materials sustainability

2.6 Future trends

2.7 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 3: Rapid, low-temperature processing of dye-sensitized solar cells


3.1 Introduction to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs)

3.2 Manufacturing issues

3.3 Sensitization

3.4 Electrodes

3.5 Electrolyte

3.6 Quality control (QC)/lifetime testing

3.7 Conclusions and future trends

3.8 Acknowledgements

Chapter 4: Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices: introduction and modelling


4.1 Introduction to thermophotovoltaics (TPVs)

4.2 Practical TPV cell performance

4.3 Modelling TPV cells

4.4 Tandem TPV cells

4.5 Conclusions

Chapter 5: Photoelectrochemical cells for hydrogen generation


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Photoelectrochemical cells: principles and energetics

5.3 Photoelectrochemical cell configurations and efficiency considerations

5.4 Semiconductor photoanodes: material challenges

5.5 Semiconductor photocathodes: material challenges

5.6 Advances in photochemical cell materials and design

5.7 Interfacial reaction kinetics

5.8 Future trends

5.9 Acknowledgements

5.11 Appendix: abbreviations

Part II: Functional materials for hydrogen production and storage

Chapter 6: Reversible solid oxide electrolytic cells for large-scale energy storage: challenges and opportunities


6.1 Introduction to reversible solid oxide cells

6.2 Operating principles and functional materials

6.3 Degradation mechanisms in solid oxide electrolysis cells

6.4 Research needs and opportunities

6.5 Summary and conclusions

Chapter 7: Membranes, adsorbent materials and solvent-based materials for syngas and hydrogen separation


7.1 Introduction

7.2 H2-selective membrane materials

7.3 CO2-selective membrane materials

7.4 Adsorbent materials for H2/CO2 separation

7.5 Solvent-based materials for H2/CO2 separation

7.6 Future trends

7.7 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 8: Functional materials for hydrogen storage


8.1 Introduction

8.2 Hydrogen storage with metal hydrides: an introduction

8.3 Hydrogen storage with interstitial hydrides, AlH3 and MgH2

8.4 Hydrogen storage with complex metal hydrides

8.5 Hydrogen storage using other chemical systems

8.6 Hydrogen storage with porous materials and nanoconfined materials

8.7 Applications of hydrogen storage

8.8 Conclusions

Part III: Functional materials for fuel cells

Chapter 9: The role of the fuel in the operation, performance and degradation of fuel cells


9.1 Introduction

9.2 Thermodynamics of fuel cell operation and the effect of fuel on performance

9.3 Hydrocarbon fuels and fuel processing

9.4 Methanol

9.5 Other fuels

9.6 Deleterious effects of fuels on fuel cell performance

9.7 Conclusions

9.8 Acknowledgements

Chapter 10: Membrane electrode assemblies for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells


10.1 Introduction

10.2 Requirements for membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs)

10.3 Porous backing layer materials

10.4 Membrane materials

10.5 MEA electrode catalyst layer

10.6 MEA performance

10.7 Conclusions

Chapter 11: Developments in membranes, catalysts and membrane electrode assemblies for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs)


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Historica! development and technical challenges

11.3 Methanol oxidation reaction catalysts

11.4 Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts

11.5 Proton exchange membranes

11.6 Membrane electrode assembly (MEA) fabrication and structure

11.7 Conclusions and future trends

11.8 Acknowledgements

Chapter 12: Electrolytes and ion conductors for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs)


12.1 Introduction

12.2 Oxide ion conduction

12.3 Electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs)

12.4 Preparation and characterization of electrolyte materials for SOFCs

12.5 Conclusions

Chapter 13: Novel cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells


13.1 Introduction

13.2 The oxygen reduction reaction in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and implications for cathode materials

13.3 Conventional cathode materials: perovskitetype oxides

13.4 Innovative cathode materials: structural aspects of 2D non-stoichiometric perovskite-related oxides

13.5 Comparative transport properties and electrochemical performances of 2D non-stoichiometric oxides

13.6 Ln2NiO4 + δ oxides: innovative and flexible materials for air electrodes of protonic ceramic fuel cells (PCFCs) and electrolyzers

13.7 Prospective conclusions

Chapter 14: Novel anode materials for solid oxide fuel cells


14.1 Introduction

14.2 Requirements for solid oxide fuel cell anode materials

14.3 Cermet solid oxide fuel cell anode materials

14.4 Perovskite-structured solid oxide fuel cell anode materials

14.5 Other oxide anode materials

14.6 Non-oxide anode materials

14.7 Poisoning of solid oxide fuel cell anode materials

14.8 Conclusions and future trends

Chapter 15: Thin-film solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) materials


15.1 Introduction

15.2 Electrolytes

15.3 Anode materials

15.4 Cathode materials

15.5 Device structures

15.6 Conclusions

15.7 Acknowledgments

15.9 Appendix: glossary

Chapter 16: Proton conductors for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs)


16.1 The proton conduction mechanism in high-temperature proton conductor (HTPC) electrolytes

16.2 Reaction processes at the electrode/electrolyte when using HTPC electrolytes

16.3 HTPC: the state of the art and challenges

16.4 Electrodes for HTPC electrolytes: the state of the art and challenges

16.5 Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) based on HTPC electrolytes: current status and future perspectives

16.6 Conclusions

Part IV: Functional materials for demand reduction and energy storage

Chapter 17: Materials and techniques for energy harvesting


17.1 Introduction

17.2 Theory of motion energy harvesting

17.3 Piezoelectric harvesting

17.4 Electrostatic harvesting

17.5 Thermoelectric harvesting

17.6 Electromagnetic energy harvesting from motion

17.7 Suspension materials for motion energy harvesting

Chapter 18: Lithium batteries: current technologies and future trends


18.1 Introduction

18.2 Lithium-ion batteries

18.3 Safety of lithium-ion batteries

18.4 Energy density of lithium-ion batteries

18.5 Future trends

18.6 Acknowledgements

Chapter 19: Rare-earth magnets: properties, processing and applications


19.1 Introduction

19.2 Properties of permanent magnetic materials

19.3 Improving the properties of permanent magnetic materials

19.4 Processing of permanent magnets

19.5 Properties of commercially manufactured permanent magnets

19.6 Applications of permanent magnet materials

Part V: Appendix

Atomic-scale computer simulation of functional materials: methodologies and applications



Global demand for low cost, efficient and sustainable energy production is ever increasing. Driven by recent discoveries and innovation in the science and technology of materials, applications based on functional materials are becoming increasingly important. Functional materials for sustainable energy applications provides an essential guide to the development and application of these materials in sustainable energy production.

Part one reviews functional materials for solar power, including silicon-based, thin-film, and dye sensitized photovoltaic solar cells, thermophotovoltaic device modelling and photoelectrochemical cells. Part two focuses on functional materials for hydrogen production and storage. Functional materials for fuel cells are then explored in part three where developments in membranes, catalysts and membrane electrode assemblies for polymer electrolyte and direct methanol fuel cells are discussed, alongside electrolytes and ion conductors, novel cathodes, anodes, thin films and proton conductors for solid oxide fuel cells. Part four considers functional materials for demand reduction and energy storage, before the book concludes in part five with an investigation into computer simulation studies of functional materials.

With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Functional materials for sustainable energy applications is an indispensable tool for anyone involved in the research, development, manufacture and application of materials for sustainable energy production, including materials engineers, scientists and academics in the rapidly developing, interdisciplinary field of sustainable energy.

Key Features

  • An essential guide to the development and application of functional materials in sustainable energy production
  • Reviews functional materials for solar power
  • Focuses on functional materials for hydrogen production and storage, fuel cells, demand reduction and energy storage


Materials engineers, PV/H2/FC/thin fim/nanotechnology researchers, developers and manufacturers; researchers, scientists and academics in this field; anyone involved or interested in functional materials science or research and development


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About the Editors

J A Kilner Editor

John Kilner is B. C. H. Steele Professor of Energy Materials at Imperial College London, UK.

S J Skinner Editor

Stephen Skinner is Reader in Materials Chemistry at Imperial College London, UK.

Affiliations and Expertise

Imperial College

S J C Irvine Editor

Stuart Irvine is Research Professor in Opto-electronic Materials for Solar Energy at Glyndwr University, UK.

Affiliations and Expertise

Glyndwr University

P P Edwards Editor

Peter Edwards is Professor and Head of Inorganic Chemistry at the University of Oxford, UK.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Oxford, UK