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From Pixels to Animation - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122497100, 9781483265681

From Pixels to Animation

1st Edition

An Introduction to Graphics Programming

Author: James Alan Farrell
eBook ISBN: 9781483265681
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1994
Page Count: 692
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From Pixels to Animation: An Introduction to Graphics Programming deals with the C programming language, particularly for the Borland C and Microsoft C languages. The book reviews the basics of graphics programming, including graphics hardware, graphs, charts, changing colors, 3D graphics, high level functions provided by Borland and Microsoft C. The text also explains low-level graphics, getting around the limitations of standard, graphics libraries, SVGA programming, and creating graphics functions. Advanced topics include linear transformations, ray tracing, and fractals. The book explains in detail the aspect ratio of pixels (length of the pixel dot divided by its width), pixel colors, line styles, and the functions to create the graphic. The text also describes the presentation of a three-dimensional object by using perspective, shading, and texturing. Between the operating system, which carries out the instruction of the program, and the hardware, which displays the output of the program, is the Basic Input/Output Services (BIOS). The BIOS is a set of routine instruction inside the different parts or hardware devices in the computer. The book explains programing animation effects by utilizing routines provided by Microsoft or Borland. The text also notes that a programmer can create good animation effects by directly addressing the graphics adapter, bypassing the BIOS or the high-level routines created by Microsoft or Borland. The book is suitable for beginning programmers, computer science, operators, animators, and artists involved with computer aided designs.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1 Graphics Displays


The Basic Monochrome Monitor

Pixels and the Frame Buffer

Other Things that are Good to Know

A More Advanced Monochrome Monitor

Dot Pitch

Color Monitors

Color Mixing

Additive and Subtractive Color Mixing

How Color Monitors Work

Color Palettes and the Color Frame Buffer

IBM PC Monitors

The Hercules Monitor

The CGA Monitor

The EGA Monitor

The MCGA Monitor

The VGA Monitor

SVGA Monitors

Chapter 2 The Borland Graphics Interface

Setting Up to do Graphics

Initgraph( ) and Detectgraph( )

Graphresult( ) and Grapherrormsg( )

Getgraphmode( ), Setgraphmode( )

Closegraph( )

Graphics Primitives

Pixels and Putpixel( )

Getmaxx( ), Getmaxy( ) and Getmaxcolor( )

Cleardevice( )


Lineto( ), Linerel( ), Moveto( ), Moverel( )

Circles, Ellipses, Arcs, and Sectors

Drawpoly( ) and Rectangle( )

More Advanced Primitives

Line Styles

Filling Things: Fillpoly( ), Fillellipse( ), Floodfill( )

Changing Fill Styles and the Fill Color

Linking .BGI Files into a Program


Methods of Linking

Chapter 3 Text in Graphics Modes


Borland Supplied Fonts






Creating New Fonts

Creating a Bitmapped Font

Creating a Stroked Font

Chapter 4 Microsoft C Graphics

Setting Up to do Graphics

_Setvideomode( ) and _Getvideoconfig( )

Graphics Primitives

_Setpixel( ), _Setcolor( )

Viewports and Windows

_Clearscreen( )

Drawing Lines

Drawing Circles, Ellipses, Arcs, and Pie Slices

Drawing Rectangles and Polygons

Patterned Lines

Filling Shapes

Text in Graphics Mode

Registering Fonts

Setting the Current Font

Writing Text in Graphics Mode

Chapter 5 Graphs and Charts

Graphing Data

Cartesian Coordinates

Polar Coordinates

Drawing Charts

Bar Charts

Pie Charts

Chapter 6 Color Models and Programming Colors

Color Mixing and Color Models

The CMY and RGB Color Models

Other Color Models

Changing the Palette

The VGA Monitor

Half-Toning and Dithering



Programming the CGA

Chapter 7 Three-Dimensional Graphics


Projecting a 3D Image Onto a 2D Screen

Single Vanishing Point Perspective

Double Vanishing Point Perspective



Texturing and Reflection

Texturing and Perspective

Chapter 8 The BIOS Graphics Interface


Layers of DOS

Communicating with DOS and BIOS

BIOS Interrupt 0x10 Graphics Services

Setting Pixels Using BIOS

Clearing the Screen using BIOS

Changing Color Palettes Using BIOS

Chapter 9 SVGA Programming


SVGA Graphics Modes

SVGA BIOS Interrupts

SVGA BIOS Service 0x00—Return SVGA Information

SVGA BIOS Service 0x01—Return Mode Information

SVGA BIOS Service 0x02—Setting the Video Mode

Plotting Pixels on SVGA Monitors

The SVGA Library

Functions in SVGALib

Inside SVGALib

Global Variables

SVGALib Functions

Chapter 10 Creating Your Own Graphics Primitives

Drawing Lines

The Obvious Method

Bresenham's Method

Drawing Circles

Drawing Ellipses

Drawing Arcs

Chapter 11 Filling Primitives

SVGA_Set_Fil_Pattern( )

The Fill_Line( ) Function

SVGA_Fill_Rectangle( ) and SVGA_Fill_Ellipse( )

SVGA_Floodfill( )

SVGA_Polyfill( )

Chapter 12 Animation

Simple Animation

Using Getimage( ) and Putimage( ) for Animation

Using Paging

Animation by Manipulating Colors

Chapter 13 Linear Transformations in Computer Graphics

Matrices for C Programmers

Linear Transformations in Graphics

An Example: Rotating an Ellipse

Other Transformations


Rotation with a 3 x 3 Matrix


Shear in X

Shear in Y

Mirror Across the X Axis

Mirror Across the Y Axis

Mirror Across Both Axes


Chapter 14 Ray Tracing

Theory of Ray Tracing

Tracing a Ray in Two Dimensions

3D Cartesian Geometry

3D Coordinate Space

Lines in 3 Dimensions

Surfaces in 3 Dimensions

Ellipses in 3 Dimensions


Ray Tracing in 3 Dimensions

Representing a 3D World in the Computer

Practical Concerns

Other Suggestions

Chapter 15 Fractals

The History of Fractals

Problems with Conventional Math

Fractional Dimensions

Cellular Automata


The Mandelbrot Set


Practical Fractals

A Simplified Symmetric Tree

A Less Simplified Asymmetric Tree

A Surprisingly Realistic Tree

A Windblown Tree

Other Shapes

How Fractals Model Nature

Iterated Function Systems

Sierpinsky's Triangle Again

A Deeper look at Self-Similarity

The Iterated Function System

Appendix A Borland Graphies Interface

Appendix B Microsoft Graphies Functions

Appendix C SVGALib Constants and Functions

Appendix D Interrupt 0x10, BIOS Graphies Interface

Appendix E VESA VBE 1.2 SVGA Data Structures and Functions

Appendix F PC Monitor Modes

Appendix G Mouse BIOS Functions

Appendix H IBM PC Extended ASCII Codes

Appendix I The IBM PC Keyboard



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© Academic Press 1994
1st January 1994
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

James Alan Farrell

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