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From an Antagonistic to a Synergistic Predator Prey Perspective - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124170162, 9780124201118

From an Antagonistic to a Synergistic Predator Prey Perspective

1st Edition

Bifurcations in Marine Ecosystem

Author: Tore Johannessen
eBook ISBN: 9780124201118
Paperback ISBN: 9780124170162
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 11th March 2014
Page Count: 228
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From an Antagonistic to a Synergistic Predator Prey Perspective: Bifurcations in Marine Ecosystems is a groundbreaking reference that challenges the widespread perception that predators generally have a negative impact on the abundance of their prey, and it proposes a novel paradigm — Predator-prey Synergism — in which both predator and prey enhance abundance by their co-existence. Using this model, the text explains a number of issues that appear paradoxical in the case of a negative predator-prey relationship, including observed ecosystem bifurcations (regime shifts), ecosystem resilience, red tides in apparently nutrient depleted water, and the dominance of grazed phytoplankton over non-grazed species under high grazing pressure. This novel paradigm can also be used to predict the potential impact of global warming on marine ecosystems, identify how marine ecosystem may respond to gradual environmental changes, and develop possible measures to mitigate the negative impact of increasing temperature in marine ecosystems. This book approaches the long-standing question of what generates recruitment variability in marine fishes and invertebrates in an engaging and unique way that students and researchers in marine ecosystems will understand.

Key Features

  • Introduces a new paradigm, Predator-prey Synergism, as a building block on which to construct new ecological theories. It suggests that Predator-prey Synergism is important in some terrestrial ecosystems and is in agreement with the punctuated equilibria theory of evolution (i.e., stepwise evolution).
  • Suggests a general solution to the recruitment puzzle in marine organisms
  • Proposes a holistic hypothesis for marine spring blooming ecosystems by considering variability enhancing and variability dampening processes
  • Asserts that fisheries will induce variability in marine ecosystems and alter the energy flow patterns in predictable ways


university/teaching, students in fishery and ecological sciences, applied management sector

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1. Introduction
    • 1.1 About this book
    • 1.2 Unifying Principles in Ecology—Where are We?
    • 1.3 Recruitment Variability
    • 1.4 Ecosystem Bifurcation
    • 1.5 Predator-Prey Synergism
    • References
  • Chapter 2. Repeated Incidents of Abrupt and Persistent Recruitment Failures in Gadoids in Relation to Increasing Eutrophication, 1919–2001
    • 2.1 Introduction
    • 2.2 Methods
    • 2.3 Results
    • 2.4 Discussion
    • References
  • Chapter 3. Causes of Variation in Abundance, Growth, and Mortality in 0-Group Gadoids After Settlement and a Hypothesis Underlying Recruitment Variability in Atlantic Cod
    • 3.1 Introduction
    • 3.2 Methods
    • 3.3 Results
    • 3.4 Discussion
    • References
  • Chapter 4. Growth and Mortality in Settled Atlantic Cod in Relation to Diet—Evidence for a Recruitment Mechanism
    • 4.1 Introduction
    • 4.2 Methods
    • 4.3 Results
    • 4.4 Discussion
    • 4.5 Conclusion
    • References
  • Chapter 5. Bifurcations in Marine Ecosystems: Concurrent Recruitment Collapses in Gadoid Fishes and Changes in the Plankton Community
    • 5.1 Introduction
    • 5.2 Methods
    • 5.3 Results
    • 5.4 Discussion
    • 5.5 Conclusion
    • References
  • Chapter 6. Predator-Prey Synergism in Plankton
    • 6.1 Introduction
    • 6.2 Methods
    • 6.3 Results
    • 6.4 Discussion
    • 6.5 Conclusion
    • References
  • Chapter 7. Ecological Implications of Predator-Prey Synergism in Marine Ecosystems
    • 7.1 Introduction
    • 7.2 Limnic Studies
    • 7.3 The Seasonal Succession in the Plankton Community
    • 7.4 Impact of Eutrophication on Synergistic Plankton
    • 7.5 Impact of Planktivores on Synergistic Plankton
    • 7.6 Impact of Fishing on Synergistic Plankton and Energy Flow
    • 7.7 Eutrophication, Temperature Increase, Overfishing, Resilience, and Bifurcations
    • 7.8 Mitigating Negative Impacts of Global Warming
    • References
  • Chapter 8. Variability Enhancing and Variability Dampening Mechanisms in Marine Ecosystems
    • 8.1 Introduction
    • 8.2 Methods
    • 8.3 Variability in Phytoplankton—Results and Discussion
    • 8.4 Impact of Herbivorous Zooplankton on Phytoplankton Variability
    • 8.5 Recruitment of Fish and Invertebrates
    • 8.6 Impact of Predation, Parasitism, and Diseases on Variability in Marine Ecosystems
    • 8.7 Impact of Fishing on Fish Recruitment and Ecosystem Variability
    • 8.8 Quasi-Stable States in Marine Ecosystems
    • 8.9 Impact of Pelagic Processes on Benthic Communities
    • 8.10 Evolutionary Implications of Predator-Prey Synergism
    • 8.11 The Balance of Nature
    • 8.12 Conclusion
    • References
  • Index


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© Academic Press 2014
11th March 2014
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
Paperback ISBN:

About the Author

Tore Johannessen

Affiliations and Expertise

Institute of Marine Research, His, Norway

Ratings and Reviews