Friends in School

Friends in School

Patterns of Selection and Influence in Secondary Schools

1st Edition - January 28, 1983

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  • Editors: Joyce Levy Epstein, Nancy Karweit
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483277721

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Friends in School: Patterns of Selection and Influence in Secondary Schools is a collection of research and commentaries that focuses on the connections between the social organization of schools and classrooms, the social processes of peer association, friendship selection, as well as the social development of students. The papers center around the topic on simultaneous influence of developmental and environmental factors on adolescent friendships. One paper examines the various theories of adolescent friendships: that differences exist between theories applied to, and theories generated from the experiences of different age groups. Another paper discusses the patterns of selection of friends and the characteristics of selected friends in high- and low-participatory schools. One paper explains the components of a contact theory and of cooperative learning methods in terms of their impact on intergroup relations. Another paper reviews sex differences in forming and maintaining friendships based on earlier studies made on the subject. The paper focuses on environmental and developmental points on how sex differences and school organization can interact on the student's adjustment to transition or growth. One paper notes that peer and friendship groups can be positive forces in the classroom to advance the goals of the teachers, students, and school, but the decision should depend on the teacher's knowledge of organizational structure, group processes, and on the desired outcome of the educational activity. The collection is suitable for teachers, child educators, school counselors, school administrators, psychologists and sociologists.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors


    I Introduction and Overview

    1 Friends Among Students in Schools: Environmental and Developmental Factors

    School Organization and Friends in School

    Organization of School Offerings

    Organization of Classrooms

    Distribution of Students

    Review of Selected Studies

    Identifying Peers and Friends

    Features of This Collection

    Overview of the Chapters

    II Theoretical Perspectives

    2 School Organization and Friendship Selection

    School Size

    Differentiation Practices

    School Activity Structures

    Visibility of Student Traits

    Student Status System


    3 Examining Theories of Adolescent Friendships

    Questions About Theoretical Concepts

    Adding Developmental Perspectives to Theories of Selection

    Adding Environmental Factors to Theories of Selection

    Examining Selected Theoretical Concepts

    Cognitive Development and the Perception of the Self and Others


    4 Commentary: Theoretical Perspectives on Peer Association

    Next Steps in Theory Construction

    Next Steps in Methods

    III Classroom and School Organization and the Selection Process

    5 Selection of Friends in Differently Organized Schools and Classrooms


    Patterns of Selection, Reciprocity, and Stability

    Selection in High- and Low-Participatory Schools


    Summary and Discussion

    6 Cooperative Learning and Intergroup Relations: Contact Theory in the Classroom

    Cooperative Learning

    Main Effects on Intergroup Relations

    Contact Theory in the Classroom

    A Model of Effects of Cooperative Learning on Intergroup Relations

    New Directions

    7 Sex Differences in Adolescent Relationships: Friendship and Status

    Studies of Sex Differences in Friendship Patterns

    Status and Friendship

    Interaction of Student Development and School Organization

    Summary and Discussion

    8 Extracurricular Activities and Friendship Selection

    Participation Effects on Selection: Similarity

    Participation Effects on Selection: Status

    School Size Effects on Participation


    9 Curricular Placement, Friendship Networks; and Status Attainment

    Existing Research on Curricular Tracking and Nonacademic Outcomes

    Personal Networks and Adult Status Attainment

    Psychological and Organizational Explanations of Status Attainment

    Curricular Placement and Personal Friendship Networks


    10 Commentary: The Relationship Between Friendship Selection and Peer Influence

    Influence of Selected and Nonselected Peers

    Selection and Influence Variables


    IV School Organization and the Influence Process

    11 The Influence of Friends on Achievement and Affective Outcomes



    Summary and Discussion

    12 Peer Relations in Desegregated Schools

    Theoretical Accounts of Academic Improvement

    Empirical Tests

    Teacher Effects

    Effects of School Settings on Cross-Racial Interaction

    Cooperative Learning Strategies and Peer Acceptance and Influence


    13 Commentary: New Directions for Research on Peer Influence

    Selected Findings on Peer Influences

    The Process of Peer Influence


    V Conclusion

    14 School Environment and Student Friendships: Issues, Implications, and Interventions

    Positive and Negative Consequences of Friendship

    Benefits or Disadvantages of Changing Friends

    Multiple Group Memberships

    Implications for Practice



    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 300
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1983
  • Published: January 28, 1983
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483277721

About the Editors

Joyce Levy Epstein

Nancy Karweit

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