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Friends in School - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122405402, 9781483277721

Friends in School

1st Edition

Patterns of Selection and Influence in Secondary Schools

Editors: Joyce Levy Epstein Nancy Karweit
eBook ISBN: 9781483277721
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1983
Page Count: 300
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Friends in School: Patterns of Selection and Influence in Secondary Schools is a collection of research and commentaries that focuses on the connections between the social organization of schools and classrooms, the social processes of peer association, friendship selection, as well as the social development of students. The papers center around the topic on simultaneous influence of developmental and environmental factors on adolescent friendships. One paper examines the various theories of adolescent friendships: that differences exist between theories applied to, and theories generated from the experiences of different age groups. Another paper discusses the patterns of selection of friends and the characteristics of selected friends in high- and low-participatory schools. One paper explains the components of a contact theory and of cooperative learning methods in terms of their impact on intergroup relations. Another paper reviews sex differences in forming and maintaining friendships based on earlier studies made on the subject. The paper focuses on environmental and developmental points on how sex differences and school organization can interact on the student's adjustment to transition or growth. One paper notes that peer and friendship groups can be positive forces in the classroom to advance the goals of the teachers, students, and school, but the decision should depend on the teacher's knowledge of organizational structure, group processes, and on the desired outcome of the educational activity. The collection is suitable for teachers, child educators, school counselors, school administrators, psychologists and sociologists.

Table of Contents



I Introduction and Overview

1 Friends Among Students in Schools: Environmental and Developmental Factors

School Organization and Friends in School

Organization of School Offerings

Organization of Classrooms

Distribution of Students

Review of Selected Studies

Identifying Peers and Friends

Features of This Collection

Overview of the Chapters

II Theoretical Perspectives

2 School Organization and Friendship Selection

School Size

Differentiation Practices

School Activity Structures

Visibility of Student Traits

Student Status System


3 Examining Theories of Adolescent Friendships

Questions About Theoretical Concepts

Adding Developmental Perspectives to Theories of Selection

Adding Environmental Factors to Theories of Selection

Examining Selected Theoretical Concepts

Cognitive Development and the Perception of the Self and Others


4 Commentary: Theoretical Perspectives on Peer Association

Next Steps in Theory Construction

Next Steps in Methods

III Classroom and School Organization and the Selection Process

5 Selection of Friends in Differently Organized Schools and Classrooms


Patterns of Selection, Reciprocity, and Stability

Selection in High- and Low-Participatory Schools


Summary and Discussion

6 Cooperative Learning and Intergroup Relations: Contact Theory in the Classroom

Cooperative Learning

Main Effects on Intergroup Relations

Contact Theory in the Classroom

A Model of Effects of Cooperative Learning on Intergroup Relations

New Directions

7 Sex Differences in Adolescent Relationships: Friendship and Status

Studies of Sex Differences in Friendship Patterns

Status and Friendship

Interaction of Student Development and School Organization

Summary and Discussion

8 Extracurricular Activities and Friendship Selection

Participation Effects on Selection: Similarity

Participation Effects on Selection: Status

School Size Effects on Participation


9 Curricular Placement, Friendship Networks; and Status Attainment

Existing Research on Curricular Tracking and Nonacademic Outcomes

Personal Networks and Adult Status Attainment

Psychological and Organizational Explanations of Status Attainment

Curricular Placement and Personal Friendship Networks


10 Commentary: The Relationship Between Friendship Selection and Peer Influence

Influence of Selected and Nonselected Peers

Selection and Influence Variables


IV School Organization and the Influence Process

11 The Influence of Friends on Achievement and Affective Outcomes



Summary and Discussion

12 Peer Relations in Desegregated Schools

Theoretical Accounts of Academic Improvement

Empirical Tests

Teacher Effects

Effects of School Settings on Cross-Racial Interaction

Cooperative Learning Strategies and Peer Acceptance and Influence


13 Commentary: New Directions for Research on Peer Influence

Selected Findings on Peer Influences

The Process of Peer Influence


V Conclusion

14 School Environment and Student Friendships: Issues, Implications, and Interventions

Positive and Negative Consequences of Friendship

Benefits or Disadvantages of Changing Friends

Multiple Group Memberships

Implications for Practice



Author Index

Subject Index


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 1983
28th January 1983
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editors

Joyce Levy Epstein

Nancy Karweit

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