Free Radicals in Biology V6

Free Radicals in Biology V6

1st Edition - June 12, 1984

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  • Editor: William Pryor
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323149310

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Description

Free Radicals in Biology, Volume VI covers the significant biological implications of arachidonic acid chemistry in free radical biology. This 11-chapter volume explores the biochemistry of the prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and other products from arachidonic acid. The introductory chapters describe the chemistry of the eicosanoids; the structures of prostaglandin and leukotriene compounds; the role of lipid hydroperoxides in controlling prostaglandin biosynthesis; and the oxidation of xenobiotics during prostaglandin H biosynthesis. The discussion then shifts to the effects of the so-called fatty acid paradoxes on cell proliferation, tumorigenesis, and metastasis, followed by chapters on arachidonic acid cascade process; the causes of lung injury conditions, such as hyperoxia; and the origin of low-level chemiluminescence in cells. This volume further deals with the oxy-radical involvement in parasitic diseases and the mechanisms for activation of aromatic amine carcinogens. The concluding chapters examine the controversial one- and two-electron mechanisms for activation of polynuclear hydrocarbon carcinogens and a hypothesis to rationalize the effects of radicals on the life span of mammals. These chapters propose that aging results from toxic by-products of metabolism, and longevity is determined by the ability of an organism to deal with these products. This book will be of great benefit to biochemists, biologists, and physicists.

Table of Contents


  • Contributors

    General Preface

    Preface to Volume VI

    List of Abbreviations

    Contents of Other Volumes

    Chapter 1 Prostaglandin Endoperoxide Synthase- Catalyzed Oxidation Reactions

    I. Introduction

    II. Hydroperoxidase Activity of Endoperoxide Synthase

    III. Deactivation of Enzymes by Hydroperoxidases

    IV. Cosubstrate Oxidation

    V. Summary

    References

    Chapter 2 Lipid Peroxide Actions in the Regulation of Prostaglandin Biosynthesis

    I. Introduction

    II. The Hydroperoxide Requirement of Prostaglandin H Synthase

    III. Evidence for a Physiological Role of Peroxides during Prostaglandin Synthesis

    IV. Formation of Hydroperoxides

    V. Impairment of Hydroperoxide Formation by Vitamin Ε

    VI. Removal of Hydroperoxides

    VII. Influence of Hydroperoxide Levels on Drug Actions

    VIII. Summary

    References

    Chapter 3 Hydroperoxide-Dependent Oxidations during Prostaglandin Biosynthesis

    I. Introduction

    II. Role of Prostaglandin Η Synthase in Unsaturated Fatty Acid- Dependent Cooxidation by Ram Seminal Vesicle Microsomes

    III. Hydroperoxide-Dependent Oxidations

    IV. Mechanisms of Hydroperoxide-Dependent Oxidation and Oxygenation

    V. Peroxidase Participation in Pathological Responses

    VI. Related Oxidizing Systems

    VII. Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 4 Fatty Acid Paradoxes in the Control of Cell Proliferation: Prostaglandins, Lipid Peroxides, and Cooxidation Reactions

    I. Introduction

    II. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cell Proliferation

    III. Prostaglandins and Cell Proliferation

    IV. Lipid Peroxides and Cell Proliferation

    V. Problems with Fatty Acid Paradoxes

    Problems

    Chapter 5 The Electron Spin Resonance Study of Free Radicals Formed during the Arachidonic Acid Cascade and Cooxidation of Xenobiotics by Prostaglandin Synthase

    I. Introduction

    II. Application of Electron Spin Resonance-Spin Trapping to the Detection of Free Radicals Formed during the Transformation of Arachidonic Acid to Prostaglandin Endoperoxide

    III. Application of Electron Spin Resonance to the Study of Free Radicals Formed during the Conversion of Prostaglandin G2 to Prostaglandin H2

    IV. Application of Electron Spin Resonance to the Study of Free- Radical-Mediated Cooxidation of Xenobiotics by Prostaglandin Hydroperoxidase

    References

    Chapter 6 Phagocytes, Oxygen Radicals, and Lung Injury

    I. Introduction

    II. Alveolar Macrophages and Lung Injury

    III. Neutrophils and Lung Injury

    IV. Reduced Oxygen Products and Lung Injury

    V. Summary

    References

    Chapter 7 Low-Level Chemiluminescence of Biological Systems

    I. Introduction

    II. Organ Chemiluminescence

    III. Cellular Chemiluminescence

    IV. Chemiluminescence of Subcellular Fractions

    V. Chemiluminescence of Biologically Related Model Systems

    VI. Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 8 Free-Radical Intermediates in the Antiparasitic Action of Drugs and Phagocytic Cells

    I. Introduction

    II. Protozoa and Helminths of Medical Importance

    III. Intermediates of Oxygen Reduction in Parasites

    IV. Enzymes Utilizing Oxygen Reduction Intermediates in Parasites

    V. Toxicity of Oxygen Reduction Intermediates in Parasites

    VI. Free-Radical Intermediates in the Metabolism of Antiparasitic Compounds

    VII. Reduced Oxygen By-Products in the Antiparasitic Action of Phagocytes

    VIII. Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 9 Multiple Mechanisms of Metabolic Activation of Aromatic Amine Carcinogens

    I. Introduction

    II. Free-Radical Formation during Cytochrome P-450 Function

    III. Nitrofurans

    IV. Hydrazines

    V. 2-Acetylaminofluorene

    VI. Naphthylamines

    VII. N-Alkyl Compounds

    VIII. Benzidines

    IX. Phenylenediamines

    X. Aminophenol Derivatives

    Reference

    Chapter 10 One-Electron and Two-Electron Oxidation in Aromatic Hydrocarbon Carcinogenesis

    I. Introduction

    II. Enzymology of One-Electron and Two-Electron Oxidation

    III. One-Electron Oxidation

    IV. Two-Electron Oxidation

    V. Discussion

    References

    Chapter 11 Antioxidants, Aging, and Longevity

    I. Introduction

    II. Working Hypothesis of Aging and Longevity for Mammalian Species

    III. Antioxidants as Longevity Determinants

    IV. Autoxidation of Tissues as a Function of Species Life Span Potential

    V. Peroxides in Tissues as a Function of Life Span Potential

    VI. Compensational Nature of Endogenous Antioxidant Concentrations in Tissues

    VII. Regulation of the Oxidative Environment of a Cell

    References

    Index




Product details

  • No. of pages: 468
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1984
  • Published: June 12, 1984
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323149310

About the Editor

William Pryor

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