Free Radicals in Biology V6 - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125665063, 9780323149310

Free Radicals in Biology V6

1st Edition

Editors: William Pryor
eBook ISBN: 9780323149310
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 12th June 1984
Page Count: 468
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Description

Free Radicals in Biology, Volume VI covers the significant biological implications of arachidonic acid chemistry in free radical biology. This 11-chapter volume explores the biochemistry of the prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and other products from arachidonic acid. The introductory chapters describe the chemistry of the eicosanoids; the structures of prostaglandin and leukotriene compounds; the role of lipid hydroperoxides in controlling prostaglandin biosynthesis; and the oxidation of xenobiotics during prostaglandin H biosynthesis. The discussion then shifts to the effects of the so-called fatty acid paradoxes on cell proliferation, tumorigenesis, and metastasis, followed by chapters on arachidonic acid cascade process; the causes of lung injury conditions, such as hyperoxia; and the origin of low-level chemiluminescence in cells. This volume further deals with the oxy-radical involvement in parasitic diseases and the mechanisms for activation of aromatic amine carcinogens. The concluding chapters examine the controversial one- and two-electron mechanisms for activation of polynuclear hydrocarbon carcinogens and a hypothesis to rationalize the effects of radicals on the life span of mammals. These chapters propose that aging results from toxic by-products of metabolism, and longevity is determined by the ability of an organism to deal with these products. This book will be of great benefit to biochemists, biologists, and physicists.

Table of Contents


Contributors

General Preface

Preface to Volume VI

List of Abbreviations

Contents of Other Volumes

Chapter 1 Prostaglandin Endoperoxide Synthase- Catalyzed Oxidation Reactions

I. Introduction

II. Hydroperoxidase Activity of Endoperoxide Synthase

III. Deactivation of Enzymes by Hydroperoxidases

IV. Cosubstrate Oxidation

V. Summary

References

Chapter 2 Lipid Peroxide Actions in the Regulation of Prostaglandin Biosynthesis

I. Introduction

II. The Hydroperoxide Requirement of Prostaglandin H Synthase

III. Evidence for a Physiological Role of Peroxides during Prostaglandin Synthesis

IV. Formation of Hydroperoxides

V. Impairment of Hydroperoxide Formation by Vitamin Ε

VI. Removal of Hydroperoxides

VII. Influence of Hydroperoxide Levels on Drug Actions

VIII. Summary

References

Chapter 3 Hydroperoxide-Dependent Oxidations during Prostaglandin Biosynthesis

I. Introduction

II. Role of Prostaglandin Η Synthase in Unsaturated Fatty Acid- Dependent Cooxidation by Ram Seminal Vesicle Microsomes

III. Hydroperoxide-Dependent Oxidations

IV. Mechanisms of Hydroperoxide-Dependent Oxidation and Oxygenation

V. Peroxidase Participation in Pathological Responses

VI. Related Oxidizing Systems

VII. Conclusion

References

Chapter 4 Fatty Acid Paradoxes in the Control of Cell Proliferation: Prostaglandins, Lipid Peroxides, and Cooxidation Reactions

I. Introduction

II. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cell Proliferation

III. Prostaglandins and Cell Proliferation

IV. Lipid Peroxides and Cell Proliferation

V. Problems with Fatty Acid Paradoxes

Problems

Chapter 5 The Electron Spin Resonance Study of Free Radicals Formed during the Arachidonic Acid Cascade and Cooxidation of Xenobiotics by Prostaglandin Synthase

I. Introduction

II. Application of Electron Spin Resonance-Spin Trapping to the Detection of Free Radicals Formed during the Transformation of Arachidonic Acid to Prostaglandin Endoperoxide

III. Application of Electron Spin Resonance to the Study of Free Radicals Formed during the Conversion of Prostaglandin G2 to Prostaglandin H2

IV. Application of Electron Spin Resonance to the Study of Free- Radical-Mediated Cooxidation of Xenobiotics by Prostaglandin Hydroperoxidase

References

Chapter 6 Phagocytes, Oxygen Radicals, and Lung Injury

I. Introduction

II. Alveolar Macrophages and Lung Injury

III. Neutrophils and Lung Injury

IV. Reduced Oxygen Products and Lung Injury

V. Summary

References

Chapter 7 Low-Level Chemiluminescence of Biological Systems

I. Introduction

II. Organ Chemiluminescence

III. Cellular Chemiluminescence

IV. Chemiluminescence of Subcellular Fractions

V. Chemiluminescence of Biologically Related Model Systems

VI. Conclusions

References

Chapter 8 Free-Radical Intermediates in the Antiparasitic Action of Drugs and Phagocytic Cells

I. Introduction

II. Protozoa and Helminths of Medical Importance

III. Intermediates of Oxygen Reduction in Parasites

IV. Enzymes Utilizing Oxygen Reduction Intermediates in Parasites

V. Toxicity of Oxygen Reduction Intermediates in Parasites

VI. Free-Radical Intermediates in the Metabolism of Antiparasitic Compounds

VII. Reduced Oxygen By-Products in the Antiparasitic Action of Phagocytes

VIII. Conclusions

References

Chapter 9 Multiple Mechanisms of Metabolic Activation of Aromatic Amine Carcinogens

I. Introduction

II. Free-Radical Formation during Cytochrome P-450 Function

III. Nitrofurans

IV. Hydrazines

V. 2-Acetylaminofluorene

VI. Naphthylamines

VII. N-Alkyl Compounds

VIII. Benzidines

IX. Phenylenediamines

X. Aminophenol Derivatives

Reference

Chapter 10 One-Electron and Two-Electron Oxidation in Aromatic Hydrocarbon Carcinogenesis

I. Introduction

II. Enzymology of One-Electron and Two-Electron Oxidation

III. One-Electron Oxidation

IV. Two-Electron Oxidation

V. Discussion

References

Chapter 11 Antioxidants, Aging, and Longevity

I. Introduction

II. Working Hypothesis of Aging and Longevity for Mammalian Species

III. Antioxidants as Longevity Determinants

IV. Autoxidation of Tissues as a Function of Species Life Span Potential

V. Peroxides in Tissues as a Function of Life Span Potential

VI. Compensational Nature of Endogenous Antioxidant Concentrations in Tissues

VII. Regulation of the Oxidative Environment of a Cell

References

Index




Details

No. of pages:
468
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1984
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323149310

About the Editor

William Pryor

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