Free Radicals in Biology V5 - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125665056, 9780323156837

Free Radicals in Biology V5

1st Edition

Editors: William Pryor
eBook ISBN: 9780323156837
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th March 1982
Page Count: 304
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Description

Free Radicals in Biology, Volume V covers the mechanisms for the generation of free radicals. This volume contains eight chapters that discuss the biology and chemistry of oxy-radicals in mitochondria and the radical-mediated metabolism of xenobiotics. The opening chapter describes the mechanisms of free radical production in enzymatically promoted lipid peroxidation, generally in microsomes or microsomal lipids. The subsequent chapters explore the biochemistry and biology of plant and animal lipoxygenases; the production of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide in mitochondria; and the biological role of these species in mitochondria and related systems. The discussions then shift to the effects of superoxide production in white blood cells, with an emphasis on an evaluation of the oxygen-dependent reactions of the important phagocytic cells, the monocytes, and the polymorphonuclear leukocytes. This volume further covers the formation and the role of oxy-radicals in the red blood cell, which is a very useful system for studying the protection of biological tissue against radical-mediated damage. A chapter presents a comprehensive review of the production of free radicals during the metabolism of xenobiotics. The last chapters provide an overview of the enzymology, biological functions, and free radical chemistry of glutathione peroxidase. These chapters also examine a number of gerontological principles and the effect of antioxidants in aging. Chemists, biologists, and physicists will find this book of great value.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

General Preface

Preface to Volume V

Contents of Other Volumes

Chapter 1 The Role of Iron in Enzymatic Lipid Peroxidation

I. Introduction

II. Requirement for Iron in Enzymatically Promoted Lipid Peroxidation

References

Chapter 2 Lipoxygenases

I. Introduction

II. Lipoxygenase Assays

III. Isolation and Purification

IV. Amino Acid Composition

V. Cofactors

VI. Substrates and Products

VII. Spectroscopic Studies

VIII. Kinetics

IX. Inhibitors

X. Modified Lipoxygenase-1

XI. Lipoxygenase-Mediated Conversions of Fatty Acid Hydroperoxides

XII. Physiological Role of Lipoxygenases

References

Chapter 3 Superoxide Radical and Hydrogen Peroxide in Mitochondria

I. Introduction

II. Biological Reduction of Oxygen: Historical Perspectives

III. Production of H2O2 and O2-. in Mitochondria

IV. Physiological Consequences of Mitochondrial H2O2 and O2-. Production

V. Summary

References

Chapter 4 Reduced Oxygen By-Products and White Blood Cells

I. Introduction

II. Phagocytosis and Reduced Oxygen By-Products

III. Quantification of Oxygen Reduction by PMN

IV. Enzymatic Basis for Oxygen Consumption

V. Activation of the Oxidase

VI. Role of Oxidase in Host Defense—Chronic Granulomatous Disease

VII. Intracellular Enzyme Systems Responsible for Activation of the Hexose Monophosphate Shunt in PMN-Inherited Deficiencies

VIII. Vitamine Ε—A Membrane Antioxidant in PMN

IX. Superoxide Dismutase in PMN

X. Myeloperoxidase

XI. Effects of O2-. and H2O2 on Cell Function

XII. Antioxidants

References

Chapter 5 Peroxidative Reactions in Red Cell Biology

I. Introduction

II. Effects of In Vitro Peroxidation Reactions on Erythrocytes

III. Methods to Detect Peroxidation Reactions in Red Blood Cells

IV. Protective Systems against Peroxidation in Red Blood Cells

V. Peroxidative Reactions and Red Cell Disorders

VI. Summary and Conclusion

References

Chapter 6 Free-Radical Intermediates in the Metabolism of Toxic Chemicals

I. Introduction

II. Trichloromethyl Radical

HI. Semiquinones

IV. Amino Free Radicals

V. Hydroamino or Quinone Imine Semiquinones

VI. Chlorpromazine and Other Phenothiazine Cation Free Radicals

VII. 5-Methylphenazinium Cation Radical

VIII. Aryloxyl Free Radicals

IX. Poly cyclic Hydrocarbon Cation Free Radicals

X. Thiyl Free Radicals

XI. Nitroxides

XII. Paraquat and Other Bipyridylium Cation Free Radicals

XIII. Quinoxaline ΌΊ-Ν- oxide Free Radicals

XIV. Tetrazolinyl Free Radicals

XV. Azo Anion and Hydrazyl Free Radicals

XVI. Nitroaromatic Anion Free Radicals

XVII. Conclusions

References

Chapter 7 Glutathione Peroxidase Brought into Focus

I. Introduction

II. Enzymological Data

III. A Definition of the Biological Functions of GSH Peroxidase

IV. Comment

References

Chapter 8 The Free-Radical Theory of Aging

I. Introduction

II. Life Span Studies

III. Age-Associated Disorders

IV. Comment

References

Subject Index




Details

No. of pages:
304
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1982
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323156837

About the Editor

William Pryor