Free Radicals in Biology V4 - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125665049, 9780323153720

Free Radicals in Biology V4

1st Edition

Editors: William Pryor
eBook ISBN: 9780323153720
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th March 1980
Page Count: 370
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Free Radicals in Biology, Volume IV reviews diverse topics in free radical biology and covers topics ranging from radiation biology to lipid peroxidation, radical-mediated liver pathology, and chemical carcinogenesis. Radical mechanisms in prostaglandin biochemistry are also discussed, along with the use of electron spin resonance and spin trap methods to probe mechanisms of radical reactions in biological systems.

Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the mechanisms of lipid peroxidation, focusing on the chemistry of fluorescent products from in vivo lipid peroxidation; the production of pentane in the expired breath of animals exposed to oxidative threats; and the chemistry of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase. The next chapter is devoted to the kinetic aspects of lipid peroxidation and the multiple ways in which autoxidants can react. The reader is then introduced to the mechanisms of hepatoxicity by synthetic chemicals present in the environment, together with direct mechanisms of radiation damage to nucleic acids. Subsequent chapters deal with spin trapping in biological systems; the role of free radicals in arylamine carcinogenesis and their influence on the structure and reactivity of melanins; and the involvement of vitamin ? and lipid antioxidants in free-radical-initiated reactions.

This book will be of value to chemists, biologists, and physicians.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors

General Preface

Preface to Volume IV

Contents of Other Volumes

Chapter 1 Measurement of and Protection from in Vivo Lipid Peroxidation

I. Introduction

II. Fluorescent Products as a Measure of Lipid Peroxidation

III. Pentane in Breath as a Measure of in Vivo Lipid Peroxidation

IV. Selenium-Glutathione Peroxidase in Protection against in Vivo Lipid Peroxidation


Chapter 2 Free-Radical Damage in Liver

I. Introduction

II. Criteria to Define Liver Injury by a Free-Radical Mechanism

III. CCl4: Model Free-Radical Hepatotoxin

IV. Halothane: Potential Free-Radical Hepatotoxin

V. Nonhalogenated Xenobiotics: Probable, Possible, and Proposed Free-Radical Hepatotoxins

VI. Summary


Chapter 3 Free-Radical Damages of Nucleic Acids and Their Components: The Direct Absorption of Energy

I. Introduction

II. Initial Radical Products

III. Reactions of Initial Products and Identification of Secondary Products

IV. Effects of Conditions

V. Interactions between Neighbors


Chapter 4 A Critical Review of Spin Trapping in Biological Systems

I. Direct Detection of Free Radicals and Radical Ions

II. Indirect Methods of Detecting Free Radicals “Classical” Reactions

III. Spin Trapping: An Indirect esr Method of Detecting Free Radicals

IV. Spin Trapping in Biological Systems



Chapter 5 Production of Radicals from Enzyme Systems and the Use of Spin Traps

I. Introduction

II. Spin-Trapping Studies of Phagocytizing Mixed Leukocytes

III. Spin Trapping of Radicals Formed during the Metabolism of Halocarbons by Liver Microsomes

IV. Spin Trapping of Radicals Formed during the Activity of the Xanthine Oxidase System

V. Spin Trapping of a Radical Formed during the Activity of the Lipoxygenase System

VI. Formation of Spin Adducts in Other Biological Systems

VII. In Vivo Spin Trapping of the Trichloromethyl Radical

VIII. Concluding Remarks


Chapter 6 Free Radicals in Arylamine Carcinogenesis

I. Free Radicals and Cancer: Overview

II. Antioxidant-Induced Decrease in Cancer Development

III. Chemistry of Activation of 2-Acetylaminofluorene

IV. Free Radicals in Acetylaminofluorene Activation

V. Reexamination of the Peroxidase-Hydroperoxide Activation of N-OH-AAF

VI. Do Endogenous Peroxidases Activate N-OH-AAF?

VII. Covalent Binding of 2-Nitrosofluorene to Unsaturated Membrane Lipids

VIII. Relevance of the Nitrosofluorene-Lipid Complex to Carcinogenesis

IX. Spin Trapping and Carcinogenesis

X. Summary and Perspective for Future Work


Chapter 7 Structure and Reactivity of Melanins: Influence of Free Radicals and Metal Ions

I. Introduction

II. General Properties of Melanins

III. Intrinsic Free Radicals

IV. Interaction with Metal Ions

V. Interaction with Light

VI. Other Chemical Reactions

VII. Role of Solvent and Motional Effects

VIII. Biomedical Applications

IX. Concluding Remarks


Chapter 8 Prostaglandin Endoperoxides

I. Introduction

II. Biosynthesis

III. Endoperoxide Syntheses

IV. Reactions of Endoperoxides

V. Biological Conversions of Prostaglandin Endoperoxides


Chapter 9 Vitamin Ε and Lipid Antioxidants in Free-Radical-Initiated Reactions

I. Introduction

II. Multilevel Control of Free Radicals

III. Vitamin E, Antioxidants, and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

IV. Quantitative Aspects of the Vitamin E-PUFA Relationship

V. Fads, Fancies, and Facts Regarding Vitamin Ε

VI. Summary


Chapter 10 Stable Radiation-Induced Paramagnetic Entities in Tissue Mineral and Their Use in Calcified Tissue Research

I. Introduction

II. Origin of Radiation-Induced Defects in Tissue Mineral

III. Application of the Stable Radiation-Induced Paramagnetic Centers in Studies on Mineralizing Tissues

IV. Spin Dosimetry

V. Conclusions


Subject Index


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© Academic Press 1980
Academic Press
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About the Editor

William Pryor

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