Foundations of Colorectal Cancer

Foundations of Colorectal Cancer

1st Edition - October 28, 2021

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  • Editor: Alejandro Sierra
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323900553
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323885713

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Description

Foundations of Colorectal Cancer provides a holistic and comprehensive dive into colorectal cancer, discussing the contributions of each discipline that studies it, allowing its understanding from the most demographic and ethical facts, to the treatment process, its varieties and genetic background. Written by experts in diverse areas such as cancer research, oncology, genetics, biochemistry, psychology, social sciences, bioinformatics and palliative care, the book brings real-world experiences to help readers with any challenge they may face when dealing with patients or during their research workflow.The content is split into nine sections: Clinical manifestations and disease detection, covering primary and secondary prevention, and the role of primary care; Diagnosis and staging, discussing endoscopy, colonoscopy, molecular pathology, and anatomopathological diagnosis; Treatment, including endoscopic, surgical, radiological, and postoperative approaches; Molecular and biological mechanisms, with the role of intestinal microbiota, stem cells and signaling pathways; New diagnostic methods, encompassing biomarkers and bioinformatics tools for research; Biobanks, with an overview of their regulations and importance in the research; Epidemiological studies, focusing on incidence and mortality globally and by regions; Hereditary colorectal cancer, differentiating nonpolyposis and polyposis types; and Addressing the consequences of colorectal cancer, covering psychological effects, nutrition and ethical issues.

Key Features

  • Provides a multidisciplinary approach with a holistic view of colorectal cancer, ranging from basic science to population studies, with its social and environmental influences and impacts, interpreting the disease as a medical, chemical, physical, microbial, psychological, and social condition
  • Written by a diverse group of specialists with complementary expertise, including oncologists, radiologists, biochemists, surgeons, psychologists, social workers and clinicians, all members of the Galician Research Network of Colorectal Cancer (REGICC) with vast collaboration experience to bring comprehensive knowledge on the subject
  • Encompasses reliable information suitable for different workers within the healthcare sector and research community dedicated to colorectal cancer, from clinicians and healthcare providers, researchers on several aspects of cancer, to bioinformaticians who deal with health data
  • Includes many case studies throughout the chapters discussed by specialists with high scientific accuracy and didactic value, in order to clearly and precisely share their professional experience on the subject with readers

Readership

Cancer researchers; oncologists; clinicians; practitioners. All professionals involved in treatment of colorectal cancer patients

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Contributors
  • Editor’s note
  • Prologue
  • Acknowledgments
  • Section A: Epidemiological studies in CRC
  • Chapter 1: Incidence and mortality of CRC
  • Abstract
  • Incidence
  • Mortality
  • Discussion
  • Chapter 2: Prognosis and follow-up of CRC patients: Role of diagnostic and therapeutic delay
  • Abstract
  • Survival and prognosis
  • Follow-up strategies
  • Quality of life and long-term sequelae
  • Impact of diagnostic and therapeutic delay on stage and prognosis
  • Section B: Clinical manifestations and disease detection
  • Chapter 3: Primary prevention of CRC
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Epidemiology and CRC
  • Environment and CRC
  • Diet
  • Foods recommended to be reduced
  • Food and drink recommended to be increased
  • Lifestyle behaviors
  • Therapeutic strategies linked to lowering CRC risk
  • Dietary patterns and CRC
  • Relationship between dietary index and CRC
  • Summary: Evidence and recommendations
  • Chapter 4: Early onset of CRC
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Exposure to environmental factors
  • Microbiota alteration
  • Hereditary factors
  • Molecular differences
  • Clinical features
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 5: Population-based universal screening for CRC: Secondary prevention
  • Abstract
  • Secondary prevention and screening concept
  • Colorectal cancer screening tests
  • Requirements for the implementation of a screening program
  • Situation of screening in Spain
  • Chapter 6: The role of primary care in early referral of CRC patients
  • Abstract
  • The role of primary care in the early release of patients with CRC7,8
  • Prevention and promotion of health9, 10
  • Early diagnosis11
  • Monitoring of index or precursor injuries (polyps)
  • CRC of family/hereditary characteristics16, 17
  • Chapter 7: Rapid diagnostic pathways for patients with suspected CRC
  • Abstract
  • Clinical pathways
  • Rapid diagnosis pathways for colorectal cancer
  • Published research
  • Possibilities for increasing effectiveness of CRC rapid pathways
  • Conclusions
  • Section C: Diagnosis and staging
  • Section C.I: Current diagnosis methods in colorectan cancer
  • Chapter 8: Colon capsule endoscopy
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Technical characteristics of the second-generation colon capsule
  • Preparation of the patient
  • Comparative studies between colon capsule endoscopy and colonoscopy
  • Comparative studies between CCE and colonography by computerized axial tomography
  • Current indications and contraindications of the colon capsule endoscopy: Future perspectives
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 9: Endoscopic ultrasound in CRC
  • Abstract
  • Outline of technique
  • EUS for rectal cancer staging
  • Interventional EUS
  • Conclusion
  • Chapter 10: CT-Colonography (CTC): Technical requirements, indications and current status
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Technical requirements
  • Indications for virtual colonoscopy
  • Clinically significant findings in CTC
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 11: Rectal pathology: Findings at CT-Colonography
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Technical considerations
  • Rectal pathology
  • Conclusion
  • Chapter 12: Applications of [18F] FDG PET and PET/CT in colorectal carcinoma
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Staging
  • Restaging
  • Others: Incidental diagnosis of colorectal cancer. Assessment of treatment response
  • New perspectives
  • Chapter 13: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in staging and restaging after neoadjuvant therapy
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Total mesorectal excision
  • Key anatomical references
  • Local staging
  • Restaging after neoadjuvant treatment
  • The structured radiology report
  • Locoregional recurrence
  • Chapter 14: Histopathological diagnosis of CRC
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Histopathological diagnosis of CRC in biopsies and endoscopic polypectomies
  • Anatomopathological diagnosis of CRC in surgical specimens
  • Histopathological types of colorectal neoplasms
  • Biomarkers in CRC
  • Chapter 15: Colonoscopy: Technique and quality factors
  • Abstract
  • Historical introduction
  • Colorectal cancer
  • Colonoscopy technique
  • Magnification techniques
  • Classification of colorectal polyps
  • Serrated pathway in CRC
  • Colonoscopy in the diagnosis of CRC in medium-risk populations
  • Colonoscopy in the diagnosis of CRC in high-risk populations
  • Colonoscopy quality indicators
  • Endoscopic iconography
  • Chapter 16: Endoscopic diagnosis of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Identification of lesions
  • Characterization of lesions
  • Role of colonoscopy in the diagnostic of advanced colonic lesions
  • Chapter 17: Oligometastatic disease
  • Abstract
  • Chapter 18: Hereditary nonpolyposis CRC
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Genetic basis
  • Molecular identification of Lynch syndrome
  • Clinical features
  • Diagnosis of Lynch syndrome (HNPCC) and criteria for referral to a genetic counseling unit (GCU)
  • Molecular study strategy
  • Predictive models
  • Clinical controls and surveillance
  • Other entities
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 19: Hereditary polyposis CRC
  • Abstract
  • Adenomatous polyposis syndromes: Familial adenomatous polyposis and MUTYH-associated polyposis
  • Genetics
  • Clinical symptoms
  • Diagnostics
  • Monitoring of healthy individuals with classic PAF
  • Follow-up of healthy individuals with AFAF
  • Treatment of FAP
  • Treatment of AFAP
  • Chemoprevention
  • Other inherited adenomatous polyposis syndromes
  • Hamartomatous polyposis syndrome
  • Juvenile polyposis syndrome
  • Cowden syndrome
  • Rare hereditary hamartomatous polyposis syndromes
  • Section C.II: New tools of diagnosis in CRC
  • Chapter 20: Diagnostic, prognostic, predictive and therapeutic molecular biomarkers in CRC: Understanding the present and foreseeing the future
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • What are biomarkers? Concept and classification
  • Blood and stool biomarkers for CRC screening
  • RAS: K-RAS and N-RAS, the current key for precision medicine in CRC
  • B-RAF mutation in colorectal cancer
  • EGFR/HER FAMILY/TP53-APC/β-CATENINS/C-MET as prognostic indicators
  • miRNAs, small players with large potential
  • Aberrant DNA methylation in CRC
  • Microbial markers in CRC prognosis and therapeutics
  • New insights in CRC biomarkers, recent advances, and future challenges
  • Concluding remarks
  • Chapter 21: Bioinformatic tools for research in CRC
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Methodologies for obtaining primary data in cancer
  • Bioinformatics tools for cancer research: Applications in colorectal cancer
  • Biomedical tools for assessing the risk of suffering from colorectal cancer
  • Deep learning for medical imaging in colorectal cancer
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 22: Omics-based biomarkers for CRC
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Biological samples for the discovery of biomarkers and their clinical application
  • Genomics approaches for colorectal cancer biomarker discovery and validation
  • Transcriptomics approaches for colorectal cancer biomarker discovery and validation
  • Epigenomics approaches for colorectal cancer biomarkers discovery and validation
  • Proteomics approaches for colorectal cancer biomarkers discovery and validation
  • Other omics technologies for the discovery of biomarkers
  • Phases for the development of clinical biomarkers
  • Section D: Treatment
  • Section D.I: Endoscopic treatment
  • Chapter 23: Multidisciplinary committee for a comprehensive approach to CRC patients
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Clinical oncology committees
  • Factors influencing the performance of committee activity
  • Effect of the multidisciplinary approach on colon and rectal cancer
  • Chapter 24: Endoscopic treatment of preneoplastic or early lesions
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Endoscopic polypectomy
  • Main advanced techniques for endoscopic treatment of colorectal tumors
  • Chapter 25: Endoscopic surveillance
  • Abstract
  • Surveillance of preneoplastic colonic lesions
  • Nonhereditary polyposis: Nonhereditary attenuated polyposis and serrated polyposis
  • Nonhereditary attenuated polyposis
  • Serrated polyposis
  • Follow-up of pT1 neoplastic lesions after endoscopic treatment
  • Chapter 26: Advanced endoscopy in colorectal cancer: Colorectal prostheses
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Indications and contraindications
  • Endoscopic technique
  • Results and complications
  • Section D.II: Surgical treatment
  • Chapter 27: Emergency surgery for CRC
  • Abstract
  • Diagnosis in the emergency department
  • Diagnostic tests
  • Treatment of complicated colorectal carcinoma
  • Type of surgery
  • Chapter 28: Innovation and new technologies in colorectal cancer UNIVEC device development experience
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Minimally invasive surgery
  • Instruments, innovative devices, and robotic surgery
  • Flexible single incision surgery
  • Chapter 29: Colon cancer surgery
  • Abstract
  • Surgical treatment of nonmetastatic colon cancer
  • Treatment of colon cancer presenting as a surgical emergency
  • Palliative procedures
  • Laparoscopic approach to colon cancer
  • Chapter 30: Rectal cancer surgery
  • Abstract
  • Surgical treatment of rectal cancer
  • Preoperative assessment and staging
  • Oncological and technical principles
  • Surgical techniques for rectal cancer
  • Chapter 31: Liver metastases from CRC: A treatment paradigm
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Treatment of metastatic disease
  • Surgical technique
  • Treatment of recurrence
  • Chemotherapy after resection
  • Follow-up after resection
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 32: Pulmonary metastasectomy for CRC
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • New perspectives
  • Conclusions
  • Section D.III: Pharmacological and radiotherapeutic treatment
  • Chapter 33: Molecularly targeted therapy in metastatic CRC
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Anti-EGFR antibodies
  • Inmmune checkpoint inhibitors
  • BRAF tyrosine kinase inhibitors
  • HER-2 blockade
  • Tyrosine kinase inhibitors
  • KRAS inhibitors
  • Conclusion
  • Chapter 34: A roadmap for medical treatment of metastatic CRC
  • Abstract
  • Background
  • Roadmap for treatment
  • First-line chemotherapy
  • Selection of bevacizumab or anti-EGFR in combination with chemotherapy
  • Triplet combinations of 5-fluorouracilo, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan
  • Duration and intensity of first-line treatment
  • Second-line treatment strategies
  • Treatment-refractory metastatic CRC
  • BRAF V600E-variant metastatic CRC
  • Immunotherapy
  • Chemotherapy and surgery of metastases
  • Management of colorectal cancer and peritoneal metastases
  • Chapter 35: Adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Adjuvant treatment of colon cancer
  • Neoadjuvant/adjuvant treatment of rectal cancer
  • Chapter 36: Oral administration of cytostatic drugs in the treatment of CRC
  • Abstract
  • Treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) via the oral route
  • Systemic treatment
  • Drug dosage forms for colonic delivery
  • Chapter 37: Neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and intraoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Adjuvant treatment
  • Neoadjuvant treatment
  • Neoadjuvant radiotherapy
  • Neoadjuvant radiotherapy vs. adjuvant radiochemotherapy
  • Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy
  • Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy vs. adjuvant radiochemotherapy
  • Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy vs. neoadjuvant radiotherapy
  • Short-course neoadjuvant radiotherapy vs. long-course neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy
  • Watch and wait
  • Total neoadjuvant treatment
  • Neoadjuvant chemotherapy vs. neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy
  • Meta-analyses and systematic reviews of supplementary treatment of rectal cancer
  • New agents in combination with radiotherapy
  • Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT)
  • Chapter 38: Radiotherapy (stereotactic body radiotherapy) for oligometastatic disease
  • Abstract
  • Role of SBRT in lung metastases from CRC
  • Role of SBRT in lymph node metastases from CRC
  • ROLE of SBRT in liver metastases from CRC
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 39: Palliative radiotherapy in CRC
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Retrospective studies
  • Prospective studies
  • Systematic reviews
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 40: Immunology and immunotherapy in CRC
  • Abstract
  • Immunity, inflammation, intestinal microbiota, and colorectal cancer
  • Inflammatory bowel disease and dysbiosis
  • Dysbiosis. Oral microbiota
  • Other risk factors and their relationship with inflammation
  • NSAIDs, inflammation, and CRC
  • Suppression mechanisms of the immune system in the tumor microenvironment
  • Immunotherapy in CRC
  • Other immunotherapeutic approaches tested in humans
  • Section D.IV: Anesthetic treatment and postoperative management
  • Chapter 41: Multimodal rehabilitation: Pre- and intraoperative optimization in CRC surgery
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Preoperative
  • Factors that cannot be influenced preoperatively
  • Factors that can be influenced preoperatively
  • Intraoperative
  • Perioperative management of nausea and vomiting
  • Drugs used to achieve rapid recovery
  • Perioperative fluid therapy
  • Baseline fluid and electrolyte needs
  • Changes in the surgical patient
  • Calculation of perioperative fluid loss and replenishment
  • Types of fluids
  • Fluid management schemes
  • Hemodynamic monitoring
  • Advanced monitoring
  • Emergency surgery
  • Chapter 42: Postoperative control: Complications and management in critical care units
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Suture dehiscence with anastomotic leak
  • Intraabdominal abscess
  • Enterocutaneous fistula
  • Generalized peritonitis
  • Sepsis and septic shock
  • Empirical antibiotic treatment for an IAI
  • Abdominal compartment syndrome
  • Chapter 43: Pain units: Symptom control
  • Abstract
  • Acute postoperative pain
  • Chronic pain in colorectal cancer
  • Conclusions
  • Section E: Microbiota, molecular and biological mechanisms of CRC
  • Chapter 44: The role of intestinal microbiota in the colorectal carcinogenesis
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Human gut microbiota and colorectal cancer
  • Chapter 45: Genetic susceptibility to CRC
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • High penetrance rare variants: Hereditary colorectal cancer predisposition syndromes
  • Other hereditary cancer syndromes
  • Candidate CRC susceptibility genes and NGS
  • Low-penetrance variants and association studies
  • Multiomic integration
  • Polygenic risk scores
  • Chapter 46: Signaling pathways in CRC
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Signaling pathways
  • Chapter 47: CRC: A Darwinian model of cellular immunoselection
  • Abstract
  • Cancer immunoedition: From immunosurveillance to tumor escape
  • Tumor escape strategies
  • Colorectal carcinomas with microsatellite instability: Role of the B2M gene
  • The prognostic value of tumor lymphocyte infiltration: The importance of the “Immunoscore”
  • Chapter 48: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition and CRC
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Epithelial plasticity
  • Mechanisms responsible for E-cadherin inactivation during tumor progression
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 49: Colorectal carcinoma: From molecular pathology to clinical practice
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Colorectal cancer: Molecular-genetic context
  • Microsatellite instability and Lynch syndrome
  • Clinical application of molecular diagnostics: Biomarker analysis
  • Final considerations: the pathologist's point of view
  • Section F: Biobanks
  • Chapter 50: The role of biobanks in the study of colorectal carcinoma
  • Abstract
  • Biobanks and biomedical research
  • Organization and operation of the biobank
  • Biobank orientation
  • Integration of diagnostic anatomical pathology files in biobanks
  • The role of biobanks in cancer research
  • Tumor banking and high-throughput techniques
  • Colorectal cancer and biobanks
  • Conclusions
  • Section G: Approach to the sequelae and consequences of
  • Chapter 51: Psychological approach and emotional management in CRC
  • Abstract
  • Keys and tools in the relationship between the health care team and the patient
  • Searching for health information on the Internet
  • Psychological aspects in the different phases of the disease
  • Physical sequelae of the treatments
  • Chapter 52: Nutritional status in patients with CRC: Assessment and recommendations
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Related complications
  • Causes of malnutrition
  • Assessment of nutritional status in colorectal cancer patients
  • Dietary recommendations and nutritional support
  • Recommendations for symptoms that hinder food intake
  • Chapter 53: Fecal incontinence and CRC
  • Abstract
  • Incontinence in relation to colorectal cancer
  • Assessment
  • Treatment and rehabilitation
  • Conclusion
  • Chapter 54: Ostomy care
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Gastrointestinal ostomies
  • Main complications of gastrointestinal ostomies2
  • Preoperative consultation3, 4
  • Postoperative follow-up3, 6
  • Ostomy consultation at discharge3, 7
  • Chapter 55: Sexual dysfunction among patients with ostomies
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Sexual impairment in patients with ostomies
  • Assessment of sexual dysfunction
  • Recommendations to cope with the fear of sexual intimacy
  • Health education: Help to adapt to change
  • Section H: Ethical and legal aspects in CRC
  • Chapter 56: Ethical and legal aspects in CRC: Research and clinical assistance
  • Abstract
  • Introduction: The relationship between ethics and law
  • Ethical principles and research ethics committees
  • Regulations governing biomedical research
  • The new regulatory framework for personal data protection
  • New technologies and research with health data
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 670
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2021
  • Published: October 28, 2021
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323900553
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323885713

About the Editor

Alejandro Sierra

Prof. Dr. Alejandro Pazos Sierra MD, Ms, PhD was graduated in Medicine at the University of Santiago de Compostela (USC) in 1987 and received his Master in Knowledge Engineering at the University Polytechnic of Madrid (UPM) in 1989 and his Doctor Degree in Computer Science, at the UPM in 1990. In 1996, he also received his doctorate in Medicine and Surgery from the Complutense University of Madrid (UCM). Since 1989, he has worked with several research groups from institutions such as Technological Institute of Georgia, the Harvard Medical School, Stanford University, and University of Aveiro (Portugal). Since 1999, he is Full Professor in the Faculty of Computer Science at the University of A Coruña. In 1995, he founded the Laboratory of Artificial Neural Networks and Adaptive Systems (RNASA-IMEDIR). From foundation, twelve years ago, he is also the coordinator of the Galician Research Network of Colorectal Cancer (REGICC)

Affiliations and Expertise

Full Professor, Faculty of Computer Science, University of A Coruna; Coordinator, Galician Research Network of Colorectal Cancer (REGICC), A Coruna, Galicia, Spain

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