FORTRAN - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124704602, 9781483271941


1st Edition

Authors: Samuel L. Marateck
eBook ISBN: 9781483271941
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1977
Page Count: 688
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FORTRAN is written for students who have no prior knowledge of computers or programming. The book aims to teach students how to program using the FORTRAN language.

The publication first elaborates on an introduction to computers and programming, introduction to FORTRAN, and calculations and the READ statement. Discussions focus on flow charts, rounding numbers, strings, executing the program, the WRITE and FORMAT statements, performing an addition, input and output devices, and algorithms. The text then takes a look at functions and the IF statement and the DO Loop, the IF-THEN-ELSE and the WHILE loop, including applications of the DO loop, the LOGICAL declaration statement, library functions, other applications of the IF statement, and writing REAL constants in exponential form.

The manuscript ponders on subscripted variables, the DATA statement, and the implied DO loop, doubly subscripted variables and matrix multiplication, input/output, and functions, subprograms, and subroutines. Topics include statement functions, subprograms calling other subprograms, reading using X format, control characters, reading using F format, INTEGER subscripted variables, and matrix multiplication.

The publication is a dependable source of data for computer programmers and students interested in the FORTRAN language.

Table of Contents


To the Reader

1 Introduction to Computers and Programming

1.1 General Remarks

1.2 The Keypunch

1.3 Input and Output Devices

1.4 Solving a Problem

1.5 Algorithms


2 Introduction to FORTRAN

2.1 General Remarks

2.2 The Assignment Statement

2.3 The END Statement

2.4 The Listing of the Program; the STOP Statement

2.5 Executing the Program

2.6 The WRITE and FORMAT Statements

2.7 The Format-Free PRINT Statement

2.8 Performing an Addition

2.9 Performing a Multiplication

2.10 Restrictions and Limitations in Using F Format

2.11 REAL and INTEGER Mode

2.12 I Format

2.13 The INTEGER and REAL Declaration Statements

2.14 Restrictions Involved in Using I Format

2.15 Redefining Variables

2.16 Debugging Programs on the FORTRAN Compiler

2.17 Debugging Using the WATFOR/WATFIV Compiler

2.18 Labeling Cards

2.19 Continuation Cards

2.20 The Formatted PRINT


3 Calculations and the READ Statement

3.1 Performing Calculations in FORTRAN

3.2 Peculiarities of REAL and INTEGER Arithmetic

3.3 Mixed Mode

3.4 The READ Statement

3.5 Some Programming Tips on FORMATS and DATA Cards; Repeated Field Specifications

3.6 The WATFOR/WATFIV READ Statement; Doing Calculations in the PRINT Statement

3.7 The GO TO Statement

3.8 Flow Charts

3.9 Rounding Numbers

3.10 Strings

3.11 Strings in WATFIV

3.12 Another Form of the READ Statement


4 Functions and the IF Statement

4.1 Library Functions

4.2 The Logical IF Statement

4.3 Relational Operators: EQ, NE, GT, LT, GE, and LE

4.4 Other Applications of the IF Statement

4.5 Writing REAL Constants in Exponential Form

4.6 How REAL and INTEGER Constants Are Stored

4.7 Printing Using E Format

4.8 Using X Format

4.9 The Arithmetic IF Statement


5 The DO Loop, the IF-THEN-ELSE and the WHILE Loop

5.1 The DO Loop

5.2 T Format

5.3 More on DO Loops

5.4 Summations and Products

5.5 Negative Increments; Reading a Variable Number of Data Cards

5.6 The AND, OR, and NOT Logical Operators

5.7 LOGICAL Constants and Format

5.8 The LOGICAL Declaration Statement

5.9 Nested DO Loops

5.10 Applications of the DO Loop

5.11 A WATFIV-S Feature: The IF-THEN-ELSE (The Block IF)

5.12 Another WATFIV-S Feature: The WHILE Loop


6 Subscripted Variables, the DATA Statement, and the Implied DO Loop

6.1 Subscripted Variables

6.2 The DATA Statement

6.3 The Computed GO TO Statement

6.4 INTEGER Subscripted Variables

6.5 Sorting

6.6 Satisfying Input and Output Lists

6.7 Implied DO Loops


7 Doubly Subscripted Variables and Matrix Multiplication

7.1 Doubly Subscripted Variables

7.2 How Array's Elements Are Stored in the Computer's Memory

7.3 Matrix Multiplication

7.4 Reading Values into Arrays


8 Input/Output

8.1 Printing Using F Format

8.2 Reading Using F Format

8.3 I Format

8.4 E Format

8.5 Using Slashes in FORMAT Statements

8.6 Introduction to Alphanumeric Constants

8.7 More on the Implied DO Loop

8.8 Using Arrays Without Subscripts in READ and WRITE Statements

8.9 Repeated Groups of Field Specifications

8.10 The DATA Declaration Statement

8.11 Using G Format

8.12 T Format

8.13 Hollerith Fields

8.14 Control Characters

8.15 Using Strings in FORMATS Used with READ Statements

8.16 Reading Using X FORMAT

8.17 More on the READ and WRITE Statements; the END Option


9 Functions, Subprograms, and Subroutines

9.1 Statement Functions

9.2 Subprogram Functions

9.3 Using Arrays in Subprograms

9.4 Redefining Dummy Arguments in Function Subprograms

9.5 Subprograms Calling Other Subprograms

9.6 Subroutines

9.7 The Arguments of Subroutines and Function Subprograms

9.8 Differences Between Subroutines and Subprogram Functions

9.9 Modularizing Programs

9.10 Using Arrays as Arguments of Subroutines

9.11 Plotting Histograms

9.12 Matrix Multiplication Using Subroutines (Optional Section)


10 Structured Programming

10.1 Introduction to Structured Programming

10.2 Program Design Aids: Pseudo Language

10.3 Top-Down Design and the Hierarchial Diagram

10.4 Top-Down Testing

10.5 Program Design Aids: the HIPO Diagram

10.6 Management-Programming Techniques

10.7 Internal Documentation

10.8 Generality, Independence, and Integrity


11 The COMMON Statement and the EQUIVALENT Statement

11.1 The COMMON Declaration Statement

11.2 Labeled COMMON

11.3 BLOCK DATA Subroutine

11.4 More on COMMON

11.5 Comparison of Using Argument Lists and COMMON List

11.6 The EXTERNAL Statement

11.7 Execution-Time Dimensioning

11.8 The EQUIVALENCE Statement


12 Significance, Double Precision, Complex Numbers

12.1 Converting Binary Numbers to Decimal Numbers

12.2 Significance

12.3 Overflow and Underflow

12.4 More on Significance

12.5 Hexidecimal Representation

12.6 Double Precision

12.7 Newton's Method and DOUBLE PRECISION Functions

12.8 Complex Numbers


13 More Input/Output

13.1 More on A FORMAT

13.2 CHARACTER Mode in WATFIV (and the Proposed ANS FORTRAN Revision)

13.3 Execution-Time FORMAT

13.4 The NAME LIST Statement

13.5 The PUNCH Statement

13.6 The Scale Factor

13.7 Files



A Object Decks

B Control Cards for the IBM System 360/370

C Control Cards for WATFIV

D Time Sharing

Subject Index


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© Academic Press 1977
Academic Press
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About the Author

Samuel L. Marateck

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