Forensic Anthropology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128022146, 9780128025239

Forensic Anthropology

1st Edition

Editors: Max Houck
eBook ISBN: 9780128025239
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128022146
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 24th January 2017
Page Count: 436
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Table of Contents

  • Published and Forthcoming Titles in the Advanced Forensic Science Series
  • Senior Editor: Biography
  • List of Contributors
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Section 1. Overview
    • Forensic Anthropology: An Introduction
      • See also
    • History of Forensic Anthropology
      • See also
    • Principles of Forensic Science
      • What Is Forensic Science?
      • The Trace as the Basic Unit of Forensic Science
      • Two Native Principles
      • Nonnative Principles
      • See also
    • Transfer
      • Introduction
      • Transfer
      • Factors Affecting Transfer
      • Differential Shedding
      • Primary and Secondary Transfer
      • Special Cases
      • Mechanism of Fiber Transfer
      • Fiber Transfer: A Dynamic Process
      • Fiber Transfer Modeling
      • Concluding Comments
      • See also
    • Interpretation/The Comparative Method
      • Introduction
      • Analogy and Comparison Within a Forensic Process
      • The Comparative Method Within Forensic Science
      • See also
    • Forensic Classification of Evidence
      • Introduction
      • Methods of Classification
      • Class-Level Information
      • Uniqueness and Individualization
      • Relationships and Context
      • See also
    • Key Terms
    • Review Questions
    • Discussion Questions
  • Section 2. Taphonomy
    • Introduction
    • Animal Effects on Bones
      • Introduction
      • Search and Recovery
      • Postmortem Interval Estimation
      • Assessment of Lesions and Cause of Death
      • See also
    • Forensic Taphonomy
      • Introduction
      • History and Development of the Role of Taphonomy in Forensic Anthropology
      • Time Since Death Estimation
      • Trends in Current Research
      • See also
    • Postmortem Interval
      • Entomology
      • Botany
      • Other Animal and Cultural Indicators
      • Tissue Morphology
      • Mummification
      • Adipocere
      • Chemical Approaches
      • Radiocarbon Analysis
      • See also
    • Early and Late Postmortem Changes
      • Introduction
      • Supravitality
      • Mechanical Excitability of the Muscle
      • Electrical Excitability of the Skeletal Muscle
      • Pharmacological Excitability of the Iris
      • Algor Mortis, Postmortem Body Cooling
      • Postmortem Changes
      • Preservation of Decomposing Bodies
      • Preservation Processes in Cadavers
      • See also
    • Estimation of the Time Since Death
      • Introduction
      • Temperature of Corpses
      • Rectal Temperature Time of Death Nomogram
      • Brain Temperature Time of Death Nomogram
      • Field Studies
      • Cooling Dummy
      • Compound Method
      • Further Methods
      • Putrefaction
      • Putrefaction in Water
      • Immunohistochemical Detection of Insulin, Thyroglobulin, and Calcitonin
      • See also
    • Key Terms
    • Review Questions
    • Discussion Questions
  • Section 3. Recovery
    • Introduction
    • Archeology
      • Background
      • Search
      • Recovery
      • Summary
      • See also
    • Packaging
      • Background
      • Paper as a Packaging Medium
      • Infested Material
      • Collection of Items
      • Labeling
      • Collection
      • Summary
      • Appendix 1 Collection and Packaging
      • Ammunition
      • Bite Marks
      • Suspect
      • Blood
      • Whole Blood
      • Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation
      • Cigarette Butts
      • Clothing
      • Documents
      • Fibers
      • Fire Debris
      • Firearms Discharge Residue
      • Projectile Hole in Clothing
      • Projectile Hole in Dead Skin
      • Glass
      • Hairs
      • Control Samples
      • Insects: Flies
      • Paint
      • Postmortem Samples
      • Safe Insulation and Safe Surface Paint
      • Saliva
      • Seminal Stains
      • Soil from Scene and Suspect's Clothing and/or Environment
      • Tools
      • Toolmark(s)
      • Vegetation
      • Wires
      • Notes
      • See also
    • Preservation
      • Preservation: A Time Frame Process
      • Threats to Evidence
      • See also
    • Recording
      • Background
      • Notes
      • Photographs
      • Digital Photography
      • Video Recording
      • Plans
      • Computer-Aided Design
      • Photogrammetry
      • Sketch Plan
      • Coordinate and Triangulation Methods of Measuring Crime Scenes
      • Procedure for Measuring Crime Scenes
      • Scale Plan
      • Computers
      • Summary
      • See also
    • Recovery of Human Remains
      • Introduction
      • First Officers on the Scene
      • Crime Scene Manager
      • Senior Investigating Officer
      • Forensic Scientist
      • Crime Scene Examiner/Photographer
      • Production/Exhibit Officer
      • Forensic Pathologist/Medical Examiner
      • Forensic Entomologist
      • Forensic Anthropologist
      • Forensic Archeology
      • Forensic Botany
      • Police Search Team
      • Scene Processing
      • Search Techniques
      • Recovery of Human Remains
      • Forensic Anthropology
      • Other Considerations at the Crime Scene
      • See also
    • Collection and Chain of Evidence
      • Introduction
      • Scene Examination
      • Evidence Collection
      • Control Samples
      • Chain of Custody
      • See also
    • Contamination
      • Definition
      • Background
      • Steps to Avoid Contamination
      • Choosing Who Should Examine the Scene (Location, Person, or Item)
      • Actions Within the Examination
      • The Use of Blanks and Controls
      • Demonstrating the Integrity of Items and Investigations
      • Conclusion
      • See also
    • Principles for the Organization of Forensic Support
      • Scope of Forensic Support
      • An Ideal Organizational Model?
      • Organizational Theory
      • Forensic Organizations—A Special Case?
      • Public versus Private Providers
      • People Are Our Most Valuable Asset!
      • Conclusions
    • Key Terms
    • Review Questions
    • Discussion Questions
  • Section 4. Analysis
    • Introduction
    • Species: Human versus Nonhuman
      • Introduction
      • Method Selection
      • Methodologies
      • Summary and Conclusions
      • See also
    • Sexing
      • Introduction
      • Sexual Dimorphism
      • Sex Estimation in Subadults
      • The Adult Skeleton: Morphology
      • The Adult Skeleton: Metric Analysis
      • Summary and Conclusions
      • See also
    • Aging the Dead and the Living
      • Introduction
      • The Dead
      • The Living
      • Conclusions
      • See also
    • Stature and Build
      • Introduction
      • Measures of Body Build and Body Size
      • Methods of Stature Estimation
      • Stature Estimation from Long Bones
      • Stature Estimation from Percutaneous Bone Measurements and Body Parts
      • Stature Estimation from Radiographically Determined Long Bone Length
      • Stature Estimation from Small Bones and Other Bones of the Body
      • Estimation of Stature from Fragments of Bones
      • Secular Change and Variation in Limb Proportions in Relation to Stature in Different Populations
      • Factors Affecting Stature Estimation in Forensic Examinations and Making Population Standards and Databases
      • See also
    • Ancestry
      • Introduction
      • Resources
      • Why Do Ancestry Estimation?
      • Estimation from the Cranium
      • Estimation from the Postcranial Skeleton
      • Statistics and Probabilities
      • Conclusions and Future Directions
      • See also
    • Forensic Age Estimation
      • Introduction
      • Age Estimation in Adolescents and Young Adults
      • Age Diagnostics in Child Victims in Child Pornographic Image Documents
      • Age Diagnostics in Older Adults for Clarification of Pension Entitlements
      • Conclusions
      • See also
    • Key Terms
    • Review Questions
    • Discussion Questions
  • Section 5. Pathology
    • Introduction
    • Bone Pathology and Antemortem Trauma
      • Introduction
      • Bone Pathology
      • Antemortem Trauma
      • See also
    • Biomechanics of Bone Trauma
      • Introduction
      • Goals of Trauma Analysis
      • Bone Structure and Material Properties
      • Fracture Propagation and Fracture Types
      • See also
    • Bone Trauma
      • Introduction
      • Ante-, Peri-, or Postmortem Origin of the Bone Lesion
      • Biomechanics
      • Classification of the Bone Lesions
      • Long Bones
      • Other Locations
      • Gunshot Wounds
      • See also
    • Blunt Injury
      • Introduction
      • Blunt Injuries to the Integument
      • Head Injuries
      • Injuries of the Chest
      • Abdominal Injuries
      • Injuries to the Extremities
      • See also
    • Sharp Trauma
      • Introduction
      • Epidemiology
      • Wound Morphology and Biomechanics
      • Sequelae and Causes of Death
      • Homicide, Suicide, and Accident
      • Capability of Acting
      • See also
    • Gunshot Wounds
      • Introduction
      • Wound Ballistics
      • Criminalistic Aspects
      • Entrance and Exit Wounds
      • Classification of Entrance Wounds in Relation to the Range from Muzzle to Target
      • Contact Shots
      • Internal Findings
      • Forensic Examination and Documentation
      • Manner of Death
      • Injuries Caused by Explosives
      • See also
    • Torture
      • Introduction
      • Forms
      • Fingers
      • Hands and Arms
      • Foot and Leg
      • Head
      • Neck
      • Trunk
      • Electric Torture
      • Psychological Torture
      • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
      • Ethics
      • Conclusion
      • See also
    • Key Terms
    • Review Questions
    • Discussion Questions
  • Section 6. Identification
    • Introduction
    • Identification of the Living
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Facial Assessment
      • Further Features on the Skin, Hands, and Genitals
      • Appendix: Morphological Assessment of Facial Features: The DMV Atlas
      • See also
    • Facial Approximation
      • Introduction
      • Method History
      • Contemporary Methods
      • See also
    • Personal Identification in Forensic Anthropology
      • Introduction
      • Personal Identification
      • Types of Personal Identification
      • Methods of Scientific Identification
      • Possible Conclusions in a Scientific Identification
      • Methods Contributing to Identification
      • Conclusion
      • See also
    • Odontology
      • Definitions
      • The Nature of the Work
      • Why Is Dental Evidence So Good for Corroborating Identity?
      • When No Antemortem Records Exist
      • Interactions with Other Professionals
      • Bite Marks, Bruising, and Other Injuries to Skin
      • Other Skills
      • Summary
      • See also
    • Disaster Victim Identification
      • Introduction
      • Management of DVI
      • Principles of Identification
      • Methods of Identification
      • Evaluation of Identification Data
      • Conclusions
      • See also
    • The National Missing and Unidentified Persons System (NamUs)
      • Introduction
      • See also
    • Identification
      • Introduction
      • Part I. Unidentified Cadavers
      • Part II. Personal Identification: Comparison Between Antemortem and Postmortem Data
      • Conclusions
      • Well-Preserved Body
      • Putrefied, Burnt, Partly, or Completely Skeletonized Human Remains
      • See also
    • Key Terms
    • Review Questions
    • Discussion Questions
  • Section 7. Statistics and Interpretation
    • Introduction
    • The Frequentist Approach to Forensic Evidence Interpretation
      • Example
      • Range Tests
      • Formal Hypothesis Tests
      • Significance Levels and Small or Big Values
      • The Two-Sample t-Test
      • Confidence Intervals
      • Controversies and Issues
      • See also
    • Statistical Interpretation of Evidence: Bayesian Analysis
      • Introduction
      • Bayes' Rule
      • The Value of Evidence
      • Categorical Data and Discrete Hypotheses
      • Continuous Data and Discrete Hypotheses
      • Principles of Evidence Evaluation
      • Interpretation
      • Pitfalls of Intuition
      • See also
    • Forensic Intelligence
      • Introduction
      • Traces as Forensic Case Data, Sign, Information, Evidence, and Intelligence
      • Intelligence-Led Policing
      • Intelligence-Led Systems and Examples of Forensic Intelligence Activities
      • Limits of Forensic Intelligence and Requirements
      • Challenges and Tensions
      • Conclusion
      • See also
    • Forensic Intelligence Analysis
      • Intelligence Analysis and Forensic Science
      • What Is Forensic Intelligence Analysis?
      • Similarities between Forensic Science and Intelligence Analysis
      • Intelligence Failures
      • The Benefits of Structured Analytic Techniques
      • See also
    • Standard Methods
      • Introduction
      • Why Standards Are Required?
      • The United States National Academy of Sciences Report 2009
      • Global Standard Environment
      • Challenges in Developing Standards
      • See also
    • Measurement Uncertainty
      • Glossary
      • Measurement
      • Measurement to Meaning
      • The Meaning of Meaning
      • Measurement Uncertainty
      • Measurement Uncertainty: A Forensic Example
      • Determining Measurement Uncertainty
      • Meaning Requires Uncertainty
      • See also
    • Key Terms
    • Review Questions
    • Discussion Questions
  • Section 8. Professional Topics
    • Introduction
    • Crime Scene to Court
      • Introduction
      • Task
      • Models
      • Forensic Strategies
      • Integrated Case Management
      • Summary
      • See also
    • Expert Witness Qualifications and Testimony
      • Introduction
      • Selecting an Expert
      • Qualifications
      • Experience as an Expert Witness
      • Education and Training
      • Membership in Professional Associations
      • Increased Scrutiny of Experts
      • Weight of the Evidence
      • Conclusion
    • Forensic Laboratory Reports
      • Contents of a Report—A “Science” Standard
      • Contents of Report: Legal Standards
      • Reports: Stand-Alone Evidence or Support for a Testifying Expert
      • Ethical Considerations and Forensic Reports
      • Conclusion
      • See also
    • Legal Aspects of Forensic Science
      • Introduction
      • Chain of Custody: Collection, Transport, Handling, and Storage of Samples
      • Admissibility of Forensic Science
      • Expert Evidence at Trial
      • Appellate Review and Postconviction
      • Lay Assessment of Forensic Science
      • Plea Bargains and Interrogations
      • Wrongful Convictions
      • Expert Witness Immunity
      • See also
    • Health and Safety
      • Occupational Health and Safety Policy
      • Specific Laboratory Hazards
      • Hazards in the Field
      • See also
    • Ethics
      • Introduction
      • Forensic Science Ethics and Personal Ethics
      • Organizational Forensic Science Ethics
      • Basic Minimal Ethics and Aspirational Ethics
      • Codes of Ethics in Forensic Science Practice
      • Standards for Good Forensic Practice
      • Ethical Problems in the Forensic Sciences
      • Foundations of Ethics
      • Ethical Dilemmas
      • Conclusion
      • See also
    • Key Terms
    • Review Questions
    • Discussion Questions
  • Index

Description

Forensic Anthropology serves as a graduate level text for those studying and teaching forensic anthropology, as well as an excellent reference for forensic anthropologist libraries or for use in casework. Covers taphonomy, recovery and analysis, identification, statistical interpretation, and professional issues. Edited by a world-renowned leading forensic expert, the Advanced Forensic Science Series grew out of the recommendations from the 2009 NAS Report, Strengthening Forensic Science: A Path Forward, and is a long overdue solution for the forensic science community.

Key Features

  • Provides the basic principles of forensic science and an overview of forensic anthropology
  • Contains sections on taphonomy, recovery, analysis, pathology, and identification
  • Covers statistical interpretation of evidence using the classical-frequentist approach and Bayesian analysis, measurement uncertainty, and standard methods
  • Includes a section on professional issues, such as: from crime scene to court, expert witness testimony, and health and safety
  • Incorporates effective pedagogy, key terms, review questions, discussion questions, and additional reading suggestions

Readership

Law enforcement, social service case workers, juvenile workers, child welfare workers and solicitors /prosecutors


Details

No. of pages:
436
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2017
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780128025239
Hardcover ISBN:
9780128022146

About the Editors

Max Houck Editor

Dr. Max M. Houck is an internationally-recognized forensic expert with research interests in forensic science, education, and the forensic enterprise and its industries. He has worked in all aspects of forensic science, including at the FBI Laboratory. Dr. Houck has published widely in books and peer-reviewed journals. His anthropology and trace evidence casework includes the Branch Davidian Investigation, the September 11 attacks on the Pentagon, the D.B. Cooper case, the US Embassy bombings in Africa, and the West Memphis Three case, among hundreds of others. He served for six years as the Chair of the Forensic Science Educational Program Accreditation Commission (FEPAC). Dr. Houck is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry and a founding Co-Editor of the journal Forensic Science Policy and Management.

Affiliations and Expertise

Vice President, Forensic and Intelligence Services, LLC