Foods and Dietary Supplements in the Prevention and Treatment of Disease in Older Adults - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124186804, 9780124186866

Foods and Dietary Supplements in the Prevention and Treatment of Disease in Older Adults

1st Edition

Editors: Ronald Ross Watson
eBook ISBN: 9780124186866
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124186804
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 27th January 2015
Page Count: 398
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Foods and Dietary Supplements in the Prevention and Treatment of Disease in Older Adults focuses on the ways in which food and dietary supplements affect the major health problems of aging adults. Researchers in nutrition, diet, epidemiology, and aging studies, as well as healthcare providers who work with elderly patients will use this comprehensive resource as a tool in their long-term goal of preventing and treating chronic disease within the elderly.

This book brings together a broad range of experts working on the different aspects of foods and dietary supplements (vitamins, herbs, plant extracts, etc.) in health promotion and disease prevention. They have contributed chapters which define a range of ways in which foods, nutriceuticals, and dietary supplements prevent disease and promote health in older adults. They begin by reviewing the medicinal role of foods, herbal, and dietary supplements in health promotion in older adults, as well as some of the most commonly used supplements in elder "self-medication." They review the most recent studies of how foods, herbal, and dietary supplements are effective in the prevention and treatment of cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and other obesity associated diseases in older adults. Then they consider alcohol, other drugs, and plant based drugs of abuse which can adversely affect the health of older adults. Lastly, they consider foods and dietary supplements in gene regulation in older adults.

Key Features

  • Investigates the important nutritional requirements of the aging population in health and in relation to various acute and chronic diseases
  • Explores the nutritional effects of botanical extracts and components that can have important health promotion benefits, and risks, to ensure safe consumption
  • Reviews studies of common diseases within the aging population including cancer, cardiovascular, metabolic, and infectious diseases that can alter the intake of foods, supplements, and/or requirements for various nutrients
  • Investigates the mechanisms of action of components of foods and dietary supplements, in particular gene activation and epigenetics


Researchers and graduate students in nutrition, diet, epidemiology, and aging studies; practicing nutritionists and other healthcare professionals who treat aging adults

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Part I: Non-Nutritional Components in Diet and Supplements, Nutraceuticals and their Role in Health Promotion in the Mature Adult
    • Chapter 1. A Traditional Elder’s Anti-Aging Cornucopia of North American Plants
      • 1.1 Introduction
      • 1.2 Indian Breadroot (Pediomelum esculentum (Pursh) Rydb. formerly Psoralea esculenta Pursh)
      • 1.3 Gumweed (Grindelia squarrosa (Pursh) Dunal)
      • 1.4 Labrador Tea (Ledum spp.)
      • 1.5 Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.)
      • 1.6 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 2. Alzheimer’s Disease: Current Perspectives – Animal Models, Drugs Under Development, and Potential Nutritional Intervention
      • 2.1 Introduction
      • 2.2 Incidence and Prevalence: Global and us Statistics
      • 2.3 Economic Impact and Healthcare Costs
      • 2.4 Molecular Basis
      • 2.5 Medication
      • 2.6 Experimental Animal Models and Therapeutic Approaches
      • 2.7 Recent Drug Development Efforts
      • 2.8 Scope of Nutritional Intervention
      • 2.9 Insights and the Future
      • References
    • Chapter 3. Amla in the Prevention of Aging: Scientific Validation of the Ethnomedicinal Claims
      • 3.1 Introduction
      • 3.2 Traditional and Validated Uses
      • 3.3 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 4. Sarcopenia – Potential Beneficial Effects of Creatine Supplementation
      • 4.1 Introduction
      • 4.2 Creatine and Aging
      • 4.3 Timing of Creatine Supplementation
      • 4.4 Safety of Creatine for Older Adults
      • 4.5 Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 5. Dietary Spices in the Prevention of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Past, Present, and Future
      • 5.1 Introduction
      • 5.2 Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicines in the Treatment of Arthritis
      • 5.3 Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 6. Medicinal Benefits of Ginger in Various Gastrointestinal Ailments: Use in Geriatric Conditions
      • 6.1 Introduction
      • 6.2 Ginger in Traditional Medicine
      • 6.3 Chemistry of Ginger
      • 6.4 Ginger in Gastrointestinal Ailments
      • 6.5 Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 7. Foods and Dietary Supplements in the Prevention and Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases in Older Adults
      • 7.1 Introduction
      • 7.2 Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease
      • 7.3 Multiple Sclerosis
      • 7.4 Parkinson’s Disease
      • 7.5 Dysphagia in Neurodegenerative Diseases
      • 7.6 Conclusion
      • References
      • Further Reading
  • Part II: Nutraceuticals in Chronic Disease and Cancer Therapy in Seniors
    • Chapter 8. Targeting Mitochondria for Healthy Brain Aging
      • 8.1 Introduction
      • 8.2 Mitochondria Bioenergetics
      • 8.3 Changes that Occur in the Brain with Age
      • 8.4 Age-Related Cellular Dysfunction and Association with Alzheimer’s Disease
      • 8.5 Dietary Supplementation Targeting Mitochondrial Function to Improve Age-Related Cognitive Deficits
      • 8.6 The Importance of Canine Studies in Age-Related Cognitive Deficits
      • 8.7 Summary
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 9. The Progression of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Lifestyle Intervention in Older Adults
      • 9.1 Introduction
      • 9.2 Prevalence of NAFLD and NASH
      • 9.3 Risk Factors Associated with NAFLD and NASH
      • 9.4 Pathogenesis of NAFLD and NASH
      • 9.5 Animal Models
      • 9.6 NAFLD and NASH in the Elderly
      • 9.7 Management of NAFLD/NASH
      • 9.8 Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 10. Use of Tea (Camellia sinensis [L.] Kuntze) as a Hepatoprotective Agent in Geriatric Conditions
      • 10.1 Introduction
      • 10.2 Phytochemistry of Tea
      • 10.3 Tea Protects Against Alcohol-Induced Hepatotoxicity
      • 10.4 Tea Protects Against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity
      • 10.5 Tea is Effective in Viral Hepatitis
      • 10.6 Effect of Tea on Ischemia Reperfusion Injury
      • 10.7 Effect of Tea Phytochemicals on Hepatotoxicity of Lead
      • 10.8 Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 11. Fruits in the Prevention of Cataractogenesis by Targeting the Aldose Reductase: Promise from Preclinical Observations
      • 11.1 Introduction
      • 11.2 Beneficial Effects of Dietary Agents
      • 11.3 Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 12. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) in the Treatment of Osteoarthritis: Clinical Observations and Mechanistic Insights
      • 12.1 Introduction
      • 12.2 Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicines in the Treatment of Arthritis
      • 12.3 Phytochemistry of Ginger
      • 12.4 Traditional Uses of Ginger
      • 12.5 Scientific Studies Validating the Antiarthritic Effects of Ginger
      • 12.6 Mechanistic Studies
      • 12.7 Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 13. Natural Polyphenols Target the Tumor Necrosis Factor-related Apoptosis-inducing Ligand (TRAIL) Signaling Pathway for Cancer Chemoprevention
      • 13.1 Introduction
      • 13.2 Characteristic of Death Ligand Trail and Trail-Mediated Apoptotic Pathway
      • 13.3 Polyphenols Enhance Trail-Induced Apoptosis in Cancer Cells
      • References
    • Chapter 14. Use of the Ayurvedic Drug Triphala in Medical Conditions Afflicting Older Adults
      • 14.1 Introduction
      • 14.2 Rasayana Drugs in Ayurveda
      • 14.3 Traditional Uses of Triphala
      • 14.4 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 15. Use of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants as Immunomodulators in Geriatrics: Preclinical Studies
      • 15.1 Introduction
      • 15.2 Plants as Immunomodulators
      • 15.3 Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 16. The Health Benefits of Indian Traditional Ayurvedic Rasayana (Anti-aging) Drugs: A Review
      • 16.1 Introduction
      • 16.2 Hypothesis of Aging
      • 16.3 Ayurveda and Aging
      • 16.4 Types of Rasayana Drugs and Some Compositions
      • 16.5 Mechanisms Responsible for the Beneficial Effects
      • 16.6 Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 17. Can Phytochemicals be Effective in Preventing Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in the Geriatric Population? An Evidence-Based Revisit
      • 17.1 Introduction
      • 17.2 Phytochemicals in Protection Against Alcohol-Induced Hepatotoxicity
      • 17.3 Mechanisms
      • 17.4 Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 18. Chamomile: A Herbal Agent for Treatment of Diseases of the Elderly
      • 18.1 Introduction
      • 18.2 The Plant – Chamomile
      • 18.3 Phytochemicals in Chamomile
      • 18.4 Use of Chamomile Based on Traditional Practice
      • 18.5 Use of Chamomile Based on Scientific Evidence
      • 18.6 Adverse Effects, Allergic Reactions, and Safety Issues With Chamomile
      • 18.7 Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
  • Part III: Nutritional Approaches to Therapy in Clinical Medicine in Old Age
    • Chapter 19. Effects of Omega-3 on Neurodegenerative Diseases and Stroke
      • 19.1 Omega-3 PUFA as a Diet Supplement
      • 19.2 The Aging Brain and its Relation to Omega-3 PUFA
      • 19.3 Omega-3 PUFA, Neurodegenerative Diseases, and Stroke
      • 19.4 Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 20. Selenium Binding Protein 1: A Moonlighting Protein
      • 20.1 Introduction
      • 20.2 Selenium Binding Protein 1
      • 20.3 Other SBPs
      • 20.4 Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 21. Selenium and Senescence: Centering on Genome Maintenance
      • 21.1 Introduction
      • 21.2 Selenium and Selenoproteins
      • 21.3 Senescence
      • 21.4 ATM Activation in DNA Damage Response
      • 21.5 Roles of p53 in DNA Damage and Senescence Responses
      • 21.6 Pathway Crosstalk in Senescence
      • 21.7 Selenium and Cellular Senescence
      • 21.8 Future Perspectives
      • Disclaimer
      • References
    • Chapter 22. Nutritional Strategies Against Sarcopenia of Aging: Current Evidence and Future Directions
      • 22.1 Introduction
      • 22.2 Age-Related Changes in Eating Habits
      • 22.3 Current Nutritional Recommendations Against Sarcopenia
      • 22.4 New Dietary Candidates for the Management of Sarcopenia
      • 22.5 Nutritional Strategies to Counteract Muscle Aging
      • 22.6 Are Nutritional Supplements Always Beneficial for Muscle? The Case of Antioxidants
      • 22.7 A New Way to Look at the Nutritional Regulation of Muscle Physiology: The “Pachinko Model”
      • 22.8 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 23. Minerals and Older Adults
      • 23.1 Introduction
      • 23.2 Calcium
      • 23.3 Iron
      • 23.4 Magnesium
      • 23.5 Zinc
      • 23.6 Selenium
      • 23.7 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 24. Vitamin D and Immunity
      • 24.1 Introduction
      • 24.2 Overview of the Immune System
      • 24.3 Vitamin D – Overview of its Biological Functions
      • 24.4 Vitamin D and its Importance in Immunity
      • 24.5 Vitamin D Deficiency: A Global Problem
      • 24.6 Human Studies Investigating the Effects of Vitamin D on Immunity
      • 24.7 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 25. Micronutrients and Ginseng for Immune Support in Older Adults
      • 25.1 Introduction
      • 25.2 Aging and Immune Function
      • 25.3 Micronutrients and Immune Function
      • 25.4 Ginseng and Immune Function
      • 25.5 Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 26. The Role of Micronutrients in Preventing Infections in the Elderly
      • 26.1 Introduction
      • 26.2 Micronutrients
      • 26.3 Micronutrients and Immune Function
      • 26.4 Effect of Micronutrient Supplements on the Aging Immune System
      • 26.5 Effects of Micronutrient Supplements on the Frequency and Severity of Infections
      • 26.6 Problems With Micronutrient Supplements
      • 26.7 Conclusion
      • References
  • Part IV: Food and Supplements in Chronic Heart Diseases, Obesity, and Stroke
    • Chapter 27. Dietary Protein and the Risk of Stroke
      • 27.1 Introduction
      • 27.2 Sources of Dietary Protein and Daily Requirements
      • 27.3 Total, Animal, and Vegetable Protein
      • 27.4 Red and Processed Meat
      • 27.5 Fish and Poultry
      • 27.6 Dairy and Eggs
      • 27.7 Legumes, Nuts, and Grains
      • 27.8 Dietary Patterns
      • 27.9 Protein Supplementation Post-Stroke
      • 27.10 Conclusion
      • Appendices
      • References
    • Chapter 28. Care for Stroke Patients with Eating Difficulties
      • 28.1 Introduction
      • 28.2 Eating Difficulties
      • 28.3 Dysphagia
      • 28.4 General Care and Nursing Interventions for Patients with Eating Difficulties
      • References
    • Chapter 29. Homocysteine, B Vitamins, and Cardiovascular Risk
      • 29.1 Homocysteine Metabolism
      • 29.2 Vitamins B6, B9, and B12
      • 29.3 Causes of Hyperhomocysteinemia
      • 29.4 Atherothrombotic Effect of Homocysteine
      • 29.5 Association of Homocysteine with Increased Cardiovascular Risk
      • 29.6 Vitamin B Supplementation to Decrease Hyperhomocysteinemia
      • 29.7 Safety of Vitamin B Supplementation
      • 29.8 Effect of Vitamin B Supplementation on Cardiovascular Surrogate Markers
      • 29.9 Effect of Vitamin B Supplementation on Cardiovascular Clinical Outcomes
      • 29.10 Meta-Analyses of Large Randomized Clinical Trials of Vitamin B Supplementation
      • 29.11 Vitamin B Supplementation and Cardiovascular Risk: What Went Wrong?
      • 29.12 Screening for Hyperhomocysteinemia: Is it Necessary?
      • 29.13 Current Status
      • References
    • Chapter 30. Changes in Postprandial Blood Pressure in the Elderly
      • 30.1 Introduction
      • 30.2 Gastrointestinal Hormones Could be Contributing to PPH
      • 30.3 Modifications in Autonomic Nervous System
      • 30.4 Types of Food and PPH
      • 30.5 Treatment Options
      • References
    • Chapter 31. Diet Modification After Acute Coronary Events
      • 31.1 Introduction
      • 31.2 Dietary Recommendations for Patients Following Acute Coronary Syndromes
      • 31.3 What is the Evidence that Diet Modification Improves Outcomes?
      • 31.4 Enriching Diets with Specific Nutrients
      • 31.5 Barriers to Change
      • 31.6 Final Thoughts
      • References
    • Chapter 32. The Effects of Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Deficiencies on Stroke, and Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Supplements
      • 32.1 Introduction
      • 32.2 Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Metabolism
      • 32.3 Homocysteine and Cerebrovascular Diseases
      • 32.4 Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Deficiency in the Elderly
      • 32.5 Low Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Levels in Stroke in the Elderly, and Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Supplementation
      • References
    • Chapter 33. Nutritional Data in the Prevention and Therapy of Peripheral Arterial Disease
      • 33.1 Peripheral Arterial Disease
      • 33.2 Nutritional Assessment
      • 33.3 Nutritional Data in Peripheral Arterial Disease
      • 33.4 Current Recommendations
      • References
    • Chapter 34. Vitamin D Deficiency and Anemia in Heart Failure
      • 34.1 Introduction
      • 34.2 Vitamin D
      • 34.3 Heart Failure
      • 34.4 Heart Failure and Anemia
      • 34.5 Vitamin D and Anemia
      • Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 35. Immunoprotective Effects of Probiotics in the Elderly
      • 35.1 Introduction
      • 35.2 The Human Gut Microbiota
      • 35.3 Aging and the Gut Microbiota
      • 35.4 Aging and Inflammation
      • 35.5 The Gut Microbiota and Immunosenescence
      • 35.6 Probiotics in the Elderly
      • 35.7 Elderly Gut Care
      • 35.8 Conclusion
      • References
  • Index


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About the Editor

Ronald Ross Watson

Ronald Ross Watson

Ronald Ross Watson PhD is a professor of Health Promotion Sciences in the University of Arizona Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health. He was one of the founding members of this school serving the mountain west of the USA. He is a professor of Family and Community Medicine in the School of Medicine at the University of Arizona. He began his research in public health at the Harvard School of Public Health as a fellow in 1971 doing field work on vaccines in Saudi Arabia. He has done clinical studies in Colombia, Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and USA which provides a broad international view of public health. He has served in the military reserve hospital for 17 years with extensive training in medical responses to disasters as the chief biochemistry officer of a general hospital, retiring at a Lt. Colonel. He published 450 papers, and presently directs or has directed several NIH funded biomedical grants relating to alcohol and disease particularly immune function and cardiovascular effects including studying complementary and alternative medicines. Professor Ronald Ross Watson was Director of a National Institutes of Health funded Alcohol Research Center for 5 years. The main goal of the Center was to understand the role of ethanol-induced immunosuppression on immune function and disease resistance in animals. He is an internationally recognized alcohol-researcher, nutritionist and immunologist. He also initiated and directed other NIH-associated work at The University of Arizona, College of Medicine. Dr. Watson has funding from companies and non-profit foundations to study bioactive foods’ components in health promotion. Professor Watson attended the University of Idaho, but graduated from Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah, with a degree in Chemistry in 1966. He completed his Ph.D. degree in 1971 in Biochemistry from Michigan State University. His postdoctoral schooling was completed at the Harvard School of Public Health in Nutrition and Microbiology, including a two-year postdoctoral research experience in immunology. Professor Watson is a distinguished member of several national and international nutrition, immunology, and cancer societies. Overall his career has involved studying many foods for their uses in health promotion. He has edited 120 biomedical reference books, particularly in health and 450 papers and chapters. His teaching and research in foods, nutrition and bacterial disease also prepare him to edit this book. He has 4 edited works on nutrition in aging. He has extensive experience working with natural products, alcohol, exercise, functional foods and dietary extracts for health benefits and safety issues, including getting 12 patents. Dr. Watson has done laboratory studies in mice on immune functions that decline with aging and the role of supplements in delaying this process as modified by alcohol and drugs of abuse.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Arizona, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, and School of Medicine, Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, AZ, USA


"...a great reference for clinicians working with older adults. Its concise, up-to-date review of research and benefits of herbs and supplements makes it essential for useful conversations that clinicians can have with patients using these products. Score: 80 - 3 Stars." --Doody's

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