Food Texture and Viscosity

Food Texture and Viscosity

Concept and Measurement

1st Edition - December 28, 1982

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  • Editors: George Stewart, Bernard Schweigert, John Hawthorn
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323139236

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Drawing together literature from a myriad of sources, this book focuses on the texture and viscosity of food as well as the techniques for measuring these properties. Food Texture and Viscosity: Concept and Measurement includes a brief history of the field and its basic principles and then goes on to provide a detailed discussion of the physical interactions between the human body and food, objective methods of texture measurements, commercially available instruments and their uses, various types of viscous flow, and sensory methods for measuring texture and viscosity. An appendix lists names and addresses of suppliers for anyone interested in purchasing equipment. Incorporating material from numerous sources across a wide range of disciplines, this book will prove valuable to students, faculty, researchers, and anyone working in food technology and sensory evaluation.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    1. Texture, Viscosity, and Food

    Importance of Textural Properties

    The Status of Food Texture Measurements

    Definition of Texture

    Other Definitions

    Texture versus Viscosity

    Texture and Food

    Rheology and Texture

    Early History

    Suggestions for Further Reading

    2. Body-Texture Interactions

    Some Definitions

    The Sequence of Mastication

    Rate of Compression between the Teeth

    Soothing Effect of Mastication


    Forces Generated between the Teeth

    Reasons for Masticating Food

    Nonoral Methods for Sensing Texture

    3. Principles of Objective Texture Measurement


    Force Measuring Instruments

    Distance Measuring Instruments

    Area and Volume Measuring Instruments

    Time Measuring Instruments

    Work, Energy, and Power Measuring Instruments

    Ratio Measuring Techniques

    Multiple Variable Instruments

    Units of Measurement

    Chemical Analysis

    Miscellaneous Methods

    Multiple Measuring Instruments

    4. Practice of Objective Texture Measurement


    Force Measuring Instruments

    Compression-Extrusion Testers

    Shear Testing

    Torsion Devices


    Tensile Testers

    Distance Measuring Instruments

    Volume Measuring Instruments

    Time Measuring Instruments

    Miscellaneous Methods

    Multiple Measuring Instruments

    5. Viscosity and Consistency


    Factors Affecting Viscosity

    Types of Viscous Behavior

    The General Equation for Viscosity

    Other Flow Equations

    Time Dependency

    Methods for Measuring Viscosity

    Use of One-Point Measurements for Non-Newtonian Fluids

    6. Sensory Methods of Texture and Viscosity Measurement


    Importance of Sensory Evaluation

    Sensory Texture Profiling

    Variations on the Texture Profile Technique

    The Texture Profile as an Objective Method

    Correlations between Subjective and Objective Measurements

    Nonoral Methods of Sensory Measurement

    7. Selection of a Suitable Test Procedure


    Factors to Be Considered

    Preparation of the Sample

    Appendix: Suppliers of Texture and Viscosity Measuring Instruments



Product details

  • No. of pages: 325
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1982
  • Published: December 28, 1982
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323139236

About the Series Editors

George Stewart

Affiliations and Expertise

University of California, Davis, U.S.A.

Bernard Schweigert

Affiliations and Expertise

University of California, Davis, California

John Hawthorn

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland

About the Series Volume Editor

Malcolm Bourne

Malcolm Bourne is a nominee for President of the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) and has earned recognition for his work in industry and academia. He is Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Texture Studies, and is seen by many as one of the world's leading experts in this field.

Affiliations and Expertise

Cornell University, Food Science and Technology, Geneva, New York, U.S.A.

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