Food Structures, Digestion and Health

Food Structures, Digestion and Health

1st Edition - March 24, 2014

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  • Editors: Mike Boland, Matt Golding, Harjinder Singh
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124046856
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124046108

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This selection of key presentations from the Food Structures, Digestion and Health conference is devoted to the unique and challenging interface between food science and nutrition, and brings together scientists across several disciplines to address cutting-edge research issues. Topics include modeling of the gastrointestinal tract, effect of structures on digestion, and design for healthy foods. New knowledge in this area is vital to enable the international food industry to design of a new generation of foods with enhanced health and sensory attributes. The multidisciplinary approach includes research findings by internationally renowned scientists, and presents new research findings important and pertinent to professionals in both the food science and nutrition fields.

Key Features

  • Describes the science underpinning typical food structures providing guidance on food structure in different conditions
  • Includes novel approaches to the design of healthy foods using real-world examples of applied research and design written by top leaders in the area
  • Describes and validates model systems for understanding digestion and predicting digestion kinetics


Food scientists involved in the development and nutritional analysis of new products, including food chemists, food engineers, nutrition experts

Table of Contents

    • List of Contributors
    • Preface
    • Section 1. Understanding Food Structures in Natural and Processed Foods and their Behavior During Physiological Processing
      • Chapter 1. Understanding Food Structures: The Colloid Science Approach
        • Introduction
        • On Colloid Terminology in the Age of “Nano”
        • Essential Principles of Structure Formation and Stabilization
        • Some Specific Types of Food Emulsion Structuring
        • Relationship of Structure to Sensory Perception
        • Relationship of Structure to Digestion and Health
      • Chapter 2. Processing of Food Structures in the Gastrointestinal Tract and Physiological Responses
        • Introduction
        • The Processes of Food Digestion
        • Oral Processing
        • Gastric Processing
        • Intestinal Processing
        • Food Matrix, Nutrient Bioavailability, and Physiological Responses
        • Ileal Brake
        • Case Studies
        • Behavior of Milk Lipids in the Gastrointestinal
        • Behavior of Nut-Derived Lipids in the Gastrointestinal Tract
        • Conclusions
      • Chapter 3. The Basis of Structure in Dairy-Based Foods: Casein Micelles and their Properties
        • Introduction
        • The Structure of the Casein Micelle
        • Modification of the Micellar Structure by Acidification
        • Renneting and Aggregation of Casein Micelles
        • Mixed Coagulation with Acid and Chymosin
        • Modification of the Casein Micelles by Heating
        • Ultra-High Pressure Treatment and the Structures of Micelles
        • Conclusion
        • Note Added in Proof
      • Chapter 4. The Milk Fat Globule Membrane: Structure, Methodology for its Study, and Functionality
        • Introduction
        • Structural Analysis and Role in Digestion
        • Concluding Remarks
    • Section 2. Impact of Food Structures and Matrices On Nutrient Uptake and Bioavailability
      • Chapter 5. Exploring the Relationship between Fat Surface Area and Lipid Digestibility
        • Introduction
        • The Relevance of the Colloidal State to Lipid Digestion
        • The Relationship between Surface Area and Digestibility of Fats and Oils
        • Conclusions
      • Chapter 6. Protein–Polysaccharide Interactions and Digestion of the Complex Particles
        • Introduction
        • Peculiarities of the Structural and Thermodynamic Parameters of the Initial (“Before Digestion”) Ternary (PC+SCN+Polysaccharide) Complex Particles, Formed by the Different Kinds of Protein–Polysaccharide Interactions
        • Relationships between Structural Parameters of the Ternary Complex Particles and their Functionality as Delivery Vehicles for Polyunsaturated PC
        • Conclusions
      • Chapter 7. Muscle Structure and Digestive Enzyme Bioaccessibility to Intracellular Compartments
        • Introduction
        • Physiology of Digestion
        • Tools for Digestion Studies
        • Muscle Composition and Structure
        • Effects of Processing on the Microstructure of Meat
        • Consequences of Meat Processing on Bioaccessibility to Digestion Juices and Digestibility Efficiency
        • Pepsin Bioaccessibility and Localization
        • Conclusions
      • Chapter 8. Cotyledon Cell Structure and In Vitro Starch Digestion in Navy Beans
        • Introduction
        • Microstructure of Raw and Cooked Whole Navy Beans, Bean Flour, and Starch
        • In Vitro Digestion of Starch
        • Microstructure of Navy Bean Digesta
        • Influence of Particle Size on Particle Size of Navy Bean Pastes
        • Conclusions
    • Section 3. Modelling the Gastrointestinal Tract
      • Chapter 9. Mathematical Models of Food Degradation in the Human Stomach
        • Introduction
        • Models of Fluid and Food Particle Flow in the Stomach
        • Empirical Models of Wet Mass Retention During Digestion
        • Empirical Modeling of Dry Solid Loss During Digestion
        • Modeling of the Dynamics of Stomach pH During Digestion
        • Models of the Transport of Gastric Fluid into Food Particles
        • The Effect of pH on the Transport of Gastric Fluid into Food Particles
        • Model of Solid Loss Due to Food Particle Tenderization
        • Models of the Change in Temperature within Food Particles in the Stomach
        • Models of Food Particle Erosion
        • Models of Stochastic Aspects of Food Particle Erosion
        • Models of the Role of Food Particle Geometry on Degradation
        • Models of Food Particle Fragmentation
        • Models of the Change in Food Particle Size Distribution within the Stomach
        • Models of Gastric Emptying
        • Summary
      • Chapter 10. An Improved Understanding of Gut Function through High-Resolution Mapping and Multiscale Computational Modeling of the Gastrointestinal Tract
        • Introduction
        • The Cellular and Biophysical Basis of Gastrointestinal Electrical Activity
        • Motivation for High-Resolution Mapping
        • Scope
        • Methods and Techniques of High-Resolution Electrical Mapping
        • A Renewed Understanding of Gastrointestinal Activity through High-Resolution Mapping
        • Modeling Gastrointestinal Slow Wave Activity
        • Conclusions and Future Directions
      • Chapter 11. Novel Approaches to Tracking the Breakdown and Modification of Food Proteins through Digestion
        • Introduction
        • Protein Digestion
        • Evaluation of Protein Modification—Redox Proteomics Approaches
        • Tracking Protein Truncation
        • Future Directions
      • Chapter 12. Dynamics of Gastric Contents During Digestion—Computational and Rheological Considerations
        • Introduction
        • Gastric Functions
        • Gastric Flow Dynamics—Bridging the Gap between Design and Functional Benefits
        • Computational Model of a Human Stomach
        • Numerical Analysis of Gastric Flows
        • Mixing Dynamics of Distal Flows During Digestion
        • The Dynamics of Discrete Food Particles During Digestion
        • Dynamics of More Densely Packed Food Digesta Systems
        • Summary Remarks and Future Challenges
    • Section 4. Food Developments to Meet the Modern Challenges of Human Health
      • Chapter 13. Applying Structuring Approaches for Satiety: Challenges Faced, Lessons Learned
        • Introduction
        • Satiation and Satiety Effects of Foods
        • Current Status of “Functional” Approaches to Satiety
        • Structuring Approaches to Enhancing Satiety Functionality in Foods
        • Feasibility Issues: From Laboratory to Market
        • Conclusions: Lessons Learned
      • Chapter 14. Technological Means to Modulate Food Digestion and Physiological Response
        • Introduction
        • Modulation of Protein Digestion and Biological Responses
        • Modulation of Carbohydrate Digestion and Biological Response
        • Modulation of Lipid Digestion and Biological Response
        • Conclusions
      • Chapter 15. Describing Dietary Energy—Towards the Formulation of Specialist Weight-Loss Foods
        • Introduction
        • Small- and Large-Bowel Digestion, Absorbed Nutrients and Biochemical Efficiency of Adenosine Triphosphate Production
        • Models of Digestion and Fermentation
        • Differential Efficiencies of Utilization of Absorbed Nutrients for Energy (ATP) Supply
        • An Overall Model of Digestion and Post-Absorptive Nutrient Utilization
        • Examples of Model Application
        • Conclusion
      • Chapter 16. Combined Phytosterol and Fish Oil Therapy for Lipid Lowering and Cardiovascular Health
        • Introduction
        • Phytosterols
        • Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
        • Phytosterol and Omega-3 Combination Therapy
        • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • Chapter 17. Dairy Materials as Delivery Tools for Bioactive Components in Dairy Platforms
        • Introduction
        • Milk Macromolecules, Structure, and Delivery Functions
        • Milk Components During Digestion
        • Milk Components as Delivery Systems
        • Conclusions and Outlook
      • Chapter 18. The Importance of Microbiota and Host Interactions Throughout Life
        • Introduction
        • Microbiota and Host Interactions in Early Postnatal Life
        • Resilience of Microbiota and Host Interactions in Adults
        • Microbiota and Host Interactions During Aging
        • Concluding Remarks
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 538
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2014
  • Published: March 24, 2014
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124046856
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124046108

About the Editors

Mike Boland

Mike Boland joined the Riddet Institute in 2006 after 15 years in the dairy industry, first with the New Zealand Dairy Research Institute and then with Fonterra. During this time he headed a group involved in protein research and was General Manager for strategic research. He was also Global Program Leader for the New Zealand Dairy Board's Milk Characteristics program. Extensive liaison with high profile overseas researchers in the UK, USA and Germany enabled Dr Boland to bring the very best of those collaborations to his New Zealand work resulting in excellence in commercial processes and innovation for New Zealand. Dr Boland has published about 80 papers and 6 patents.

Affiliations and Expertise

Riddet Institute, Massey University - Palmerston North, New Zealand

Matt Golding

Affiliations and Expertise

Riddet Institute, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

Harjinder Singh

Harjinder Singh is a Distinguished Professor and Director of the Massey Institute of Food Science and Technology. He is also the Co-Director of the Riddet Institute, a National Centre of Research Excellence in food science and nutrition. Professor Singh's research focuses on milk protein structures and functionality, food emulsions, protection and encapsulation of bioactive compounds, and digestive behavior of food structures. He has published over 300 research papers in international journals, and is co-inventor of 15 patents some which have formed the basis of commercial innovations. He has presented over 110 keynote addresses at national and international conferences.

Affiliations and Expertise

Riddet Institute, Massey University - Palmerston North, New Zealand

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