Food Safety Management

Food Safety Management

A Practical Guide for the Food Industry

1st Edition - November 1, 2013

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  • Editors: Huub Lelieveld, Yasmine Motarjemi
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123815040
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123815057

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Description

Food Safety Management: A Practical Guide for the Food Industry with an Honorable Mention for Single Volume Reference/Science in the 2015 PROSE Awards from the Association of American Publishers is the first book to present an integrated, practical approach to the management of food safety throughout the production chain. While many books address specific aspects of food safety, no other book guides you through the various risks associated with each sector of the production process or alerts you to the measures needed to mitigate those risks. Using practical examples of incidents and their root causes, this book highlights pitfalls in food safety management and provides key insight into the means of avoiding them. Each section addresses its subject in terms of relevance and application to food safety and, where applicable, spoilage. It covers all types of risks (e.g., microbial, chemical, physical) associated with each step of the food chain. The book is a reference for food safety managers in different sectors, from primary producers to processing, transport, retail and distribution, as well as the food services sector.

Key Features

  • Honorable Mention for Single Volume Reference/Science in the 2015 PROSE Awards from the Association of American Publishers
  • Addresses risks and controls (specific technologies) at various stages of the food supply chain based on food type, including an example of a generic HACCP study
  • Provides practical guidance on the implementation of elements of the food safety assurance system
  • Explains the role of different stakeholders of the food supply

Readership

Food safety managers including those involved with primary production, processing, transport, retail and distribution and food service. Food inspectors and auditors responsible for the evaluation and assessment of food production processes and facilities. Upper level undergraduate/graduate students in food safety, food microbiology, and food engineering courses

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors

    Foreword

    Foreword

    Preface

    Nomenclature

    Abbreviations of Important Technical Terms

    Abbreviation of Selected Organizations Involved in Food Safety

    Chapter 1. Fundamentals in Management of Food Safety in the Industrial Setting: Challenges and Outlook of the 21st Century

    Consumer Trust: The Corner Stone of a Food Business

    The 21st Century: A New Era in Food Safety

    The Concept of Food Safety and its Definition

    Elements of Food Safety Management

    Challenges in Management of Food Safety and Outlook

    Conclusions

    References

    Further Reading

    I: Risks and Controls in the Food Supply Chain

    Chapter 2. Management of Safety in the Feed Chain

    Overview of the Feed Chain

    Characteristics of the Feed Chain

    Potential Hazards

    Good Hygiene Practices in the Feed Sector

    Examples of Feed Safety Incidents and What Lessons Can be Learned

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 3. Naturally Occurring Toxicants of Plant Origin

    Introduction

    Scope and Definitions

    Inherent Plant Toxicants: Chemical Diversity and Roles in the Plants

    Toxicological and Biological Considerations

    Risk Assessment Considerations

    Risk Management of Inherent Plant Toxicants

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 4. Allergens

    Introduction

    Food Allergy: A Public Health Problem

    Allergenic Foods of Public Health Importance

    Management of Food Allergens

    Analytical Aspects of Allergen Management

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 5. Milk and Dairy Products

    Introduction

    Historical Perspective

    Foodborne Disease Outbreaks

    Risk and Controls

    Conclusion

    References

    Further Reading

    Chapter 6. Meat and Meat Products

    Introduction

    Hazards Associated with Meat and Meat Products

    Contamination Frequency and Incidence of Disease

    Control of Hazards at Different Stages of the Meat Chain

    Meat Safety Process Management

    Conclusions

    References

    Further Reading

    Chapter 7. Poultry and Eggs

    Introduction

    Microbial Hazards

    Chemical Hazards

    Physical Hazards

    HACCP Generic Model

    Importance of Equipment/Process Selection

    Advantages of Implementing HACCP

    Egg Breaking Operations

    References

    Chapter 8. Seafood

    Introduction

    Production of Safe Seafood – Prerequisite Programs and Haccp

    Hazards Associated with Seafood

    Risks at Different Stages of the Food Chain

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 9. Fruits and Vegetables (including Herbs)

    Introduction

    Food Safety

    Hazards Associated with Fruits and Vegetables (Including Herbs)

    Factors Affecting Biological Contamination

    Contamination Along the Food Chain

    Control Measures in Preventing Contamination

    Application of the HACCP System

    A Case Study on the Application of the HACCP Approach for the Management of the PrepAration of Fresh Tomatoes for Storage and Sale

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 10. Coffee, Cocoa and Derived Products (e.g. Chocolate)

    General Considerations

    Cocoa and Derived Products

    References

    Further Reading

    Chapter 11. Honey, Confectionery and Bakery Products

    Introduction

    Honey

    Confectionery

    Bakery

    Concluding Remarks

    References

    Further Reading

    Chapter 12. Edible Nuts, Oilseeds and Legumes

    Part 1: Perspectives on Mycotoxins

    Part 2: Pistachio Nut Processing HACCP Study

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Further Reading

    Chapter 13. Oils and Fats

    Introduction

    Contaminants in Crude Oils and Fats

    Refining Process Validation for Contaminant Removal

    By-Products Formed During Oil Refining

    HACCP

    References

    Chapter 14. Bottled and Drinking Water

    Water and the Food Industry

    Definitions for Water

    Legislation

    Sources of Water

    Drinking-water Applications in the Food Industry

    Hazards Associated with Drinking Water

    Risk Assessment and Risk Management

    HACCP Case Studies

    References

    Further Reading

    Chapter 15. Pet Food

    Introduction

    Biological Hazards

    Mycotoxicosis

    Toxicities Caused by Medicated Feed Carry-over into Pet Food Raw Materials

    Adulteration for Profit, the Melamine Case

    Toxicities Caused by Nutrient Misformulation

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 16. Food Contact Materials

    Introduction

    Definitions

    Classification of Materials

    Hazard Identification

    Management of Safety of Food Contact Materials

    Recycling and Reuse

    The Potential Environmental Impact

    Lessons from Case Studies

    Annex

    References

    Further Reading

    II: Technologies and Food Safety

    Chapter 17. Thermal Treatment

    Introduction

    Heat Processing

    Fundamentals of Thermal Death of Microorganisms

    Heat Resistance of Microorganisms

    Determination of Heat Process Requirement

    Conventional Heat Preservation

    Factors Determining Heat Treatment

    Non-Traditional Heat Treatment

    Combined Treatments

    References

    Chapter 18. Non-thermal Processing Technologies

    Introduction: Identification of Risks in Non-Thermal Processes

    Non-Thermal Treatments for Food Preservation

    Verification and Validation Methods for Non-Thermal Technologies

    Final Remarks

    References

    Chapter 19. Acids and Fermentation

    Introduction: Acidity and pH

    Acidity and Foods

    Acidity and Microorganisms

    Control of Pathogens by pH and Acidity

    Fermented Foods

    Food Safety Problems with Acidic Foods

    Conclusions

    References

    Further Reading

    Chapter 20. Chilling and Freezing

    Introduction

    Effect of Chilling on Food Safety

    Effect of Chilling Rate on Food Safety

    Effect of Freezing on Food Safety

    Effect of Freezing Rate on Food Safety

    Chilling and Freezing Principles

    Chilling/Freezing Methods/Equipment

    Thawing (DEFROSTING) and Tempering Systems

    Transportation

    Chilled Retail Display

    Frozen Retail Display

    Domestic Handling

    Specifying Refrigeration Systems

    Managing/Production Principles for Refrigerated Foods

    Temperature Measurement and Monitoring

    References

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 21. Detection of Physical Hazards

    Introduction

    Sorters and Detection Equipment (Figure 21.1)

    Metal Detection

    X-Ray Detection

    Equipment Selection

    Detection Equipment Management

    Further Reading

    III: Food Safety Assurance Systems

    Chapter 22. Principles and Systems for Quality and Food Safety Management

    Principles, Systems and Schemes

    Principles and Associated Systems

    Integrated Schemes and Their Limitations

    The Future of Systems

    Further Reading

    Chapter 23. Hygiene in Primary Production

    Introduction

    Part 1: Good Animal Husbandry

    Potential Health Risks on Animal Farms

    Foodborne Diseases

    Examples of Foodborne Pathogens

    Good Farming Practices for Animal Husbandry

    Animal Health

    Principles of Biosecurity

    Good Hygiene Practices on the Livestock Farms

    Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points

    Part 2: Good Agricultural Practices for Food Safety

    Sources of Microbiological Contaminations of Fresh Vegetables

    Microbiological Quality of Irrigation Water

    Presence of Pathogenic Bacteria on Fresh Vegetables

    Transmission of Pathogenic Bacteria from Contaminated Irrigation Water and Soil to Plants

    Good Agricultural Practices

    Part 3: Fish Hygiene

    Disease Prevention

    Disease Treatment

    Major Fish Diseases

    Diseases of Mollusca and Crustacea

    Fish Toxicity

    Pathogenic Bacterial Growth and Toxin Formation

    References

    Chapter 24. Hygiene in Food Processing and Manufacturing

    Introduction

    Prerequisite Management Plan

    Recommended Procedure for Developing a Processing Environment Plan

    Future Studies

    References

    Further Reading

    Chapter 25. Site Selection, Site Layout, Building Design

    Introduction

    Regulatory Requirements

    Retailer’s Requirements

    Site Selection

    Site Layout

    Building Design

    References

    Further Reading

    Chapter 26. Hygienic Design and Maintenance of Equipment

    Introduction

    Legislation

    Basic Hygienic Requirements

    Materials of Construction

    Surface Finish

    Hygienic Design of Open Equipment for Processing of Food

    Hygienic Design Closed Equipment for Processing of Liquid Food

    Installation of the Food Processing Equipment in the Food Factory

    Hygiene Practices During Maintenance Operations in the Food Industry

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 27. Development of a Comprehensive Cleaning and Sanitizing Program for Food Production Facilities

    Introduction: Cleaning and Sanitizing Operations in Food Processing Facilities

    CIP Background (Figure 27.1)

    COP Cleaning

    Environmental Cleaning

    Cleaning of Allergens

    Cleaning of Dry or Low Moisture Foods

    Cleaning Chemistry

    Common Cleaning Problems in Food Process Environments

    Sanitizing Chemistry

    Application of Sanitizers in Food Processing Facilities

    Cleaning Validation and Verification Technology

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 28. Personal Hygiene and Health

    Risks of Outbreaks Associated from Infected Food Workers

    Factors Contributing to Outbreaks

    Examples of Outbreaks Caused By Food Workers

    Pathogens Carried by Food Workers

    Hygienic Practices of Food Workers

    Practical Aspects of Hand Hygiene

    Barriers in Food Operations to Limit Spread of Pathogens

    Exclusion of Infected Employees to Work in Specific Food Operations

    Conclusion

    References

    Further Reading

    Chapter 29. Pest Management

    Introduction

    Pests of Food Processing and Production Facilities and the Risks they Impose

    Minimizing Pest Occurrence in Food Premises

    Pest Detection Strategies

    Pest Control Strategies

    Emerging Threats for the Successful Maintenance of Pest Management

    References

    Chapter 30. Safe Handling of Food in Homes and Food Services

    Introduction

    Evidence of Foodborne Illness and Consequences

    Food Safety Hazards

    Food Safety Risk Factors

    Food Safety Management

    Application of Haccp Principles to Food Service and the Home

    Prerequisite Programs

    Hazard Analysis

    Education and Training

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 31. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System (HACCP)

    Introduction

    Historical Background

    The Need for HACCP

    Principles of the HACCP System

    Application of HACCP

    HACCP in Small Businesses or Less Developed Business

    Assessment of HACCP

    Conclusion

    References

    Further Reading

    Chapter 32. HACCP Misconceptions

    Introduction

    Misconceptions

    Common Errors or Shortcomings in the Application of HACCP

    Conclusions

    References

    Further Reading

    Chapter 33. Management of Microbiological Hazards: Role of Testing as Verification

    Introduction

    When are Microbiological Testing Programs Useful for Verification?

    Prerequisites to the Development and Implementation of Microbiological Testing Programs

    Microbiological Monitoring of the Factory Environment

    Acceptance Criteria and Testing Programs for Finished Products and Raw Materials

    Microbiological Monitoring of Raw Materials

    Microbiological Monitoring of Finished Products

    Root Cause Analysis and Corrective Actions

    References

    Further Reading

    Chapter 34. Management of Chemical Contaminants

    Introduction

    Nature of Chemical Hazards

    Health Consequences

    Factors Affecting the Occurrence of Chemical Hazards

    Regulatory Requirements and Challenges

    Regulatory Compliance

    Management of Chemicals in Industry

    Application of the Haccp System to Management of Chemicals

    Further Reading

    Chapter 35. Food Defense

    Description of Issues

    Definitions for Food Defense and Related Terms

    Farm to Fork

    Types of Risk and Hazards

    Methods of Vulnerability Analysis

    Preventive Measures

    How to Manage the Case

    Food Recall Case Studies

    References

    Chapter 36. Effective Leadership

    Introduction

    Theories on the Subject of Leadership

    Models of Effective Leadership

    Final Remarks

    References

    Chapter 37. Human Factors in Food Safety Management

    Introduction

    Swiss Cheese Concept

    Root Cause of Failures

    Management Commitment

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 38. Assessment of Food Safety Management Systems

    Introduction

    Background

    Definition and Purpose

    Scope and Frequency of Assessments

    Competence of Assessors

    The Procedure and Methodology

    The Development and use of a Checklist

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgment

    Further Reading

    Chapter 39. Consumer Information and Labeling

    Introduction

    Who is the Consumer?

    Consumer Protection

    Global Regulatory Measures

    Consumer Choice, Information and Education

    Clear and Legible Label, a Legal Requirement

    Product Information Within a Food Chain

    Consumer and Risk

    Labeling of Allergens

    Precaution

    Labeling “May Contain”

    Consumer Feedback

    Discussion for the Future

    References

    Further Reading

    Chapter 40. Incident Management and Root Cause Analysis

    Introduction

    Prevention of Incidents

    Reporting an Incident

    Managing an Incident

    Investigation

    Root Cause Analysis

    Conclusions

    References

    Further Reading

    Chapter 41. Crisis Management

    Introduction

    What is a Crisis?

    What did we Learn from our Crises?

    What Lessons for the Future?

    Essentials of Crisis Management

    Conclusions

    References

    Further Reading

    Chapter 42. The Role of International, Regional and National Organizations

    Introduction

    Leading International Standards Organizations

    Leading Regional Standards Organizations

    Leading National Governmental Organizations

    Leading Industry Organizations

    Leading Hygienic Design Standards Organizations

    Conclusions

    Further Reading

    IV: Sustainability and Ethics

    Chapter 43. Sustainability and Food Production

    Introduction

    Sustainability – An Introduction

    Social Aspects of Sustainability and Food Production

    Economic Aspects of Sustainability and Food Production

    Environmental Concerns Related to Food Production

    Improving Sustainability in the Food Sector

    Food Safety and Sustainability

    Sustainability and Food Production in the Future

    References

    Chapter 44. Climatic Changes

    Introduction

    Impact of Climate Change on Food Safety

    Conclusion

    Further Reading

    Chapter 45. Nutritional Trends and Health Claims

    Introduction

    Historical Perspective

    Modern Times

    Foods for Health

    Diet and Health

    References

    Chapter 46. Ethics in Food Safety Management

    Introduction

    What is Ethics?

    Ethical Issues in Food Safety

    Ethical Decision-Making

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 47. Training and Education

    Reference

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1192
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2013
  • Published: November 1, 2013
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123815040
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123815057

About the Editors

Huub Lelieveld

Prof. Dr. h.c. H.L.M. (Huub) Lelieveld is President of the Global Harmonization Initiative and Fellow of the International Academy of Food Science and Technology, and was formerly at Unilever in Vlaardingen, The Netherlands. He editor or co-editor of numerous books, including several on hygiene and food safety management; novel food processing technologies and harmonization of food safety regulations. He produced chapters for many books and encyclopaedia, hundreds of scientific articles and articles for magazines and presented hundreds of papers, globally. He has been awarded doctor honoris causa at the National University of Food Technologies in Kiev, Ukraine.

Affiliations and Expertise

President of the Global Harmonization Initiative (www.globalharmonization.net)

Yasmine Motarjemi

Yasmine Motarjemi
Dr. Yasmine Motarjemi Previous Food Safety Manager/Quality Management at Nestle, Dr. Motarjemi is a food safety consultant and has 30 years of industry-based, real-world experience in all phases of quality assurance programs. She developed internal training materials to address the knowledge gap between the various production stages at Nestle, is Editor in Chief of Elsevier’s Encyclopedia of Food Safety and has published numerous chapters, books, and ~60 research articles.

Affiliations and Expertise

Editor-in-Chief, FOSA and FOSIN, Nyon, Switzerland

Ratings and Reviews

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  • DIMITRISGHIKAS Tue Sep 25 2018

    Excellent choise

    A comprehensive review of food safety management. A wealth of knowledge and a lot of examples are presented. Excellent for students and for QA members at the food industry.