Food Safety Management - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123815040, 9780123815057

Food Safety Management

1st Edition

A Practical Guide for the Food Industry

Editors: Yasmine Motarjemi Huub Lelieveld
eBook ISBN: 9780123815057
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123815040
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 20th November 2013
Page Count: 1192
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Description

Food Safety Management: A Practical Guide for the Food Industry with an Honorable Mention for Single Volume Reference/Science in the 2015 PROSE Awards from the Association of American Publishers is the first book to present an integrated, practical approach to the management of food safety throughout the production chain. While many books address specific aspects of food safety, no other book guides you through the various risks associated with each sector of the production process or alerts you to the measures needed to mitigate those risks.

Using practical examples of incidents and their root causes, this book highlights pitfalls in food safety management and provides key insight into the means of avoiding them. Each section addresses its subject in terms of relevance and application to food safety and, where applicable, spoilage. It covers all types of risks (e.g., microbial, chemical, physical) associated with each step of the food chain. The book is a reference for food safety managers in different sectors, from primary producers to processing, transport, retail and distribution, as well as the food services sector.

Key Features

  • Honorable Mention for Single Volume Reference/Science in the 2015 PROSE Awards from the Association of American Publishers
  • Addresses risks and controls (specific technologies) at various stages of the food supply chain based on food type, including an example of a generic HACCP study
  • Provides practical guidance on the implementation of elements of the food safety assurance system
  • Explains the role of different stakeholders of the food supply

Readership

Food safety managers including those involved with primary production, processing, transport, retail and distribution and food service. Food inspectors and auditors responsible for the evaluation and assessment of food production processes and facilities. Upper level undergraduate/graduate students in food safety, food microbiology, and food engineering courses

Table of Contents

List of Contributors

Foreword

Foreword

Preface

Nomenclature

Abbreviations of Important Technical Terms

Abbreviation of Selected Organizations Involved in Food Safety

Chapter 1. Fundamentals in Management of Food Safety in the Industrial Setting: Challenges and Outlook of the 21st Century

Consumer Trust: The Corner Stone of a Food Business

The 21st Century: A New Era in Food Safety

The Concept of Food Safety and its Definition

Elements of Food Safety Management

Challenges in Management of Food Safety and Outlook

Conclusions

References

Further Reading

I: Risks and Controls in the Food Supply Chain

Chapter 2. Management of Safety in the Feed Chain

Overview of the Feed Chain

Characteristics of the Feed Chain

Potential Hazards

Good Hygiene Practices in the Feed Sector

Examples of Feed Safety Incidents and What Lessons Can be Learned

Conclusions

References

Chapter 3. Naturally Occurring Toxicants of Plant Origin

Introduction

Scope and Definitions

Inherent Plant Toxicants: Chemical Diversity and Roles in the Plants

Toxicological and Biological Considerations

Risk Assessment Considerations

Risk Management of Inherent Plant Toxicants

Conclusions

References

Chapter 4. Allergens

Introduction

Food Allergy: A Public Health Problem

Allergenic Foods of Public Health Importance

Management of Food Allergens

Analytical Aspects of Allergen Management

Summary

References

Chapter 5. Milk and Dairy Products

Introduction

Historical Perspective

Foodborne Disease Outbreaks

Risk and Controls

Conclusion

References

Further Reading

Chapter 6. Meat and Meat Products

Introduction

Hazards Associated with Meat and Meat Products

Contamination Frequency and Incidence of Disease

Control of Hazards at Different Stages of the Meat Chain

Meat Safety Process Management

Conclusions

References

Further Reading

Chapter 7. Poultry and Eggs

Introduction

Microbial Hazards

Chemical Hazards

Physical Hazards

HACCP Generic Model

Importance of Equipment/Process Selection

Advantages of Implementing HACCP

Egg Breaking Operations

References

Chapter 8. Seafood

Introduction

Production of Safe Seafood – Prerequisite Programs and Haccp

Hazards Associated with Seafood

Risks at Different Stages of the Food Chain

Conclusion

References

Chapter 9. Fruits and Vegetables (including Herbs)

Introduction

Food Safety

Hazards Associated with Fruits and Vegetables (Including Herbs)

Factors Affecting Biological Contamination

Contamination Along the Food Chain

Control Measures in Preventing Contamination

Application of the HACCP System

A Case Study on the Application of the HACCP Approach for the Management of the PrepAration of Fresh Tomatoes for Storage and Sale

Conclusion

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 10. Coffee, Cocoa and Derived Products (e.g. Chocolate)

General Considerations

Cocoa and Derived Products

References

Further Reading

Chapter 11. Honey, Confectionery and Bakery Products

Introduction

Honey

Confectionery

Bakery

Concluding Remarks

References

Further Reading

Chapter 12. Edible Nuts, Oilseeds and Legumes

Part 1: Perspectives on Mycotoxins

Part 2: Pistachio Nut Processing HACCP Study

Acknowledgments

References

Further Reading

Chapter 13. Oils and Fats

Introduction

Contaminants in Crude Oils and Fats

Refining Process Validation for Contaminant Removal

By-Products Formed During Oil Refining

HACCP

References

Chapter 14. Bottled and Drinking Water

Water and the Food Industry

Definitions for Water

Legislation

Sources of Water

Drinking-water Applications in the Food Industry

Hazards Associated with Drinking Water

Risk Assessment and Risk Management

HACCP Case Studies

References

Further Reading

Chapter 15. Pet Food

Introduction

Biological Hazards

Mycotoxicosis

Toxicities Caused by Medicated Feed Carry-over into Pet Food Raw Materials

Adulteration for Profit, the Melamine Case

Toxicities Caused by Nutrient Misformulation

Conclusion

References

Chapter 16. Food Contact Materials

Introduction

Definitions

Classification of Materials

Hazard Identification

Management of Safety of Food Contact Materials

Recycling and Reuse

The Potential Environmental Impact

Lessons from Case Studies

Annex

References

Further Reading

II: Technologies and Food Safety

Chapter 17. Thermal Treatment

Introduction

Heat Processing

Fundamentals of Thermal Death of Microorganisms

Heat Resistance of Microorganisms

Determination of Heat Process Requirement

Conventional Heat Preservation

Factors Determining Heat Treatment

Non-Traditional Heat Treatment

Combined Treatments

References

Chapter 18. Non-thermal Processing Technologies

Introduction: Identification of Risks in Non-Thermal Processes

Non-Thermal Treatments for Food Preservation

Verification and Validation Methods for Non-Thermal Technologies

Final Remarks

References

Chapter 19. Acids and Fermentation

Introduction: Acidity and pH

Acidity and Foods

Acidity and Microorganisms

Control of Pathogens by pH and Acidity

Fermented Foods

Food Safety Problems with Acidic Foods

Conclusions

References

Further Reading

Chapter 20. Chilling and Freezing

Introduction

Effect of Chilling on Food Safety

Effect of Chilling Rate on Food Safety

Effect of Freezing on Food Safety

Effect of Freezing Rate on Food Safety

Chilling and Freezing Principles

Chilling/Freezing Methods/Equipment

Thawing (DEFROSTING) and Tempering Systems

Transportation

Chilled Retail Display

Frozen Retail Display

Domestic Handling

Specifying Refrigeration Systems

Managing/Production Principles for Refrigerated Foods

Temperature Measurement and Monitoring

References

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 21. Detection of Physical Hazards

Introduction

Sorters and Detection Equipment (Figure 21.1)

Metal Detection

X-Ray Detection

Equipment Selection

Detection Equipment Management

Further Reading

III: Food Safety Assurance Systems

Chapter 22. Principles and Systems for Quality and Food Safety Management

Principles, Systems and Schemes

Principles and Associated Systems

Integrated Schemes and Their Limitations

The Future of Systems

Further Reading

Chapter 23. Hygiene in Primary Production

Introduction

Part 1: Good Animal Husbandry

Potential Health Risks on Animal Farms

Foodborne Diseases

Examples of Foodborne Pathogens

Good Farming Practices for Animal Husbandry

Animal Health

Principles of Biosecurity

Good Hygiene Practices on the Livestock Farms

Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points

Part 2: Good Agricultural Practices for Food Safety

Sources of Microbiological Contaminations of Fresh Vegetables

Microbiological Quality of Irrigation Water

Presence of Pathogenic Bacteria on Fresh Vegetables

Transmission of Pathogenic Bacteria from Contaminated Irrigation Water and Soil to Plants

Good Agricultural Practices

Part 3: Fish Hygiene

Disease Prevention

Disease Treatment

Major Fish Diseases

Diseases of Mollusca and Crustacea

Fish Toxicity

Pathogenic Bacterial Growth and Toxin Formation

References

Chapter 24. Hygiene in Food Processing and Manufacturing

Introduction

Prerequisite Management Plan

Recommended Procedure for Developing a Processing Environment Plan

Future Studies

References

Further Reading

Chapter 25. Site Selection, Site Layout, Building Design

Introduction

Regulatory Requirements

Retailer’s Requirements

Site Selection

Site Layout

Building Design

References

Further Reading

Chapter 26. Hygienic Design and Maintenance of Equipment

Introduction

Legislation

Basic Hygienic Requirements

Materials of Construction

Surface Finish

Hygienic Design of Open Equipment for Processing of Food

Hygienic Design Closed Equipment for Processing of Liquid Food

Installation of the Food Processing Equipment in the Food Factory

Hygiene Practices During Maintenance Operations in the Food Industry

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 27. Development of a Comprehensive Cleaning and Sanitizing Program for Food Production Facilities

Introduction: Cleaning and Sanitizing Operations in Food Processing Facilities

CIP Background (Figure 27.1)

COP Cleaning

Environmental Cleaning

Cleaning of Allergens

Cleaning of Dry or Low Moisture Foods

Cleaning Chemistry

Common Cleaning Problems in Food Process Environments

Sanitizing Chemistry

Application of Sanitizers in Food Processing Facilities

Cleaning Validation and Verification Technology

Conclusions

References

Chapter 28. Personal Hygiene and Health

Risks of Outbreaks Associated from Infected Food Workers

Factors Contributing to Outbreaks

Examples of Outbreaks Caused By Food Workers

Pathogens Carried by Food Workers

Hygienic Practices of Food Workers

Practical Aspects of Hand Hygiene

Barriers in Food Operations to Limit Spread of Pathogens

Exclusion of Infected Employees to Work in Specific Food Operations

Conclusion

References

Further Reading

Chapter 29. Pest Management

Introduction

Pests of Food Processing and Production Facilities and the Risks they Impose

Minimizing Pest Occurrence in Food Premises

Pest Detection Strategies

Pest Control Strategies

Emerging Threats for the Successful Maintenance of Pest Management

References

Chapter 30. Safe Handling of Food in Homes and Food Services

Introduction

Evidence of Foodborne Illness and Consequences

Food Safety Hazards

Food Safety Risk Factors

Food Safety Management

Application of Haccp Principles to Food Service and the Home

Prerequisite Programs

Hazard Analysis

Education and Training

Conclusions

References

Chapter 31. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System (HACCP)

Introduction

Historical Background

The Need for HACCP

Principles of the HACCP System

Application of HACCP

HACCP in Small Businesses or Less Developed Business

Assessment of HACCP

Conclusion

References

Further Reading

Chapter 32. HACCP Misconceptions

Introduction

Misconceptions

Common Errors or Shortcomings in the Application of HACCP

Conclusions

References

Further Reading

Chapter 33. Management of Microbiological Hazards: Role of Testing as Verification

Introduction

When are Microbiological Testing Programs Useful for Verification?

Prerequisites to the Development and Implementation of Microbiological Testing Programs

Microbiological Monitoring of the Factory Environment

Acceptance Criteria and Testing Programs for Finished Products and Raw Materials

Microbiological Monitoring of Raw Materials

Microbiological Monitoring of Finished Products

Root Cause Analysis and Corrective Actions

References

Further Reading

Chapter 34. Management of Chemical Contaminants

Introduction

Nature of Chemical Hazards

Health Consequences

Factors Affecting the Occurrence of Chemical Hazards

Regulatory Requirements and Challenges

Regulatory Compliance

Management of Chemicals in Industry

Application of the Haccp System to Management of Chemicals

Further Reading

Chapter 35. Food Defense

Description of Issues

Definitions for Food Defense and Related Terms

Farm to Fork

Types of Risk and Hazards

Methods of Vulnerability Analysis

Preventive Measures

How to Manage the Case

Food Recall Case Studies

References

Chapter 36. Effective Leadership

Introduction

Theories on the Subject of Leadership

Models of Effective Leadership

Final Remarks

References

Chapter 37. Human Factors in Food Safety Management

Introduction

Swiss Cheese Concept

Root Cause of Failures

Management Commitment

Conclusions

References

Chapter 38. Assessment of Food Safety Management Systems

Introduction

Background

Definition and Purpose

Scope and Frequency of Assessments

Competence of Assessors

The Procedure and Methodology

The Development and use of a Checklist

Conclusions

Acknowledgment

Further Reading

Chapter 39. Consumer Information and Labeling

Introduction

Who is the Consumer?

Consumer Protection

Global Regulatory Measures

Consumer Choice, Information and Education

Clear and Legible Label, a Legal Requirement

Product Information Within a Food Chain

Consumer and Risk

Labeling of Allergens

Precaution

Labeling “May Contain”

Consumer Feedback

Discussion for the Future

References

Further Reading

Chapter 40. Incident Management and Root Cause Analysis

Introduction

Prevention of Incidents

Reporting an Incident

Managing an Incident

Investigation

Root Cause Analysis

Conclusions

References

Further Reading

Chapter 41. Crisis Management

Introduction

What is a Crisis?

What did we Learn from our Crises?

What Lessons for the Future?

Essentials of Crisis Management

Conclusions

References

Further Reading

Chapter 42. The Role of International, Regional and National Organizations

Introduction

Leading International Standards Organizations

Leading Regional Standards Organizations

Leading National Governmental Organizations

Leading Industry Organizations

Leading Hygienic Design Standards Organizations

Conclusions

Further Reading

IV: Sustainability and Ethics

Chapter 43. Sustainability and Food Production

Introduction

Sustainability – An Introduction

Social Aspects of Sustainability and Food Production

Economic Aspects of Sustainability and Food Production

Environmental Concerns Related to Food Production

Improving Sustainability in the Food Sector

Food Safety and Sustainability

Sustainability and Food Production in the Future

References

Chapter 44. Climatic Changes

Introduction

Impact of Climate Change on Food Safety

Conclusion

Further Reading

Chapter 45. Nutritional Trends and Health Claims

Introduction

Historical Perspective

Modern Times

Foods for Health

Diet and Health

References

Chapter 46. Ethics in Food Safety Management

Introduction

What is Ethics?

Ethical Issues in Food Safety

Ethical Decision-Making

Conclusion

References

Chapter 47. Training and Education

Reference

Index

Details

No. of pages:
1192
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780123815057
Hardcover ISBN:
9780123815040

About the Editor

Yasmine Motarjemi

Yasmine Motarjemi holds a Masters degree in Food Science and Technology from the University of Languedoc, Montpellier, France (1978) and a Doctoral degree in Food Engineering from the University of Lund, Sweden (1988). In 2003, she followed a training at the IMD business school in Lausanne, Switzerland and in 2014 a course on Human Rights at the University of Geneva Switzerland.

After her research and academic career at the University of Lund, in 1990 she joined the World Health Organization (WHO) in Geneva as Senior Scientist. In WHO, she was responsible for the surveillance and prevention of foodborne illnesses (including education of professional and domestic food handlers), the development of the food safety assurance system (e.g. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point system), and for assistance to the WHO Member States in strengthening their national food safety programme and the development of the risk analysis process. She has served in the Secretariat of various sessions of the Codex Alimentarius Commissions and its Committees.

From 2000 to 2011, she held the position of Assistant Vice President in Nestlé and worked as the Corporate Food Safety Manager. In this capacity, she has, among others, developed the Nestlé Food Safety Management system and managed various emerging food safety issues and crises. She was active in several industry organizations, among others FooddrinkEuorpe (formerly Conféderation des Industries Agroalimentaires (CIAA)) where she advised management of international crisis.

She is the author, co-author or editor of numerous peer-reviewed articles, books, training manuals and other publications, including a book on food safety for children. In 2014 she published Encyclopedia on Food Safety and the book Food Safety Management: A Practical Guide for the Food Industry (both published by Elsevier/Academic Press).

Affiliations and Expertise

Editor-in-Chief, FOSA and FOSIN, Nyon, Switzerland

Huub Lelieveld

Affiliations and Expertise

formerly Unilever, Vlaardingen, The Netherlands

Awards

2015 PROSE Awards - Honorable Mention, Single Volume Reference - Science: Association of American Publishers, Food Safety Management

Honorable Mention, Single Volume Reference/Science, 2015 PROSE Awards, Association of American Publishers

Reviews

"Recognizing that food safety is a multi-disciplinary responsibility and that not all food safety professionals have the same scientific and technical background, this book presents essentials of managing food safety that food safety professionals from any discipline should know. It provides an overview and integrated perspective, including risk and control measures for various categories of food, the elements of food safety assurance systems used in the food industry,…" --ProtoView.com, 2014