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Food Safety and Quality Systems in Developing Countries - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128012277, 9780128013519

Food Safety and Quality Systems in Developing Countries

1st Edition

Volume One: Export Challenges and Implementation Strategies

Editor: Andre Gordon
eBook ISBN: 9780128013519
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128012277
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 2nd June 2015
Page Count: 186
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Food Safety and Quality Systems in Developing Countries, Volume One: Export Challenges and Implementation Strategies considers both the theoretical and practical aspects of food safety and quality systems implementation by major world markets and new and emerging markets in developing countries. This reference examines issues facing exporters and importers of traditional foods the characteristics of the food and its distribution channels, and market access from a historical and current context to present best practices.

This must-have reference offers real-life, practical approaches for foods from around the world, offering help to those who have found it difficult to implement sustainable, certifiable food safety and quality systems into their businesses and provides scientifically sound solutions to support their implementation.

Key Features

  • Includes accessible, relevant case studies of instances when food safety was compromised and offers practical scientific input in dealing with and preventing these issues
  • Discusses the role and importance of research and documentation of food safety when exporting products
  • Presents risk analysis examples from the past and present for products from various countries and different perspectives including the United States, Canada, Europe, Mexico, India, South Africa, Haiti, Jamaica, and more
  • Offers successful strategies for developing food safety and quality systems from a national and firm-level perspective relevant to academics, regulators, exporters, importers and major distributors handling food from various developing countries


Food safety practitioners, regulators around the world; trade practitioners, international trade lawyers, exporters in developing countries (globally), buyers interested in imports from developing countries, international organizations, universities and lecturers on food safety, food export trading house businesses; Consultants, Food Science students, agriculture students

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Exporting Traditional Fruits and Vegetables to the United States: Trade, Food Science, and Sanitary and Phytosanitary/Technical Barriers to Trade Considerations

  • Abstract
  • 1.1. Introduction
  • 1.2. Imports of Fruits and Vegetables into the United States: Composition and Selected Trends
  • 1.3. Nontraditional Tropical Fruit Imports to the United States: Specific Examples
  • 1.4. Nontraditional Vegetable Imports to the United States: Specific Examples
  • 1.5. Sanitary and Phytosanitary/Technical Barriers to Trade Issues
  • 1.6. Summary

Chapter 2: Natural Toxins in Fruits and Vegetables: Blighia sapida and Hypoglycin

  • Abstract
  • 2.1. Natural Toxins in Fruits and Vegetables
  • 2.2. The Ackee Fruit
  • 2.3. Hypoglycin (HGA), the Natural Toxin in Ackee
  • 2.4. Dietary Exposure to the Natural Toxin Hypoglycin
  • 2.5. Acute and Chronic Toxicity
  • 2.6. Conclusions

Chapter 3: The Life Cycle of Ackee (Blighia sapida): Environmental and Other Influences on Toxicity

  • Abstract
  • 3.1. The Agronomy of Ackee
  • 3.2. HGA in Ackee: Location in the Fruit and the Effect of Maturation
  • 3.3. Impact of Geographical Location and Variety on HGA Content in Ackee
  • 3.4. Impact of Growing Season and Reaping and Handling Practices on HGA Levels in Ackee
  • 3.5. The Role of the Seeds and Hypoglycin B in Detoxification of the Fruit
  • 3.6. Conclusions

Chapter 4: Biochemistry of Hypoglycin and Toxic Hypoglycemic Syndrome

  • Abstract
  • 4.1. Introduction
  • 4.2. Biochemistry of Hypoglycin
  • 4.3. The Illness Associated with Hypoglycin
  • 4.4. Etiology and Clinical Presentation
  • 4.5. Recent Reports of Toxic Hypoglycemic Syndrome
  • 4.6. Suspected Cases in Export Markets
  • 4.7. Treating Ackee Poisoning

Chapter 5: Effective Science-Based Approaches to Establishing Safe Food Handling Practices for Traditional Foods: The Ackee Example

  • Abstract
  • 5.1. Introduction: Background to the Safe Production and Handling of Ackee (Blighia sapida)
  • 5.2. The Market, Consumers, and Exports
  • 5.3. Raw Material Handling and Processing
  • 5.4. The Science Behind the Industry: The Importance of Research, Regulatory Oversight, and Scientific and Technological Support for the Export of Traditional Foods
  • 5.5. Quantification of Hypoglycin A (HGA)
  • 5.6. Safety of Ackee as a Food

Chapter 6: Re-entering the US Market with Jamaican Ackees: A Case Study

  • Abstract
  • 6.1. Introduction
  • 6.2. Background to the Market-Access Challenge: The Import Alert
  • 6.3. Agreeing an Approach to Addressing the Import Alert
  • 6.4. Implementation
  • 6.5. Accomplishments
  • 6.6. Cost/Benefit Analysis
  • 6.7. Summary

Chapter 7: Dealing with Trade Challenges: Science-Based Solutions to Market-Access Interruption

  • Abstract
  • 7.1. Introduction
  • 7.2. Canned Ackees Exported to Canada: Mitigating Market-Access Prohibition
  • 7.3. Preventing Market-Access Interruption for Canned Ackee Exports to the United Kingdom
  • 7.4. Reimposition of the US Import Alert: Lifting the Ban, Again
  • 7.5. Synopsis of the Approach Taken After the Market-Access Interruption in 2005/2006
  • 7.6. Accomplishments and Subsequent Actions to Maintain the Gains

Chapter 8: The Food Safety Modernization Act and Its Impact on the Caribbean’s Approach to Export Market Access

  • Abstract
  • 8.1. Introduction
  • 8.2. Market-Access Issues for Caribbean Exports to the United States
  • 8.3. Background to the Food Safety Modernization Act
  • 8.4. Major Provisions of the Preventive Controls for Human Food Final Regulation
  • 8.5. Major Provisions of the Standards for Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption (Produce Safety Rule)
  • 8.6. Major Provisions of the Foreign Supplier Verification Programs for Importers of Food for Humans or Animals
  • 8.7. FDA Inspections in the Caribbean and the FSMA
  • 8.8. Impact of the FSMA on the Caribbean and the Approach to Export Market Access
  • 8.9. Conclusions


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 2015
2nd June 2015
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
Hardcover ISBN:

About the Editor

Andre Gordon

Andre Gordon

Dr. André Gordon is the Managing Director of Technological Solutions Limited, a Caribbean-based food science and technology service provider. He is widely recognized as a leading expert in food safety and quality systems training, auditing, and implementation, and has consulted widely for clients including the Centre for Development of Enterprise, COLEACP, the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization, and the Inter-American Development Bank, among others. Dr. Gordon possesses over 30 years of experience in the provision of solution-oriented technical assistance to the agribusiness sector in the Caribbean, North and Central America, Western and Southern Africa, the United Kingdom, and the European Union. He is an International HACCP Alliance, 21 CFR 117 (PC Rules) and Better Process Control School Lead Trainer and a recognized Processing Authority.

Affiliations and Expertise

Managing Director, Technological Solutions Limited, Jamaica


"This book looks at the implications of an increasingly globalised food supply chain and the implications of the food safety and quality systems employed by food exporting countries. The book comprises eight chapters, presented as case studies to address different aspects of food safety and quality systems in developing countries and how these have been addressed using a food science-basedapproach. The main approach is to highlight how these are important in the practical trade and market access related consideration. The chapters start with a review of food science and technical specifications that need to be considered when exporting traditional fruits and vegetables to the United States. The final chapter focuses on the Food Safety Modernization Act, which was passed in the United States in 2011. This Act shifted the approach of food safety laws to a prevention-based controls for food manufacture, harvesting, processing, packing and storage. This chapter provides an excellent summary of what the Act requires for compliance and gives examples and recommendations for developing countries, based on experiences in the Caribbean. This book would be a good resource for employees in food regulatory bodies, food producers, exporters, government policy makers and international development agencies, food science and technology students, and academia." --FST

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