Food Protected Designation of Origin

Food Protected Designation of Origin

Methodologies and Applications

1st Edition - June 11, 2013

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  • Editors: Miguel de la Guardia, Ana Gonzalvez Illueca
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444595720

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Protected designation of origin (PDO) taken together with other geographical indicators, such as protected geographical indication (PGI) and traditional specialty guaranteed (TSG), offer the consumer additional guarantees on the quality and authentication of foods. They are important tools that protect the names of regional foods, such as wines, cheeses, hams, sausages and olives, so that only foods that genuinely originate in a particular region are allowed to be identified as such. The economic value of these regional foods, as well as the increased interest from consumers and the food industry about the traceability and origin of food, mean that it has become necessary to establish methods for PDO and PGI authentication based on the specific characteristics and chemical markers of these kinds of products. This book offers a complete guide of the methods available to authenticate food PDO, beginning with an explanation of the analytical and chemometric methods available for PDO authentication, before looking at the main foods covered, PGI labels and the social and legal framework for food PGIs. It will be of interest to people engaged in the fields of food production, commercialization and consumption, as well as policymakers and control laboratories.

Key Features

  • Offers a complete guide to the methods available for food Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) authentication
  • Explains the analytical and chemometric methods
  • Focuses on the various food products covered by authentication labels


Analytical chemists, food scientists, environmental scientists, toxicologists

Table of Contents

  • Series Page

    Contributors to Volume 60


    Series Editor’s Preface


    Part I: The Social and Legal Framework of PDO

    Chapter 1. Legal Aspects of Food Protected Designations

    1 Introduction

    2 A Brief History of the Adoption of European Legislation on PDOs, PGI and TSGs

    3 PDO, PGI and TSG: Legal Definition, Labelling and Establishment of Logos. Other Food Quality-Linked Logos in Europe

    4 Legal Procedure for Registration of Protected Foods in Europe

    5 Legal Establishment of Official Verification of Compliance with Protected Food Specifications

    6 Food Authenticity and Legal Establishment of Databases for Protected Agricultural Products and Food and Drinks

    7 Conclusions


    Appendix New EU Regulation No. 1151/2012 on Quality Schemes for Agricultural Products and Foodstuffs


    Chapter 2. Consumers’ and Producers’ Expectations and Gains from Geographical Indications: Towards a Conceptual Context

    1 Different Types of Designation of Agri-Food Products in Europe and the World

    2 GIS from the Supply Side: Reasons for Adopting GI Schemes

    3 GIS from the Demand Side: Why Consumers Want More GI, the Role of Traceability

    4 Discussion of the Pros and Cons and the Way Ahead


    Part II: Analytical and Chemometric Methods for Food Protected Designation Authentication

    Chapter 3. Mineral Profile

    1 The Mineral Elements as a Fingerprint of Foods

    2 Analytical Process for Authentication of PDO Foods by Mineral Profiling

    3 Applications of Mineral Profile in Food Geographical Origin

    4 Future Perspectives of Mineral Profile in Food Authentication


    Chapter 4. Stable Isotope Analysis

    1 Isotope Ratio Analysis as a Tool for Geographical Origin Discrimination

    2 Recommended Terms for the Expression of Stable Isotope Ratio Measurement Results

    3 Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

    4 Brief Overview of the International Stable Isotope Reference Materials

    5 IRMS Techniques: New Developments and Applications in Food Traceability and Adulteration


    Chapter 5. Vibrational Spectroscopy

    1 Vibrational Spectroscopy Tools for PDO Authentication

    2 Applications of Vibrational Spectroscopy for Food Authentication

    3 Critical Discussion of Analytical Procedures and Chemometric Tools Available

    4 Vibrational Spectroscopy Perspectives for Food Authentication


    Chapter 6. Metabolomics and PDO

    1 Metabolomics in Food Analysis

    2 Analytical Methods Applied to Metabolomics

    3 Data Processing and Analysis

    4 Metabolomics Applied to Food Protected Origin Designation

    5 Future Perspectives and Conclusions in Metabolomics Food Authentication


    Chapter 7. ELISA Tools for Food PDO Authentication

    1 Food Traceability and Authenticity: General Aspects

    2 Immunological Approach (ELISA) for Food Authentication

    3 ELISA Detection of Target Proteins

    4 ELISA Approaches for Exogenous Contaminants

    5 Other Immune Developments


    Chapter 8. Genetic and DNA-Based Techniques

    1 Introduction

    2 Identification of Species, Breeds, and Varieties

    3 Authentication of Origin and Phylogeography

    4 Genetic Markers

    5 Important Genomic Regions

    6 DNA Extraction

    7 PCR and Detection Methods



    Chapter 9. The Role of Ion Mobility Spectrometry to Support the Food Protected Designation of Origin

    1 Introduction

    2 Foundation of Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    3 Types of Ion Mobility Instruments

    4 State of the Art of the IMS Technique

    5 Applications of Ion Mobility in Agri-Food Analysis

    6 Perspectives of the Use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry for Food Protected Designation of Origin


    Chapter 10. Electrophoretic Techniques

    1 Basic Principles of Electrophoresis

    2 Agarose Gel Electrophoresis

    3 Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    4 Isoelectric Focusing

    5 Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis

    6 Electrophoretic Authentication of Animal Foods

    7 Electrophoretic Authentication of Plant Foods

    8 Future Perspectives of Electrophoresis in Food Authentication


    Chapter 11. Biosensors in Food PDO Authentication

    1 Definition of Biosensors

    2 Classification of Biosensors

    3 Immobilization of the Receptor Component in Biosensors

    4 Applications of Biosensors in Food (Food Processing, Food Monitoring, Food Authenticity, Quality and Safety, etc.)

    5 Future Trends and Perspectives



    Chapter 12. Basic Chemometric Tools

    1 Statistical Analysis of Protected Designation of Origin Data

    2 Analysis of Variance

    3 Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of Food Data

    4 Principal Component Analysis of Food Data

    5 Lineal Discriminant Analysis as a Food for PDO Authentication

    6 Classification and Regression Tree Methods

    7 Limitations and Possibilities of Statistical Analysis in PDO Authentication


    Chapter 13. Discriminant and Class-Modelling Chemometric Techniques for Food PDO Verification

    1 Introduction

    2 Classification and Class-Modelling

    3 Pre-Modelling Considerations

    4 Validation Strategies

    5 Model Performance Estimation

    6 Discriminant Methods

    7 Class-Modelling Methods

    8 Conclusions


    Chapter 14. Classification Methods of Multiway Arrays as a Basic Tool for Food PDO Authentication

    1 Multiway Methods in Food Authentication

    2 Methods

    3 Case Studies

    4 Conclusions


    Part III: Food Applications

    Chapter 15. Analytical and Chemometric-Based Methods to Monitor and Evaluate Wine Protected Designation

    1 Overview and Definitions of Wine Protected Designation

    2 Traditional Analytical Methods

    3 Molecular Spectroscopy

    4 Electronic Noses and Tongues

    5 Sensory Analysis

    6 Future and Challenges in Wine Authentication


    Chapter 16. Analytical Strategies Supporting Protected Designations of Origin for Alcoholic Beverages

    1 Issues Associated with PDOS and GIS in the Alcoholic Beverages Sector

    2 Alcoholic Beverage Manufacturing Processes—An Overview

    3 Alcoholic Beverage Definition—An Overview

    4 Alcoholic Beverage Processes and Definitions by Category

    5 Counterfeit Issues in the Alcoholic Beverages Sector

    6 Analytical Techniques Used in the Authentication of Alcoholic Beverages

    7 Analytical Strategy for Checking Claims of Origin

    8 Analysis in Practice

    9 Conclusions


    Chapter 17. Juices and Non-Alcoholic Beverages

    1 Introduction

    2 Juices and Non-Alcoholic Beverages

    3 Quality and Authenticity of Fruit Juices

    4 Techniques and Analytical Methods for Designation of Origin

    5 Conclusions



    Chapter 18. Authentication and Traceability of Fruits and Vegetables

    1 The Geographical Indication System of Fruits and Vegetables Around the World

    2 Discrimination of Organic and Conventional Fruits and Vegetables

    3 Tracing the Geographical Origin of Fruits

    4 Tracing Geographical Origin of Vegetables

    5 Future Perspectives in PDO Authentication of Fruits and Vegetables


    Chapter 19. Cheeses

    1 PDO Cheeses

    2 Traditional Techniques for the Determination of the Authenticity of Cheeses

    3 Advanced Techniques for the Determination of the Authenticity of Cheeses

    4 Conclusions and Future Trends


    Chapter 20. Honey Authenticity and Traceability

    1 Honey Quality Attributes

    2 Honeys PDO in the World

    3 Characterization of Honeys with PDO

    4 New Tools for Botanical Origin Detection in Honey


    Chapter 21. Vegetable Oils

    1 Introduction

    2 PDO Olive Oils

    3 Other Vegetable Oils: Protection of Geographical Origin

    4 Conclusions



    Chapter 22. Coffee

    1 Brief Description of Coffee Plant, Fruit and Seed

    2 Geographical Origin Differentiation of Food Products: Where Do We Stand with Coffee?

    3 Coffee Geographical Origin Differentiation


    Chapter 23. Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) Wheat and Corn

    1 Introduction

    2 PDO Wheat-Derived Foodstuffs

    3 PDO Corn-Derived Products

    4 PDO Rice


    Chapter 24. Rice

    1 Rice Around the World

    2 Analytical Methodologies for Determining the Geographical Origin of Rice

    3 Future Perspectives


    Chapter 25. Authentication of Fishery Products

    1 Implications of Fishery Product Authentication

    2 Protection of Fishery Products: Geographical Indications

    3 Markers Used for Fishery Product Authentication

    4 Future Perspectives


    Chapter 26. Sea Salt

    1 Importance of Salt Around the World

    2 Characteristics of Sea Salt with GI Status

    3 Analytical Techniques Employed to Verify the Quality of Sea Salt

    4 Chemometric Tools Employed for Sea Salt Authenticity

    5 Unexplored Possibilities for Sea Salt with GI Status




Product details

  • No. of pages: 800
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2013
  • Published: June 11, 2013
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444595720

About the Series Volume Editors

Miguel de la Guardia

Miguel de la Guardia
Prof Dr.Miguel de la Guardia is Full Professor at Valencia University (Department of Analytical Chemistry) from 1991. He has published more than 550 papers in journals of the Science Citation Index with 8747 citations,5 Spanish patents, 3 books on Green Analytical Chemistry (Elsevier, RSC and Wiley) and and 2 books on Food analysis (Elsevier and Wiley) additionally than 15 book chapters. His H index is 39 He has supervised 33 PhD thesis and is member of the Editorial board of TrEAC Trends in Environmental Analytical Chemistry (The Netherlands), Bioimpacts (Iran) Spectroscopy Letters (USA), Current Green Chemistry (United Arab Emirates) Ciencia (Venezuela), J. Braz. Chem. Soc. (Brazil) Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry and Chemical Speciation & Bioavailability (UK), SOP Transactionson Nano-technology (USA) and SOP Transactions on Analytical Chemistry (USA). Member of the Advisory board of Analytica Chimica Acta (The Netherlands) between 1995 and 2000, and editor of five special issues of the journal Spectroscopy letters(USA) about Quantitative Vibrational Spectrometry (2005), Spectrometry and Automation (2006), Research on Spectroscopy in Morocco (2007), RISO Conference Special issue (2008) and Green Spectroscopy (2009) and a special issue of TrAC on Green Analytical Chemistry(2011)Invited Editor of a special issue on Green Analytical Methods of Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry published in 2012 and co-editor with S. Garrigues of a special issue on Analytical Diagnostics for Analytical Methods (RSC) to be published in 2014. Chevallier dans l’ordre des Palmes Acadèmiquess decorated by the Minister Council of France.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Valencia, Spain

Ana Gonzalvez Illueca

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