Food Processing Technology

Food Processing Technology

Principles and Practice

5th Edition - August 15, 2022

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  • Author: P.J. Fellows
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323857376

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Description

Food Processing Technology: Principles and Practice, Fifth Edition  includes emerging trends and developments in food processing. The book has been fully updated to provide comprehensive, up-to-date technical information. For each food processing unit operation, theory and principles are first described, followed by equipment used commercially and its operating conditions, the effects of the operation on micro-organisms, and the nutritional and sensory qualities of the foods concerned. Part I describes basic concepts; Part II describes operations that take place at ambient temperature; Part III describes processing using heat; Part IV describes processing by removing heat; and Part V describes post-processing operations. This book continues to be the most comprehensive reference in the field, covering all processing unit operations in a single volume. The title brings key terms and definitions, sample problems, recommended further readings and illustrated processes.

Key Features

  • Presents current trends on food sustainability, environmental considerations, changing consumer choices, reduced packaging and energy use, and functional and healthy/plant-based foods
  • Includes highly illustrated line drawings and/or photographs to show the principles of equipment operation and/or examples of equipment that is used commercially
  • Contains worked examples of common calculations

Readership

Lecturers, undergraduate & postgraduate students on courses in food technology, food science, food engineering, biotechnology or bioprocessing. Students & lecturers on courses in microbiology, food marketing and distribution, nutrition, consumer science, hospitality management/ catering and agricultural sciences. Researchers in food science, food chemistry, food engineering, microbiology, biotechnology

Table of Contents

  • PART I - BASIC PRINCIPLES
    1 Properties of foods
    1.1 Physical properties
    1.1.1 Density and specific gravity
    1.1.2 Viscosity
    1.1.3 Surface activity
    1.1.4 Water activity
    1.2 Biochemical properties
    1.2.1 Acids, bases and pH
    1.2.2 Redox potential
    2.1 Principles of processing
    2.2 Mass transfer and mass balances
    2.3 Fluid flow
    2.4 Phase and glass transitions
    2.5 Heat transfer
    2.5.1 Thermal properties of foods and other materials
    2.5.2 Types of heat transfer
    2.5.3 Types of heat exchangers
    2.5.4 Effects of heat on micro-organisms
    2.5.5 Effects of heat on food components
    2.6 Linking unit operations to form processes
    References
    Recommended further reading

    PART II: AMBIENT-TEMPERATURE PROCESSING
    2 Raw material preparation
    2.1 Cooling crops and carcasses
    2.1.1 Theory
    2.1.2 Hydrocooling equipment
    2.2 Cleaning foods
    2.2.1 Wet cleaning
    2.2.2 Dry methods of cleaning
    2.3 Sorting and grading
    2.3.1 Shape and size sorting
    2.3.2 Weight sorting
    2.3.3 Colour and machine vision sorting and grading systems
    2.3.4 Other types of grader
    2.4 Peeling and coring
    References
    Recommended further reading

    3 Extraction and separation of food components
    3.1 Centrifugation
    3.1.1 Theory
    3.1.2 Equipment
    3.2 Filtration
    3.2.1 Theory
    3.2.2 Equipment
    3.3 Expression 
    3.3.1 Theory
    3.3.2 Equipment
    3.4 Extraction using solvents
    3.4.1 Theory
    3.4.2 Solvents
    3.4.3 Equipment
    3.5 Membrane separation
    3.5.1 Theory
    3.5.2 Equipment and applications
    3.5.3 Types of membrane systems
    3.6 Effects on foods and micro-organisms
    References
    Recommended further reading

    4 Size reduction
    4.1 Size reduction of solid foods
    4.1.1 Theory
    4.1.2 Equipment
    4.1.3 Developments in size reduction technology
    4.1.4 Effects on foods
    4.1.5 Effects on micro-organisms
    4.2 Size reduction in liquid foods
    4.2.1 Theory
    4.2.2 Emulsifying agents and stabilisers
    4.2.3 Equipment
    4.2.4 Effects on foods
    4.2.5 Effects on micro-organisms
    References
    Recommended further reading

    5 Mixing, forming and coating
    5.1 Mixing
    5.1.1 Theory of solids mixing
    5.1.2 Theory of liquids mixing
    5.1.3 Gas blending
    5.1.4 Equipment
    5.1.5 Effects on foods and micro-organisms
    5.2 Forming
    5.2.1 Bread moulders
    5.2.2 Pie, tart and biscuit formers
    5.2.3 Confectionery moulders and depositors
    5.2.4 Cold extrusion
    5.3 Coating foods
    5.3.1 Coating materials
    5.3.2 Equipment
    5.3.3 Microencapsulation
    5.3.4 Edible barrier coatings
    References
    Recommended further reading

    6 Food biotechnology
    6.1 Fermentation technology
    6.1.1 Theory
    6.1.2 Equipment for submerged and solid substrate fermentations
    6.1.3 Examples of commercial food fermentations
    6.1.4 Effects on foods
    6.2 Microbial Enzymes
    6.2.1 Novel enzyme technologies
    6.3 Bacteriocins and antimicrobial ingredients
    6.3.1 Chitin and chitosans
    6.4 Functional foods
    6.4.1 Probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic foods
    6.5 Genetic modification
    6.5.1 GM food crops
    6.5.2 Genetically modified micro-organisms (GMMs) and their products
    6.5.3 Marker assisted selection
    6.6 Nutritional genomics
    References
    Recommended further reading

    7 Minimal processing
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 High Pressure processing
    7.2.1 Introduction
    7.2.2 Theory
    7.2.3 Equipment and operation
    7.2.4 Process developments
    7.2.5 Packaging
    7.2.6 Effects on food components
    7.2.7 Effects on enzymes
    7.2.8 Inactivation of micro-organisms
    7.2.9 Regulation
    7.2.10 Applications
    7.3 Power ultrasound
    7.3.1 Theory
    7.3.2 Processing equipment
    7.3.3 Process developments
    7.3.4 Effects on micro-organisms, enzymes and food components
    7.4 Pulsed electric fields
    7.4.1 Theory
    7.4.2 Equipment
    7.4.3 Effects on micro-organisms, enzymes and food components
    7.4.4 Combinations of PEF and other treatments
    7.5 Electric arc discharges and cold plasma
    7.5.1 Theory
    7.5.2 Equipment and operation
    7.5.3 Effects on micro-organisms, enzymes and food components
    7.6 Oscillating magnetic fields
    7.6.1 Theory
    7.6.2 Equipment and operation
    7.6.3 Effects on micro-organisms, enzymes and food components
    7.7 Pulsed light and ultraviolet light
    7.7.1 Theory
    7.7.2 Equipment
    7.7.3 Effects on micro-organisms, enzymes and food components
    7.7.4 Regulation and use
    7.8 Pulsed X-rays
    7.8.1 Theory
    7.8.2 Equipment and operation
    7.8.3 Effects on micro-organisms, enzymes and food components
    7.9 Irradiation
    7.9.1 Introduction
    7.9.2 Theory
    7.9.3 Equipment
    7.9.4 Measurement of radiation dose
    7.9.5 Detection of irradiated foods
    7.9.6 Applications
    7.9.7 Effects on foods
    7.9.8 Effects on micro-organisms
    7.9.9 Effects on packaging
    7.10 Ozone
    7.10.1 Ozone production and use
    7.10.2 Antimicrobial activity
    7.10.3 Processing applications
    7.10.4 Limitations and potential toxicity
    7.11 Dense-phase carbon dioxide
    7.11.1 Theory
    7.11.2 Equipment and operation
    7.11.3 Effects on micro-organisms, enzymes and food components
    References
    Recommended further reading

    PART III: PROCESSING BY APPLICATION OF HEAT
    Processing using steam or water
    8 Blanching
    8.1 Theory
    8.2 Equipment
    8.2.1 Steam blanchers
    8.2.2 Hot-water blanchers
    8.2.3 Newer blanching methods
    8.3 Effects on Foods
    8.4 Effects on micro-organisms
    References
    Recommended further reading

    9 Industrial cooking
    9.1 Cooking using moist heat
    9.1.1 Equipment
    9.2 Sous-vide cooking
    9.2.1 Theory
    9.2.2 Processing
    9.2.3 Effects on foods
    9.3 Cooking using dry heat
    9.3.1 Equipment
    References
    Recommended further reading

    10 Pasteurisation
    10.1 Theory
    10.2  Equipment
    10.2.1 Pasteurisation of packaged foods
    10.2.2 Pasteurisation of unpackaged liquids
    10.2.3 Novel pasteurisation methods
    10.3 Effects on foods
    References
    Recommended further reading

    11 Heat sterilisation
    11.1 In-container sterilisation
    11.1.1 Theory
    11.1.2 Retorting
    11.1.3 Equipment
    11.2 Ultra high-temperature (UHT)/aseptic processes
    11.2.1 Theory
    11.2.2 Processing and equipment
    11.2.3 Equipment
    11.3 Effects on foods
    11.3.1 Canning
    11.3.2 UHT processing
    References
    Recommended further reading

    12 Evaporation and distillation
    12.1 Evaporation
    12.1.1 Theory
    12.1.2 Improving the economics of evaporation
    12.1.3 Equipment
    12.1.4 Effects on foods and micro-organisms
    12.2 Distillation
    12.2.1 Theory
    12.2.2 Equipment
    12.2.3 Effects on foods and micro-organisms
    References
    Recommended further reading

    Processing using hot air or heated surfaces
    13 Dehydration
    13.1 Theory
    13.1.1 Drying using heated air
    13.1.2 Drying using heated surfaces
    13.2 Equipment
    13.2.1 Hot-air dryers
    13.2.2 Heated-surface (or contact) dryers
    13.3 Control of dryers
    13.4 Rehydration
    13.5 Effects on foods and micro-organisms
    13.5.1 Sensory properties
    13.5.2 Nutritional value
    13.5.3 Effects on micro-organisms
    References
    Recommended further reading

    14 Smoking
    14.1 Theory
    14.1.1 Constituents in smoke
    14.1.2 Tasteless smoke
    14.1.3 Liquid smoke
    14.2 Processing
    14.2.1 Equipment
    14.3 Effects on foods
    14.4 Effects on micro-organisms
    References
    Recommended further reading

    15 Baking and roasting
    15.1 Theory
    15.2 Equipment
    15.2.1 Batch and semi-continuous ovens and roasters
    15.2.2 Continuous ovens and roasters
    15.2.3 Control of ovens
    15.3 Effects on foods
    15.4 Effects on micro-organisms
    References
    Recommended further reading

    16 Extrusion cooking
    16.1 Theory
    16.1.1 Properties of ingredients
    16.1.2 Extruder operating characteristics
    16.2 Equipment
    16.2.1 Single-screw extruders
    16.2.2 Twin-screw extruders
    16.2.3 Control of extruders
    16.3 Applications
    16.3.1 Confectionery products
    16.3.2 Cereal products
    16.3.3 Protein-based foods
    16.4 Effects on foods and micro-organisms
    16.4.1 Sensory characteristics
    16.4.2 Nutritional value
    16.4.3 Effects on micro-organisms
    References
    Recommended further reading

    Processing using hot oils
    17 Frying
    17.1 Theory
    17.1.1 Heat and mass transfer
    17.1.2 Frying time and temperature
    17.1.3 Oil absorption
    17.2 Equipment
    17.2.1 Atmospheric fryers
    17.2.2 Vacuum and pressure fryers
    17.2.3 Control of fryer operation, oil filtration and heat recovery
    17.3 Types of oils used for frying
    17.4 Effects of frying on oils
    17.5 Effects of frying on foods
    17.6 Effects of frying on micro-organisms
    References
    Recommended further reading

    Electromagnetic processing using direct and radiated energy
    18 Dielectric, ohmic and infrared heating
    18.1 Dielectric heating
    18.1.1 Theory
    18.1.2 Equipment
    18.1.3 Applications
    18.1.4 Effects on foods and micro-organisms
    18.2 Ohmic Heating
    18.2.1 Theory
    18.2.2 Equipment and applications
    18.2.3 Effects on foods and micro-organisms
    18.3 Infrared heating
    18.3.1 Theory
    18.3.2 Equipment and applications
    18.3.3 Effects on foods and micro-organisms
    References
    Recommended further reading

    PART IV: PROCESSING BY REMOVAL OF HEAT
    19 Heat removal by refrigeration
    19.1 Theory
    19.1.1 Refrigerants and cryogens
    19.1.2 Magnetic refrigeration
    19.1.3 The refrigeration cycle
    19.2 Equipment
    19.2.1 Control of mechanical refrigerators
    19.2.2 Temperature monitoring
    References 
    Recommended further reading

    21 Chilling
    21.1 Theory
    21.2 Equipment
    21.2.1 Mechanical chillers
    21.2.2 Cryogenic chillers
    21.2.3 Other methods of chilling
    21.3 Applications to processed foods
    21.3.1 Cook-chill systems
    21.4 Effects on sensory and nutritional qualities of foods
    21.5 Effects on micro-organisms
    References
    Recommended further reading

    22 Freezing
    22.1 Theory
    22.1.1 Ice crystal formation
    22.1.2 Solute concentration
    22.1.3 Calculation of freezing time
    22.1.4 Thawing
    22.2 Equipment
    22.2.1 Mechanical freezers
    22.2.2 Cryogenic freezers
    22.2.3 Developments in freezing technologies
    22.3 Effects on foods
    22.3.1 Freezing
    22.3.2 Frozen storage
    22.3.3 Thawing
    22.4 Effects on micro-organisms
    References
    Recommended further reading

    23 Freeze Drying and Freeze Concentration
    23.1 Freeze drying
    23.1.1 Theory
    23.1.2 Equipment
    23.1.3 Effects on foods and micro-organisms
    23.2 Freeze concentration
    23.2.1 Theory
    23.2.2 Equipment
    23.2.3 Effects on foods and micro-organisms
    References
    Recommended further reading

    PART V POST-PROCESSING OPERATIONS
    24 Packaging
    24.1 Theory
    24.1.1 Factors affecting the selection of a packaging material
    24.1.2 Interactions between packaging and foods
    24.2 Types of packaging materials
    24.2.1 Textiles and wood
    24.2.2 Metal
    24.2.3 Glass
    24.2.4 Flexible films
    24.2.5 Paper and board
    24.2.6 Combined packaging systems
    24.3 Packaging materials for modified atmosphere packaging (MAP)
    24.3.1 Effects on micro-organisms
    24.4 Printing
    24.4.1 Bar codes and other markings
    24.5 Packaging developments
    24.5.1 Edible and biodegradable packaging
    24.5.2 Nanotechnology
    24.5.3 Active and intelligent packaging
    24.6 Environmental and regulatory considerations
    24.6.1 Reductions in use of energy and materials
    24.6.2 Re-use and recycling
    24.6.3 Lifecycle analysis
    References
    Recommended further reading

    25 Filling and sealing of containers
    25.1 Rigid and semi-rigid containers
    25.1.1 Filling
    25.1.2 Sealing
    25.2 Flexible containers
    25.2.1 Form-fill-sealing
    25.3 Twist-wrapping
    25.4 Shrink-wrapping and stretch-wrapping
    25.5 Tamper-evident packaging
    25.6 Labelling
    25.7 Checkweighing
    25.8 Metal detection
    References
    Recommended further reading

    26 Materials handling, storage and distribution
    26.1  Materials handling
    26.1.1  Solids handling methods
    26.1.2 Liquid handling methods
    26.2 Storage
    26.2.1 Ambient storage
    26.2.2 Temperature-controlled storage
    26.2.3 Modified and controlled atmosphere storage
    26.3 Logistics and control of storage and distribution
    References
    Recommended further reading

    ANNEXES (on associated website)

    Annex A. Food components 
    A1 Structure of food macromolecules
    A1.1 Carbohydrates
    A1.2 Lipids
    A1.3 Amino acids and proteins
    A2 Composition of foods
    A2.1 Carbohydrates
    A2.2 Lipids
    A2.3 Proteins
    A2.4 Water
    A2.5 Vitamins
    A2.6 Minerals
    A2.7 Colourants and pigments
    A2.8 Antioxidants
    A2.9 Preservatives
    A2.10 Natural toxicants
    A3 Functional components of foods

    Annex B Micro-organisms and enzymes
    B1 Spoilage micro-organisms
    B2 Pathogens
    B2 Viruses
    B3 Enzymes from GM micro-organisms
    B4 Examples of food fermentations

    Annex C. Quality assurance
    C1 Food quality and shelf life
    C1.1 Quality attributes
    C1.2 Food safety
    C1.3 Hurdle concepts
    C1.4 Shelf life assessment
    C1.5 Date marking
    C1.6  Food authenticity and traceability
    C2 Management of food quality and safety
    C2.1 HACCP and prerequisite programmes
    C2.2 Process monitoring and control
    C2.3.1 Sensors
    C2.3.2 Process analytical technology and quality by design
    C2.3.3 Process controllers
    C2.4 Neural networks and fuzzy logic
    C3 Hygienic design and cleaning of processing facilities and equipment
    C3.1 Hygienic design
    C3.2 Cleaning and sanitation
    C3.3 Water and waste management

    Annex D. Glossary, acronyms, symbols
    D1. Glossary
    D2. List of acronyms
    D3. Symbols

    Annex E. Units and conversions

Product details

  • No. of pages: 804
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2022
  • Published: August 15, 2022
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323857376

About the Author

P.J. Fellows

Dr Peter Fellows is a senior consultant in food processing, working mostly in Africa and Asia. Over the last 30 years, he has worked extensively as a food technologist in over twenty countries, supporting institutions that promote small-scale agro-industrial development programmes. He is a Visiting Fellow at Oxford Brookes University in the UK, and has held the UNESCO Chair in Post-Harvest Technology at Makerere University, Uganda. In addition to Food processing technology, he has written 22 books and numerous articles on different aspects of food processing.

Affiliations and Expertise

Visiting Fellow, Oxford Brookes University, UK

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