Food Process Engineering and Technology

Food Process Engineering and Technology

1st Edition - September 25, 2008

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  • Author: Zeki Berk
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080920238

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The past 30 years have seen the establishment of food engineering both as an academic discipline and as a profession. Combining scientific depth with practical usefulness, this book serves as a tool for graduate students as well as practicing food engineers, technologists and researchers looking for the latest information on transformation and preservation processes as well as process control and plant hygiene topics.

Key Features

*Strong emphasis on the relationship between engineering and product quality/safety
*Links theory and practice
*Considers topics in light of factors such as cost and environmental issues


Students and professionals in food engineering and food science and technology

Table of Contents

  • Introduction – Food is Life

    1 Physical Properties of Food Materials

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Mechanical Properties

    1.2.1 Definitions

    1.2.2 Rheological Models

    1.3 Thermal Properties

    1.4 Electrical Properties

    1.5 Structure

    1.6 Water Activity

    1.6.1 The Importance of Water in Foods

    1.6.2 Water Activity, Definition and Determination

    1.6.3 Water Activity: Prediction

    1.6.4 Water Vapor Sorption Isotherms

    1.6.5 Water Activity: Effect on Food Quality and Stability

    1.7 Phase Transition Phenomena in Foods

    1.7.1 The Glassy State in Foods

    1.7.2 Glass Transition Temperature

    2 Fluid Flow

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Elements of Fluid Dynamics

    2.2.1 Viscosity

    2.2.2 Fluid Flow Regimes

    2.2.3 Typical Applications of Newtonian Laminar Flow

    2.2.4 Turbulent Fluid Flow

    2.3 Flow Properties of Fluids

    2.3.1 Types of Fluid Flow Behaviour

    2.3.2 Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow in Pipes

    2.4 Transportation of Fluids

    2.4.1 Energy Relations,theBernoulli Equation

    2.4.2 Pumps: Types and Operation

    2.4.3 Pump Selection

    2.4.4 Ejectors

    2.4.5 Piping

    2.5 Flow of Particulate Solids (Powder Flow)

    2.5.1 Introduction

    2.5.2 Flow Properties of Particulate Solids

    2.5.3 Fluidization

    2.5.4 Pneumatic Transport

    3 Heat and Mass Transfer, Basic Principles

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Basic Relations in Transport Phenomena

    3.2.1 Basic Laws of Transport

    3.2.2 Mechanisms of Heat and Mass Transfer

    3.3 Conductive Heat and Mass Transfer

    3.3.1 The Fourier and Fick Laws

    3.3.2 Integration of Fourier’s and Fick's Laws for Steady-State Conductive Transport

    3.3.3 Thermal Conductivity, Thermal Diffusivity and Molecular Diffusivity

    3.3.4 Examples of Steady-State Conductive Heat and Mass Transfer Processes

    3.4 Convective Heat and Mass Transfer

    3.4.1 Film (Or Surface) Heat and Mass Transfer Coefficients

    3.4.2 Empirical Correlations for Convection Heat and Mass Transfer

    3.4.3 Steady-State Interphase Mass Transfer

    3.5 Unsteady State Heat and Mass Transfer

    3.5.1 The 2 Nd Fourier and Fick Laws

    3.5.2 Solution of Fourier’s Second Law Equation for an Infinite Slab

    3.5.3 Transient Conduction Transfer Infinite Solids

    3.5.4 Transient Convective Transfer in a Semi-Infinite Body

    3.5.5 Unsteady State Convective Transfer

    3.6 Heat Transfer By Radiation

    3.6.1 Interaction Between Matter and Thermal Radiation

    3.6.2 Radiation Heat Exchange Between Surfaces

    3.6.3 Radiation Combined With Convection

    3.7 Heat Exchangers

    3.7.1 Overall Coefficient of Heat Transfer

    3.7.2 Heat Exchange Between Flowing Fluids

    3.7.3 Fouling

    3.7.4 Heat Exchangers intheFood Process Industry

    3.8 Microwave Heating

    3.8.1 Basic Principles of Microwave Heating

    3.9 Ohmic Heating

    3.9.1 Introduction

    3.9.2 Basic Principles

    3.9.3 Applications and Equipment

    4 Reaction Kinetics

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Basic Concepts

    4.2.1 Elementary and Non-Elementary Reactions

    4.2.2 Reaction Order

    4.2.3 Effect of Temperature on Reaction Kinetics

    4.3 Kinetics of Biological Processes

    4.3.1 Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions

    4.3.2 Growth of Micro-Organisms

    4.4 Residence Time and Residence Time Distribution

    4.4.1 Reactors in Food Processing

    4.4.2 Residence Time Distribution

    5 Elements of Process Control

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Basic Concepts

    5.3 Basic Control Structures

    5.3.1 Feedback Control

    5.3.2 Feed-Forward Control

    5.3.3 Comparative Merits of Control Strategies

    5.4 The Block Diagram

    5.5 Input, Output and Process Dynamics

    5.5.1 First Order Response

    5.5.2 Second Order Systems

    5.6 Control Modes (Control Algorithms)

    5.6.1 On-Off (Binary) Control

    5.6.2 Proportional (P) Control

    5.6.3 Integral (I) Control

    5.6.4 Proportional-Integral (PI) Control

    5.6.5 Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID) Control

    5.6.6 Optimization of Control

    5.7 The Physical Elements of the Control System

    5.7.1 The Sensors (Measuring Elements)

    5.7.2 The Controllers

    5.7.3 The Actuators

    6 Size Reduction

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Particle Size and Particle Size Distribution

    6.2.1 Defining the Size of a Single Particle

    6.2.2 Particle Size Distribution in a Population of Particles; Defining a 'Mean Particle Size'

    6.2.3 Mathematical Models of PSD

    6.2.4 A Note on Particle Shape

    6.3 Size Reduction of Solids, Basic Principles

    6.3.1 Mechanism of Size Reduction in Solids

    6.3.2 Particle Size Distribution After Size Reduction

    6.3.3 Energy Consumption

    6.4 Size Reduction of Solids, Equipment and Methods

    6.4.1 Impact Mills

    6.4.2 Pressure Mills

    6.4.3 Attrition Mills

    6.4.4 Cutters and Choppers

    7 Mixing

    7.1 Introduction 175

    7.2 Mixing of Fluids (Blending)

    7.2.1 Types of Blenders

    7.2.2 Flow Patterns in Fluid Mixing

    7.2.3 Energy Input in Fluid Mixing 178

    7.3 Kneading

    7.4 In-Flow Mixing

    7.5 Mixing of Particulate Solids

    7.5.1 Mixing and Segregation

    7.5.2 Quality of Mixing,theConcept of 'Mixedness'

    7.5.3 Equipment for Mixing Particulate Solids

    7.6 Homogenization

    7.6.1 Basic Principles

    7.6.2 Homogenizers

    8 Filtration

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Depth Filtration

    8.3 Surface (Barrier) Filtration

    8.3.1 Mechanisms

    8.3.2 Rate of Filtration

    8.3.3 Optimization of the Filtration Cycle

    8.3.4 Characteristics of Filtration Cakes

    8.3.5 The Role of Cakes in Filtration

    8.4 Filtration Equipment

    8.4.1 Depth Filters

    8.4.2 Barrier (Surface) Filters

    8.5 Expression

    8.5.1 Introduction

    8.5.2 Mechanisms

    8.5.3 Applications and Equipment

    9 Centrifugation

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Basic Principles

    9.2.1 The Continuous Settling Tank

    9.2.2 FromtheSettling Tank TotheTubular Centrifuge

    9.2.3 The Baffled Settling Tank and the Disc-Bowl Centrifuge

    9.2.4 Liquid–Liquid Separation

    9.3 Centrifuges

    9.3.1 Tubular Centrifuges

    9.3.2 Disc-Bowl Centrifuges

    9.3.3 Decanter Centrifuges

    9.3.4 Basket Centrifuges

    9.4 Cyclones

    10 Membrane Processes

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Tangential Filtration

    10.3 Mass Transfer Through MF and UF Membranes

    10.3.1 Solvent Transport

    10.3.2 Solute Transport; Sieving Coefficient and Rejection

    10.3.3 Concentration Polarization and Gel Polarization

    10.4 Mass Transfer in Reverse Osmosis

    10.4.1 Basic Concepts

    10.4.2 Solvent Transport in Reverse Osmosis

    10.5 Membrane Systems

    10.5.1 Membrane Materials

    10.5.2 Membrane Configurations

    10.6 Membrane Processes intheFood Industry9

    10.6.1 Microfiltration

    10.6.2 Ultrafiltration

    10.6.3 Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis

    10.7 Electrodialysis

    11 Extraction

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Solid–Liquid Extraction (Leaching)

    11.2.1 Definitions

    11.2.2 Material Balance

    11.2.3 Equilibrium

    11.2.4 Multistage Extraction

    11.2.5 Stage Efficiency

    11.2.6 Solid–Liquid Extraction Systems

    11.3 Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    11.3.1 Basic Principles

    11.3.2 Supercritical Fluids As Solvents

    11.3.3 Supercritical Extraction Systems

    11.3.4 Applications

    11.4 Liquid–Liquid Extraction

    11.4.1 Principles

    11.4.2 Applications

    12 Adsorption and Ion Exchange

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Equilibrium Conditions

    12.3 Batch Adsorption

    12.4 Adsorption in Columns

    12.5 Ion Exchange

    12.5.1 Basic Principles

    12.5.2 Properties of Ion Exchangers

    12.5.3 Application: Water Softening Using Ion Exchange

    12.5.4 Application: Reduction of Acidity in Fruit Juices

    13 Distillation

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Vapor–Liquid Equilibrium (VLE)

    13.3 Continuous Flash Distillation

    13.4 Batch (Differential) Distillation

    13.5 Fractional Distillation

    13.5.1 Basic Concepts

    13.5.2 Analysis and Design OftheColumn

    13.5.3 Effect OftheRefl Ux Ratio

    13.5.4 Tray Configuration

    13.5.5 Column Configuration

    13.5.6 Heating With Live Steam

    13.5.7 Energy Considerations

    13.6 Steam Distillation

    13.7 Distillation of Wines and Spirits

    14 Crystallization and Dissolution

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Crystallization Kinetics

    14.2.1 Nucleation

    14.2.2 Crystal Growth

    14.3 Crystallization intheFood Industry

    14.3.1 Equipment

    14.3.2 Processes

    14.4 Dissolution

    14.4.1 Introduction

    14.4.2 Mechanism and Kinetics

    15 Extrusion

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 The Single-Screw Extruder

    15.2.1 Structure

    15.2.2 Operation

    15.2.3 Flow Models, Extruder Throughput

    15.2.4 Residence Time Distribution

    15.3 Twin-Screw Extruders

    15.3.1 Structure

    15.3.2 Operation

    15.3.3 Advantages and Shortcomings

    15.4 Effect on Foods

    15.4.1 Physical Effects

    15.4.2 Chemical Effect

    15.5 Food Applications of Extrusion

    15.5.1 Forming Extrusion of Pasta

    15.5.2 Expanded Snacks

    15.5.3 Ready-To-Eat Cereals

    15.5.4 Pellets

    15.5.5 Other Extruded Starchy and Cereal Products

    15.5.6 Texturized Protein Products

    15.5.7 Confectionery and Chocolat

    15.5.8 Pet Foods

    16 Spoilage and Preservation of Foods

    16.1 Mechanisms of Food Spoilage

    16.2 Food Preservation Processes

    16.3 Combined Processes (The 'Hurdle Effect')

    16.4 Packaging

    17 Thermal Processing

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 The Kinetics of Thermal Inactivation of Micro-Organisms and Enzymes

    17.2.1 The Concept of Decimal Reduction Time

    17.2.2 Effect OftheTemperature OntheRate of Thermal Destruction/Inactivation

    17.3 Lethality of Thermal Processes

    17.4 Optimization of Thermal Processes with Respect to Quality

    17.5 Heat Transfer Considerations in Thermal Processing

    17.5.1 In-Package Thermal Processing

    17.5.2 In-Flow Thermal Processing

    18 Thermal Processes, Methods and Equipment

    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Thermal Processing in Hermetically Closed Containers

    18.2.1 Filling IntotheCans

    18.2.2 Expelling Air FromtheHead-Space

    18.2.3 Sealing

    18.2.4 Heat Processing

    18.3 Thermal Processing in Bulk, Before Packaging

    18.3.1 Bulk Heating – Hot Filling – Sealing – Cooling in Container

    18.3.2 Bulk Heating – Holding – Bulk Cooling – Cold Filling – Sealing

    18.3.3 Aseptic Processing

    19 Refrigeration, Chilling and Freezing

    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Effect of Temperature on Food Spoilage

    19.2.1 Temperature and Chemical Activity

    19.2.2 Effect of Low Temperature on Enzymatic Spoilage

    19.2.3 Effect of Low Temperature on Microorganisms

    19.2.4 Effect of Low Temperature on Biologically Active (Respiring) Tissue

    19.2.5 The Effect of Low Temperature on Physical Properties

    19.3 Freezing

    19.3.1 Phase Transition, Freezing Point

    19.3.2 Freezing Kinetics, Freezing Time

    19.3.3 Effect of Freezing and Frozen Storage on Product Quality

    20 Refrigeration, Equipment and Methods

    20.1 Sources of Refrigeration

    20.1.1 Mechanical Refrigeration

    20.1.2 Refrigerants

    20.1.3 Distribution and Delivery of Refrigeration

    20.2 Cold Storage and Refrigerated Transport

    20.3 Chillers and Freezers

    20.3.1 Blast Cooling

    20.3.2 Contact Freezers

    20.3.3 Immersion Cooling

    20.3.4 Evaporative Cooling

    21 Evaporation

    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 Material and Energy Balance

    21.3 Heat Transfer

    21.3.1 The Overall Coefficient of Heat Transfer U

    21.3.2 The Temperature Difference TS – TC ( ΔT)

    21.4 Energy Management

    21.4.1 Multiple-Effect Evaporation

    21.4.2 Vapor Recompression

    21.5 Condensers

    21.6 Evaporators intheFood Industry

    21.6.1 Open Pan Batch Evaporator

    21.6.2 Vacuum Pan Evaporator

    21.6.3 Evaporators With Tubular Heat Exchangers

    21.6.4 Evaporators With External Tubular Heat Exchangers

    21.6.5 Boiling Film Evaporators1

    21.7 Effect of Evaporation on Food Quality

    21.7.1 Thermal Effects

    21.7.2 Loss of Volatile Flavor Components

    22 Dehydration

    22.1 Introduction

    22.2 Thermodynamics of Moist Air (Psychrometry)

    22.2.1 Basic Principles

    22.2.2 Humidity

    22.2.3 Saturation, Relative Humidity (RH)

    22.2.4 Adiabatic Saturation, Wet-Bulb Temperature

    22.2.5 Dew Point ..

    22.3 Convective Drying (Air Drying)

    22.3.1 The Drying Curve

    22.3.2 The Constant Rate Phase

    22.3.3 The Falling Rate Phase

    22.3.4 Calculation of Drying Time

    22.3.5 Effect of External Conditions OntheDrying Rate

    22.3.6 Relationship Between Film Coefficients in Convective Drying

    22.3.7 Effect of Radiation Heating

    22.3.8 Characteristic Drying Curves

    22.4 Drying Under Varying External Conditions

    22.4.1 Batch Drying on Trays

    22.4.2 Through-Flow Batch Drying in a Fixed Bed

    22.4.3 Continuous Air Drying on a Belt or in a Tunne

    22.5 Conductive (Boiling) Drying

    22.5.1 Basic Principles

    22.5.2 Kinetics

    22.5.3 Systems and Applications

    22.6 Dryers intheFood Processing Industry

    22.6.1 Cabinet Dryers

    22.6.2 Tunnel Dryers

    22.6.3 Belt Dryers

    22.6.4 Belt-Trough Dryers

    22.6.5 Rotary Dryers

    22.6.6 Bin Dryers

    22.6.7 Grain Dryers

    22.6.8 Spray Dryers

    22.6.9 Fluidized Bed Dryer

    22.6.10 Pneumatic Dryer

    22.6.11 Drum Dryers

    22.6.12 Screw Conveyor and Mixer Dryers

    22.6.13 Sun Drying, Solar Drying

    22.7 Issues in Food Drying Technology

    22.7.1 Pre-Drying Treatments

    22.7.2 Effect of Drying Conditions on Quality

    22.7.3 Post-Drying Treatments

    22.7.4 Rehydration Characteristics

    22.7.5 Agglomeration

    22.8 Energy Consumption in Drying

    22.9 Osmotic Dehydration

    23 Freeze Drying (Lyophilization) and Freeze Concentration

    23.1 Introduction

    23.2 Sublimation of Water

    23.3 Heat and Mass Transfer in Freeze Drying

    23.4 Freeze Drying, in Practice

    23.4.1 Freezing

    23.4.2 Drying Conditions

    23.4.3 Freeze Drying, Commercial Facilities

    23.4.4 Freeze Dryers

    23.5 Freeze Concentration

    23.5.1 Basic Principles

    23.5.2 The Process of Freeze Concentration

    24 Frying, Baking, Roasting

    24.1 Introduction

    24.2 Frying

    24.2.1 Types of Frying

    24.2.2 Heat and Mass Transfer in Frying

    24.2.3 Systems and Operation

    24.2.4 Health Aspects of Fried Foods

    24.3 Baking and Roasting

    25 Ionizing Irradiation and Other Non-Thermal Preservation Processes

    25.1 Preservation By Ionizing Radiations

    25.1.1 Introduction

    25.1.2 Ionizing Radiations

    25.1.3 Radiation Sources

    25.1.4 Interaction With Matter

    25.1.5 Radiation Dose

    25.1.6 Chemical and Biological Effects of Ionizing Irradiation

    25.1.7 Industrial Applications

    25.2 High Hydrostatic Pressure Preservation

    25.3 Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF)

    25.4 Pulsed Intense Light

    26 Food Packaging

    26.1 Introduction

    26.2 Packaging Materials

    26.2.1 Introduction

    26.2.2 Materials for Packaging Foods

    26.2.3 Transport Properties of Packaging Materials

    26.2.4 Optical Properties

    26.2.5 Mechanical Properties

    26.2.6 Chemical Reactivity

    26.3 The Atmosphere in the Package

    26.3.1 Vacuum Packaging

    26.3.2 Controlled Atmosphere Packaging (CAP)

    26.3.3 Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP)

    26.3.4 Active Packaging

    26.4 Environmental Issues

    27 Cleaning, Disinfection, Sanitation

    27.1 Introduction

    27.2 Cleaning Kinetics and Mechanisms

    27.2.1 Effect of the Contaminant

    27.2.2 Effect of the Support

    27.2.3 Effect of the Cleaning Agent

    27.2.4 Effect of the Temperature

    27.2.5 Effect of Mechanical Action (Shear)

    27.3 Kinetics of Disinfection

    27.4 Cleaning of Raw Materials

    27.5 Cleaning of Plants and Equipment

    27.5.1 Cleaning Out of Place (COP)

    27.5.2 Cleaning in Place (CIP)

    27.6 Cleaning of Packages

    27.7 Odor Abatement


    Table A.1 Common Conversion Factors

    Table A.2 Typical Composition of Selected Foods

    Table A.3 Viscosity and Density of Gases and Liquids

    Table A.4 Thermal Properties of Materials

    Table A.5 Emissivity of Surfaces

    Table A.6 US Standard Sieves

    Table A.7 Properties of Saturated Steam – Temperature Table

    Table A.8 Properties of Saturated Steam – Pressure Table

    Table A.9 Properties of Superheated Steam

    Table A.10 Vapor Pressure of Liquid Water and Ice Below 0°C

    Table A.11 Freezing Point of Ideal Aqueous Solutions

    Table A.12 Vapor–Liquid Equilibrium Data for Ethanol–Water Mixtures at 1 ATM

    Table A.13 Boiling Point of Sucrose Solutions at 1 ATM

    Table A.14 Electrical Conductivity of Some Materials

    Table A.15 Thermodynamic Properties of Saturated R-134a

    Table A.16 Thermodynamic Properties of Superheated R-134a

    Table A.17 Properties of Air at Atmospheric Pressure

    Figure A.1 Friction Factors for Flow in Pipe

    Figure A.2 Psychrometric Chart

    Figure A.3 Mixing Power Function, Turbine Impellers

    Figure A.4 Mixing Power Function, Propeller Impellers

    Figure A.5 Unsteady State Heat Transfer in a Slab

    Figure A.6 Unsteady State Heat Transfer in an Infinite Cylinder

    Figure A.7 Unsteady State Heat Transfer in a Sphere

    Figure A.8 Unsteady State Mass Transfer, Average Concentration

    Figure A.9 Error Function


    Series List

Product details

  • No. of pages: 624
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2008
  • Published: September 25, 2008
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080920238

About the Author

Zeki Berk

Zeki Berk
Dr. Berk is a chemical engineer and food scientist with a long history of work in food engineering, including appointments as a professor at Technion IIT, MIT, and Agro-Paris and as a consultant at UNIDO, FAO, the Industries Development Corporation, and Nestle. He is the recipient of the International Association of Food and Engineering Life Achievement Award (2011), and has written 6 books (3 with Elsevier) and numerous papers and reviews. His main research interests include heat and mass transfer and kinetics of deterioration.

Affiliations and Expertise

Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa

About the Editor

Zeki Berk

Zeki Berk
Dr. Berk is a chemical engineer and food scientist with a long history of work in food engineering, including appointments as a professor at Technion IIT, MIT, and Agro-Paris and as a consultant at UNIDO, FAO, the Industries Development Corporation, and Nestle. He is the recipient of the International Association of Food and Engineering Life Achievement Award (2011), and has written 6 books (3 with Elsevier) and numerous papers and reviews. His main research interests include heat and mass transfer and kinetics of deterioration.

Affiliations and Expertise

Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa

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