Food Process Engineering and Technology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123736604, 9780080920238

Food Process Engineering and Technology

1st Edition

Editors: Zeki Berk
Authors: Zeki Berk
eBook ISBN: 9780080920238
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123736604
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 25th September 2008
Page Count: 624
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Table of Contents


Introduction – Food is Life

1 Physical Properties of Food Materials

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Mechanical Properties

1.2.1 Definitions

1.2.2 Rheological Models

1.3 Thermal Properties

1.4 Electrical Properties

1.5 Structure

1.6 Water Activity

1.6.1 The Importance of Water in Foods

1.6.2 Water Activity, Definition and Determination

1.6.3 Water Activity: Prediction

1.6.4 Water Vapor Sorption Isotherms

1.6.5 Water Activity: Effect on Food Quality and Stability

1.7 Phase Transition Phenomena in Foods

1.7.1 The Glassy State in Foods

1.7.2 Glass Transition Temperature

2 Fluid Flow

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Elements of Fluid Dynamics

2.2.1 Viscosity

2.2.2 Fluid Flow Regimes

2.2.3 Typical Applications of Newtonian Laminar Flow

2.2.4 Turbulent Fluid Flow

2.3 Flow Properties of Fluids

2.3.1 Types of Fluid Flow Behaviour

2.3.2 Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow in Pipes

2.4 Transportation of Fluids

2.4.1 Energy Relations,theBernoulli Equation

2.4.2 Pumps: Types and Operation

2.4.3 Pump Selection

2.4.4 Ejectors

2.4.5 Piping

2.5 Flow of Particulate Solids (Powder Flow)

2.5.1 Introduction

2.5.2 Flow Properties of Particulate Solids

2.5.3 Fluidization

2.5.4 Pneumatic Transport

3 Heat and Mass Transfer, Basic Principles

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Basic Relations in Transport Phenomena

3.2.1 Basic Laws of Transport

3.2.2 Mechanisms of Heat and Mass Transfer

3.3 Conductive Heat and Mass Transfer

3.3.1 The Fourier and Fick Laws

3.3.2 Integration of Fourier’s and Fick's Laws for Steady-State Conductive Transport

3.3.3 Thermal Conductivity, Thermal Diffusivity and Molecular Diffusivity

3.3.4 Examples of Steady-State Conductive Heat and Mass Transfer Processes

3.4 Convective Heat and Mass Transfer

3.4.1 Film (Or Surface) Heat and Mass Transfer Coefficients

3.4.2 Empirical Correlations for Convection Heat and Mass Transfer

3.4.3 Steady-State Interphase Mass Transfer

3.5 Unsteady State Heat and Mass Transfer

3.5.1 The 2 Nd Fourier and Fick Laws

3.5.2 Solution of Fourier’s Second Law Equation for an Infinite Slab

3.5.3 Transient Conduction Transfer Infinite Solids

3.5.4 Transient Convective Transfer in a Semi-Infinite Body

3.5.5 Unsteady State Convective Transfer

3.6 Heat Transfer By Radiation

3.6.1 Interaction Between Matter and Thermal Radiation

3.6.2 Radiation Heat Exchange Between Surfaces

3.6.3 Radiation Combined With Convection

3.7 Heat Exchangers

3.7.1 Overall Coefficient of Heat Transfer

3.7.2 Heat Exchange Between Flowing Fluids

3.7.3 Fouling

3.7.4 Heat Exchangers intheFood Process Industry

3.8 Microwave Heating

3.8.1 Basic Principles of Microwave Heating

3.9 Ohmic Heating

3.9.1 Introduction

3.9.2 Basic Principles

3.9.3 Applications and Equipment

4 Reaction Kinetics

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Basic Concepts

4.2.1 Elementary and Non-Elementary Reactions

4.2.2 Reaction Order

4.2.3 Effect of Temperature on Reaction Kinetics

4.3 Kinetics of Biological Processes

4.3.1 Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions

4.3.2 Growth of Micro-Organisms

4.4 Residence Time and Residence Time Distribution

4.4.1 Reactors in Food Processing

4.4.2 Residence Time Distribution

5 Elements of Process Control

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Basic Concepts

5.3 Basic Control Structures

5.3.1 Feedback Control

5.3.2 Feed-Forward Control

5.3.3 Comparative Merits of Control Strategies

5.4 The Block Diagram

5.5 Input, Output and Process Dynamics

5.5.1 First Order Response

5.5.2 Second Order Systems

5.6 Control Modes (Control Algorithms)

5.6.1 On-Off (Binary) Control

5.6.2 Proportional (P) Control

5.6.3 Integral (I) Control

5.6.4 Proportional-Integral (PI) Control

5.6.5 Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID) Control

5.6.6 Optimization of Control

5.7 The Physical Elements of the Control System

5.7.1 The Sensors (Measuring Elements)

5.7.2 The Controllers

5.7.3 The Actuators

6 Size Reduction

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Particle Size and Particle Size Distribution

6.2.1 Defining the Size of a Single Particle

6.2.2 Particle Size Distribution in a Population of Particles; Defining a 'Mean Particle Size'

6.2.3 Mathematical Models of PSD

6.2.4 A Note on Particle Shape

6.3 Size Reduction of Solids, Basic Principles

6.3.1 Mechanism of Size Reduction in Solids

6.3.2 Particle Size Distribution After Size Reduction

6.3.3 Energy Consumption

6.4 Size Reduction of Solids, Equipment and Methods

6.4.1 Impact Mills

6.4.2 Pressure Mills

6.4.3 Attrition Mills

6.4.4 Cutters and Choppers

7 Mixing

7.1 Introduction 175

7.2 Mixing of Fluids (Blending)

7.2.1 Types of Blenders

7.2.2 Flow Patterns in Fluid Mixing

7.2.3 Energy Input in Fluid Mixing 178

7.3 Kneading

7.4 In-Flow Mixing

7.5 Mixing of Particulate Solids

7.5.1 Mixing and Segregation

7.5.2 Quality of Mixing,theConcept of 'Mixedness'

7.5.3 Equipment for Mixing Particulate Solids

7.6 Homogenization

7.6.1 Basic Principles

7.6.2 Homogenizers

8 Filtration

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Depth Filtration

8.3 Surface (Barrier) Filtration

8.3.1 Mechanisms

8.3.2 Rate of Filtration

8.3.3 Optimization of the Filtration Cycle

8.3.4 Characteristics of Filtration Cakes

8.3.5 The Role of Cakes in Filtration

8.4 Filtration Equipment

8.4.1 Depth Filters

8.4.2 Barrier (Surface) Filters

8.5 Expression

8.5.1 Introduction

8.5.2 Mechanisms

8.5.3 Applications and Equipment

9 Centrifugation

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Basic Principles

9.2.1 The Continuous Settling Tank

9.2.2 FromtheSettling Tank TotheTubular Centrifuge

9.2.3 The Baffled Settling Tank and the Disc-Bowl Centrifuge

9.2.4 Liquid–Liquid Separation

9.3 Centrifuges

9.3.1 Tubular Centrifuges

9.3.2 Disc-Bowl Centrifuges

9.3.3 Decanter Centrifuges

9.3.4 Basket Centrifuges

9.4 Cyclones

10 Membrane Processes

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Tangential Filtration

10.3 Mass Transfer Through MF and UF Membranes

10.3.1 Solvent Transport

10.3.2 Solute Transport; Sieving Coefficient and Rejection

10.3.3 Concentration Polarization and Gel Polarization

10.4 Mass Transfer in Reverse Osmosis

10.4.1 Basic Concepts

10.4.2 Solvent Transport in Reverse Osmosis

10.5 Membrane Systems

10.5.1 Membrane Materials

10.5.2 Membrane Configurations

10.6 Membrane Processes intheFood Industry9

10.6.1 Microfiltration

10.6.2 Ultrafiltration

10.6.3 Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis

10.7 Electrodialysis

11 Extraction

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Solid–Liquid Extraction (Leaching)

11.2.1 Definitions

11.2.2 Material Balance

11.2.3 Equilibrium

11.2.4 Multistage Extraction

11.2.5 Stage Efficiency

11.2.6 Solid–Liquid Extraction Systems

11.3 Supercritical Fluid Extraction

11.3.1 Basic Principles

11.3.2 Supercritical Fluids As Solvents

11.3.3 Supercritical Extraction Systems

11.3.4 Applications

11.4 Liquid–Liquid Extraction

11.4.1 Principles

11.4.2 Applications

12 Adsorption and Ion Exchange

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Equilibrium Conditions

12.3 Batch Adsorption

12.4 Adsorption in Columns

12.5 Ion Exchange

12.5.1 Basic Principles

12.5.2 Properties of Ion Exchangers

12.5.3 Application: Water Softening Using Ion Exchange

12.5.4 Application: Reduction of Acidity in Fruit Juices

13 Distillation

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Vapor–Liquid Equilibrium (VLE)

13.3 Continuous Flash Distillation

13.4 Batch (Differential) Distillation

13.5 Fractional Distillation

13.5.1 Basic Concepts

13.5.2 Analysis and Design OftheColumn

13.5.3 Effect OftheRefl Ux Ratio

13.5.4 Tray Configuration

13.5.5 Column Configuration

13.5.6 Heating With Live Steam

13.5.7 Energy Considerations

13.6 Steam Distillation

13.7 Distillation of Wines and Spirits

14 Crystallization and Dissolution

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Crystallization Kinetics

14.2.1 Nucleation

14.2.2 Crystal Growth

14.3 Crystallization intheFood Industry

14.3.1 Equipment

14.3.2 Processes

14.4 Dissolution

14.4.1 Introduction

14.4.2 Mechanism and Kinetics

15 Extrusion

15.1 Introduction

15.2 The Single-Screw Extruder

15.2.1 Structure

15.2.2 Operation

15.2.3 Flow Models, Extruder Throughput

15.2.4 Residence Time Distribution

15.3 Twin-Screw Extruders

15.3.1 Structure

15.3.2 Operation

15.3.3 Advantages and Shortcomings

15.4 Effect on Foods

15.4.1 Physical Effects

15.4.2 Chemical Effect

15.5 Food Applications of Extrusion

15.5.1 Forming Extrusion of Pasta

15.5.2 Expanded Snacks

15.5.3 Ready-To-Eat Cereals

15.5.4 Pellets

15.5.5 Other Extruded Starchy and Cereal Products

15.5.6 Texturized Protein Products

15.5.7 Confectionery and Chocolat

15.5.8 Pet Foods

16 Spoilage and Preservation of Foods

16.1 Mechanisms of Food Spoilage

16.2 Food Preservation Processes

16.3 Combined Processes (The 'Hurdle Effect')

16.4 Packaging

17 Thermal Processing

17.1 Introduction

17.2 The Kinetics of Thermal Inactivation of Micro-Organisms and Enzymes

17.2.1 The Concept of Decimal Reduction Time

17.2.2 Effect OftheTemperature OntheRate of Thermal Destruction/Inactivation

17.3 Lethality of Thermal Processes

17.4 Optimization of Thermal Processes with Respect to Quality

17.5 Heat Transfer Considerations in Thermal Processing

17.5.1 In-Package Thermal Processing

17.5.2 In-Flow Thermal Processing

18 Thermal Processes, Methods and Equipment

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Thermal Processing in Hermetically Closed Containers

18.2.1 Filling IntotheCans

18.2.2 Expelling Air FromtheHead-Space

18.2.3 Sealing

18.2.4 Heat Processing

18.3 Thermal Processing in Bulk, Before Packaging

18.3.1 Bulk Heating – Hot Filling – Sealing – Cooling in Container

18.3.2 Bulk Heating – Holding – Bulk Cooling – Cold Filling – Sealing

18.3.3 Aseptic Processing

19 Refrigeration, Chilling and Freezing

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Effect of Temperature on Food Spoilage

19.2.1 Temperature and Chemical Activity

19.2.2 Effect of Low Temperature on Enzymatic Spoilage

19.2.3 Effect of Low Temperature on Microorganisms

19.2.4 Effect of Low Temperature on Biologically Active (Respiring) Tissue

19.2.5 The Effect of Low Temperature on Physical Properties

19.3 Freezing

19.3.1 Phase Transition, Freezing Point

19.3.2 Freezing Kinetics, Freezing Time

19.3.3 Effect of Freezing and Frozen Storage on Product Quality

20 Refrigeration, Equipment and Methods

20.1 Sources of Refrigeration

20.1.1 Mechanical Refrigeration

20.1.2 Refrigerants

20.1.3 Distribution and Delivery of Refrigeration

20.2 Cold Storage and Refrigerated Transport

20.3 Chillers and Freezers

20.3.1 Blast Cooling

20.3.2 Contact Freezers

20.3.3 Immersion Cooling

20.3.4 Evaporative Cooling

21 Evaporation

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Material and Energy Balance

21.3 Heat Transfer

21.3.1 The Overall Coefficient of Heat Transfer U

21.3.2 The Temperature Difference TS – TC ( ΔT)

21.4 Energy Management

21.4.1 Multiple-Effect Evaporation

21.4.2 Vapor Recompression

21.5 Condensers

21.6 Evaporators intheFood Industry

21.6.1 Open Pan Batch Evaporator

21.6.2 Vacuum Pan Evaporator

21.6.3 Evaporators With Tubular Heat Exchangers

21.6.4 Evaporators With External Tubular Heat Exchangers

21.6.5 Boiling Film Evaporators1

21.7 Effect of Evaporation on Food Quality

21.7.1 Thermal Effects

21.7.2 Loss of Volatile Flavor Components

22 Dehydration

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Thermodynamics of Moist Air (Psychrometry)

22.2.1 Basic Principles

22.2.2 Humidity

22.2.3 Saturation, Relative Humidity (RH)

22.2.4 Adiabatic Saturation, Wet-Bulb Temperature

22.2.5 Dew Point ..

22.3 Convective Drying (Air Drying)

22.3.1 The Drying Curve

22.3.2 The Constant Rate Phase

22.3.3 The Falling Rate Phase

22.3.4 Calculation of Drying Time

22.3.5 Effect of External Conditions OntheDrying Rate

22.3.6 Relationship Between Film Coefficients in Convective Drying

22.3.7 Effect of Radiation Heating

22.3.8 Characteristic Drying Curves

22.4 Drying Under Varying External Conditions

22.4.1 Batch Drying on Trays

22.4.2 Through-Flow Batch Drying in a Fixed Bed

22.4.3 Continuous Air Drying on a Belt or in a Tunne

22.5 Conductive (Boiling) Drying

22.5.1 Basic Principles

22.5.2 Kinetics

22.5.3 Systems and Applications

22.6 Dryers intheFood Processing Industry

22.6.1 Cabinet Dryers

22.6.2 Tunnel Dryers

22.6.3 Belt Dryers

22.6.4 Belt-Trough Dryers

22.6.5 Rotary Dryers

22.6.6 Bin Dryers

22.6.7 Grain Dryers

22.6.8 Spray Dryers

22.6.9 Fluidized Bed Dryer

22.6.10 Pneumatic Dryer

22.6.11 Drum Dryers

22.6.12 Screw Conveyor and Mixer Dryers

22.6.13 Sun Drying, Solar Drying

22.7 Issues in Food Drying Technology

22.7.1 Pre-Drying Treatments

22.7.2 Effect of Drying Conditions on Quality

22.7.3 Post-Drying Treatments

22.7.4 Rehydration Characteristics

22.7.5 Agglomeration

22.8 Energy Consumption in Drying

22.9 Osmotic Dehydration

23 Freeze Drying (Lyophilization) and Freeze Concentration

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Sublimation of Water

23.3 Heat and Mass Transfer in Freeze Drying

23.4 Freeze Drying, in Practice

23.4.1 Freezing

23.4.2 Drying Conditions

23.4.3 Freeze Drying, Commercial Facilities

23.4.4 Freeze Dryers

23.5 Freeze Concentration

23.5.1 Basic Principles

23.5.2 The Process of Freeze Concentration

24 Frying, Baking, Roasting

24.1 Introduction

24.2 Frying

24.2.1 Types of Frying

24.2.2 Heat and Mass Transfer in Frying

24.2.3 Systems and Operation

24.2.4 Health Aspects of Fried Foods

24.3 Baking and Roasting

25 Ionizing Irradiation and Other Non-Thermal Preservation Processes

25.1 Preservation By Ionizing Radiations

25.1.1 Introduction

25.1.2 Ionizing Radiations

25.1.3 Radiation Sources

25.1.4 Interaction With Matter

25.1.5 Radiation Dose

25.1.6 Chemical and Biological Effects of Ionizing Irradiation

25.1.7 Industrial Applications

25.2 High Hydrostatic Pressure Preservation

25.3 Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF)

25.4 Pulsed Intense Light

26 Food Packaging

26.1 Introduction

26.2 Packaging Materials

26.2.1 Introduction

26.2.2 Materials for Packaging Foods

26.2.3 Transport Properties of Packaging Materials

26.2.4 Optical Properties

26.2.5 Mechanical Properties

26.2.6 Chemical Reactivity

26.3 The Atmosphere in the Package

26.3.1 Vacuum Packaging

26.3.2 Controlled Atmosphere Packaging (CAP)

26.3.3 Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP)

26.3.4 Active Packaging

26.4 Environmental Issues

27 Cleaning, Disinfection, Sanitation

27.1 Introduction

27.2 Cleaning Kinetics and Mechanisms

27.2.1 Effect of the Contaminant

27.2.2 Effect of the Support

27.2.3 Effect of the Cleaning Agent

27.2.4 Effect of the Temperature

27.2.5 Effect of Mechanical Action (Shear)

27.3 Kinetics of Disinfection

27.4 Cleaning of Raw Materials

27.5 Cleaning of Plants and Equipment

27.5.1 Cleaning Out of Place (COP)

27.5.2 Cleaning in Place (CIP)

27.6 Cleaning of Packages

27.7 Odor Abatement

Appendix

Table A.1 Common Conversion Factors

Table A.2 Typical Composition of Selected Foods

Table A.3 Viscosity and Density of Gases and Liquids

Table A.4 Thermal Properties of Materials

Table A.5 Emissivity of Surfaces

Table A.6 US Standard Sieves

Table A.7 Properties of Saturated Steam – Temperature Table

Table A.8 Properties of Saturated Steam – Pressure Table

Table A.9 Properties of Superheated Steam

Table A.10 Vapor Pressure of Liquid Water and Ice Below 0°C

Table A.11 Freezing Point of Ideal Aqueous Solutions

Table A.12 Vapor–Liquid Equilibrium Data for Ethanol–Water Mixtures at 1 ATM

Table A.13 Boiling Point of Sucrose Solutions at 1 ATM

Table A.14 Electrical Conductivity of Some Materials

Table A.15 Thermodynamic Properties of Saturated R-134a

Table A.16 Thermodynamic Properties of Superheated R-134a

Table A.17 Properties of Air at Atmospheric Pressure

Figure A.1 Friction Factors for Flow in Pipe

Figure A.2 Psychrometric Chart

Figure A.3 Mixing Power Function, Turbine Impellers

Figure A.4 Mixing Power Function, Propeller Impellers

Figure A.5 Unsteady State Heat Transfer in a Slab

Figure A.6 Unsteady State Heat Transfer in an Infinite Cylinder

Figure A.7 Unsteady State Heat Transfer in a Sphere

Figure A.8 Unsteady State Mass Transfer, Average Concentration

Figure A.9 Error Function

Index

Series List



Description

The past 30 years have seen the establishment of food engineering both as an academic discipline and as a profession. Combining scientific depth with practical usefulness, this book serves as a tool for graduate students as well as practicing food engineers, technologists and researchers looking for the latest information on transformation and preservation processes as well as process control and plant hygiene topics.

Key Features

Strong emphasis on the relationship between engineering and product quality/safety Links theory and practice *Considers topics in light of factors such as cost and environmental issues

Readership

Students and professionals in food engineering and food science and technology


Details

No. of pages:
624
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2009
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780080920238
Hardcover ISBN:
9780123736604

About the Editors

Zeki Berk Editor

Dr. Berk is a chemical engineer and food scientist with a long history of work in food engineering, including appointments as a professor at Technion IIT, MIT, and Agro-Paris and as a consultant at UNIDO, FAO, the Industries Development Corporation, and Nestle. He is the recipient of the International Association of Food and Engineering Life Achievement Award (2011), and has written 6 books (3 with Elsevier) and numerous papers and reviews. His main research interests include heat and mass transfer and kinetics of deterioration.

Affiliations and Expertise

Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa

About the Authors

Zeki Berk Author

Dr. Berk is a chemical engineer and food scientist with a long history of work in food engineering, including appointments as a professor at Technion IIT, MIT, and Agro-Paris and as a consultant at UNIDO, FAO, the Industries Development Corporation, and Nestle. He is the recipient of the International Association of Food and Engineering Life Achievement Award (2011), and has written 6 books (3 with Elsevier) and numerous papers and reviews. His main research interests include heat and mass transfer and kinetics of deterioration.

Affiliations and Expertise

Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa