Food Microstructures

1st Edition

Microscopy, Measurement and Modelling

Editors: Vic Morris Kathy Groves
Hardcover ISBN: 9780857095251
eBook ISBN: 9780857098894
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 31st October 2013
Page Count: 472
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Table of Contents

Contributor contact details

Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition

Dedication to Brian Hills



Part I: Microstructure and microscopy

Chapter 1: Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM): principles and applications to food microstructures


1.1 Introduction

1.2 Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

1.3 Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM)

1.4 Key applications of ESEM for the study of food microstructure

1.5 Conclusion and future trends

Chapter 2: Probe microscopy and photonic force microscopy: principles and applications to food microstructures


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Machines and methods: atomic force microscopes

2.3 Machines and methods: force spectroscopy

2.4 Machines and methods: optical tweezers and photonic microscopy

2.5 Applications of the atomic force microscope as a microscope

2.6 Applications of atomic force microscopes as a force transducer

2.7 Conclusion

Chapter 3: Light microscopy: principles and applications to food microstructures


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Fundamentals of light microscopy

3.3 Specimen preparation

3.4 Specimen contrast enhancement: physical methods

3.5 Specimen contrast enhancement: chemical and biochemical methods

3.6 Interfacial microscopy

3.7 Recent and future developments

3.8 Conclusion

Chapter 4: Confocal microscopy: principles and applications to food microstructures


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Principle of confocalmicroscopy

4.3 Chemicalcontrast: identifying ingredients

4.4 Confocalmicroscopy of food products: a brief review

4.5 Modelfood systems

4.6 Reflectance confocal microscopy

4.7 Image processing and analysis


The development of high-quality foods with desirable properties for both consumers and the food industry requires a comprehensive understanding of food systems and the control and rational design of food microstructures. Food microstructures reviews best practice and new developments in the determination of food microstructure.

After a general introduction, chapters in part one review the principles and applications of various spectroscopy, tomography and microscopy techniques for revealing food microstructure, including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods, environmental scanning electron, probe, photonic force, acoustic, light, confocal and infrared microscopies. Part two explores the measurement, analysis and modelling of food microstructures. Chapters focus on rheology, tribology and methods for modelling and simulating the molecular, cellular and granular microstructure of foods, and for developing relationships between microstructure and mechanical and rheological properties of food structures. The book concludes with a useful case study on electron microscopy.

Written by leading professionals and academics in the field, Food microstructures is an essential reference work for researchers and professionals in the processed foods and nutraceutical industries concerned with complex structures, the delivery and controlled release of nutrients, and the generation of improved foods. The book will also be of value to academics working in food science and the emerging field of soft matter.

Key Features

  • Reviews best practice and essential developments in food microstructure microscopy and modelling
  • Discusses the principles and applications of various microscopy techniques used to discover food microstructure
  • Explores the measurement, analysis and modelling of food microstructures


Food scientists


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"The 14 chapters in this volume introduce the methodologies available to probe food microstructures, indicate the type of information that can be obtained through their use, and evaluate each method's advantages and disadvantages. The opening chapters discuss the many types of microscopy techniques, spectroscopy, X-ray tomography, and magnetic resonance systems. The second half reviews rheological methods, tribology measurement,…", February 2014

About the Editors

Vic Morris Editor

Vic Morris is a Research Leader at the Institute of Food Research, UK.

Affiliations and Expertise

Institute of Food Research

Kathy Groves Editor

Kathy Groves is a Principal Consultant Microscopist at Leatherhead Food Research, UK.

Affiliations and Expertise

Principal Consultant Microscopist, Leatherhead Food Research, UK