COVID-19 Update: We are currently shipping orders daily. However, due to transit disruptions in some geographies, deliveries may be delayed. To provide all customers with timely access to content, we are offering 50% off Science and Technology Print & eBook bundle options. Terms & conditions.
Food Microstructures - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780857095251, 9780857098894

Food Microstructures

1st Edition

Microscopy, Measurement and Modelling

0.0 star rating Write a review
Editors: Vic Morris Kathy Groves
Hardcover ISBN: 9780857095251
eBook ISBN: 9780857098894
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 31st October 2013
Page Count: 472
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out Price includes VAT/GST
Price includes VAT/GST

Institutional Subscription

Secure Checkout

Personal information is secured with SSL technology.

Free Shipping

Free global shipping
No minimum order.

Table of Contents

Contributor contact details

Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition

Dedication to Brian Hills



Part I: Microstructure and microscopy

Chapter 1: Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM): principles and applications to food microstructures


1.1 Introduction

1.2 Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

1.3 Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM)

1.4 Key applications of ESEM for the study of food microstructure

1.5 Conclusion and future trends

Chapter 2: Probe microscopy and photonic force microscopy: principles and applications to food microstructures


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Machines and methods: atomic force microscopes

2.3 Machines and methods: force spectroscopy

2.4 Machines and methods: optical tweezers and photonic microscopy

2.5 Applications of the atomic force microscope as a microscope

2.6 Applications of atomic force microscopes as a force transducer

2.7 Conclusion

Chapter 3: Light microscopy: principles and applications to food microstructures


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Fundamentals of light microscopy

3.3 Specimen preparation

3.4 Specimen contrast enhancement: physical methods

3.5 Specimen contrast enhancement: chemical and biochemical methods

3.6 Interfacial microscopy

3.7 Recent and future developments

3.8 Conclusion

Chapter 4: Confocal microscopy: principles and applications to food microstructures


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Principle of confocalmicroscopy

4.3 Chemicalcontrast: identifying ingredients

4.4 Confocalmicroscopy of food products: a brief review

4.5 Modelfood systems

4.6 Reflectance confocal microscopy

4.7 Image processing and analysis

4.8 Time dependent studies: dynamic confocal microscopy

4.9 Future trends

4.10 Conclusion

4.11 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 5: Optical coherence tomography (OCT), space-resolved reflectance spectroscopy (SRS) and time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy (TRS): principles and applications to food microstructures


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Optical coherence tomography (OCT)

5.3 Space-resolved reflectance spectroscopy (SRS)

5.4 Time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy (TRS)

5.5 Conclusion and future trends

5.6 Acknowledgements

Chapter 6: Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman microscopy: principles and applications to food microstructures


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Instrumentation

6.3 Data analysis

6.4 Applications

6.5 Conclusion and future trends

6.6 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 7: Ultrasonic and acoustic microscopy: principles and applications to food microstructures


7.1 Introduction

7.2 Theories of ultrasound propagation

7.3 Construction of an acoustic microscope

7.4 Operation and calibration of an acoustic microscope

7.5 Exemplars of acoustic microscopy and applications to food structure

7.6 Conclusion and future trends

7.7 Acknowledgements

Chapter 8: Using magnetic resonance to explore food microstructures


8.1 Introduction

8.2 The magnetic resonance experiment

8.3 Theoretical background

8.4 Practical applications of magnetic resonance systems

8.5 Nano-scale magnetic resonance

8.6 Conclusion and future trends

8.7 Sources of further information and advice

8.8 Acknowledgement

Chapter 9: X-ray micro-computed tomography for resolving food microstructures


9.1 Introduction

9.2 Description of X-ray techniques

9.3 Theory of X-ray tomography

9.4 Contrast, resolution and sample preparation techniques

9.5 Applications to food

9.6 Conclusion and future trends

Part II: Measurement, analysis and modelling of food microstructures

Chapter 10: Food microstructure and rheology


10.1 Introduction

10.2 Traditional rheological methods and food structure

10.3 Microrheology

10.4 Conclusion

Chapter 11: Tribology measurement and analysis: applications to food microstructures


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Background tribology

11.3 Techniques for measuring tribological parameters

11.4 Microstructural influences on tribological behaviour

11.5 Conclusion and future trends

Chapter 12: Methods for modelling food cellular structures and the relationship between microstructure and mechanical and rheological properties


12.1 Introduction

12.2 Foam structure

12.3 Dynamic properties of foams

12.4 Rheology

12.5 Conclusion

Chapter 13: Granular and jammed food materials


13.1 Introduction

13.2 Packing of granular food material

13.3 Jamming in granular materials

13.4 Research and developments in the study of granular systems

13.5 Conclusion

Chapter 14: Modelling and computer simulation of food structures


14.1 Introduction

14.2 Molecular simulation methodology

14.3 Food biomolecular structure and function: proteins

14.4 Food biomolecular structure and function: carbohydrates and triglycerides

14.5 Adsorption of food biomolecules

14.6 Simulation of food colloids

14.7 Conclusion

14.8 Acknowledgements

Appendix: Electron microscopy: principles and applications to food microstructures



The development of high-quality foods with desirable properties for both consumers and the food industry requires a comprehensive understanding of food systems and the control and rational design of food microstructures. Food microstructures reviews best practice and new developments in the determination of food microstructure.

After a general introduction, chapters in part one review the principles and applications of various spectroscopy, tomography and microscopy techniques for revealing food microstructure, including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods, environmental scanning electron, probe, photonic force, acoustic, light, confocal and infrared microscopies. Part two explores the measurement, analysis and modelling of food microstructures. Chapters focus on rheology, tribology and methods for modelling and simulating the molecular, cellular and granular microstructure of foods, and for developing relationships between microstructure and mechanical and rheological properties of food structures. The book concludes with a useful case study on electron microscopy.

Written by leading professionals and academics in the field, Food microstructures is an essential reference work for researchers and professionals in the processed foods and nutraceutical industries concerned with complex structures, the delivery and controlled release of nutrients, and the generation of improved foods. The book will also be of value to academics working in food science and the emerging field of soft matter.

Key Features

  • Reviews best practice and essential developments in food microstructure microscopy and modelling
  • Discusses the principles and applications of various microscopy techniques used to discover food microstructure
  • Explores the measurement, analysis and modelling of food microstructures


Food scientists


No. of pages:
© Woodhead Publishing 2013
31st October 2013
Woodhead Publishing
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:


"The 14 chapters in this volume introduce the methodologies available to probe food microstructures, indicate the type of information that can be obtained through their use, and evaluate each method's advantages and disadvantages. The opening chapters discuss the many types of microscopy techniques, spectroscopy, X-ray tomography, and magnetic resonance systems. The second half reviews rheological methods, tribology measurement,…", February 2014

Ratings and Reviews

About the Editors

Vic Morris

Vic Morris is a Research Leader at the Institute of Food Research, UK.

Affiliations and Expertise

Institute of Food Research

Kathy Groves

Professor Kathy Groves FRMS, FIFST Kathy graduated in Biochemistry at the University of London and joined Leatherhead Food Research as a food microscopist. Until recently she managed the food microstructure area at Leatherhead working mainly within Food Innovation. Kathy has over 35 years experience in the food microscopy field, covering research into a range of products including ingredient functionality, meat product quality, emulsions and confectionery products. She has worked with the UK Food Standards Agency and Defra on methods to detect mechanically separated meat and has presented on nanotechnology to the UK Government. Kathy is currently director of the microstructure consultancy Foodview Ltd and is visiting professor at the University of Chester.

Affiliations and Expertise

Director, Microstructure Consultancy, Foodview Ltd and visiting professor, University of Chester