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Food Fortification in a Globalized World - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128028612, 9780128028971

Food Fortification in a Globalized World

1st Edition

Editors: M.G.Venkatesh Mannar Richard Hurrell
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128028612
eBook ISBN: 9780128028971
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 20th June 2018
Page Count: 414
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Food Fortification in a Globalized World outlines experiences over the past 50 years—and future potential—for the application of food fortification across a variety of foods in the industrialized and developing world. The book captures recent science and applications trends in fortification, including emerging areas such as biofortification, nutraceuticals and new nutrient intake recommendations, standards, policy and regulation. The book proposes a balanced and effective food fortification strategy for nations to adopt. In covering the most technical scientific details in an approachable style, this work is accessible to a range of practitioners in industry, government, NGOs, academia and research.

Food fortification has become an increasingly significant strategy to address gaps in micronutrient intakes in populations with measurable impact in both industrialized and developing countries. While the positive impacts are well recognized there are new concerns in some countries that excessive fortification of foods, outdated nutritional labeling rules and misleading marketing tactics used by food manufacturers may result in young children consuming harmful amounts of some vitamins and minerals.

Key Features

  • Presents the latest science on fortification for the prevention of micronutrient deficiencies
  • Includes emerging areas such as biofortification, nutraceuticals and new nutrient intake recommendations, standards, regulations, practices and policies from around the world
  • Summarizes evidence of application of food fortification and measured impact on public health
  • Discusses how public policy impacts fortification of foods and nutritional deficiencies
  • Considers the complex economics of and market for fortified foods


Graduate level and above researchers in academia, industry, and government bodies studying nutritional epidemiology, public health, food security, food chemistry, food science and technology

Table of Contents

Section 1 - Need and Approach
1. Food Fortification: Past Experience, Current Status, And Potential for Globalization
2. Prevalence, Causes and Consequences of Micronutrient Deficiencies. The Gap Between Need and Action
3. Developing National Strategies to Prevent and Control Micronutrient Deficiency: The Role of Food Fortification

Section 2 - Recommendations and Guidance
4. Using Dietary Reference Values to Define Fortification Levels for National Programs

Section 3 - Delivery Methods
5. National Mandated Food Fortification Programs
6. Market Driven Fortification
7. Biofortification: An Agricultural Tool to Access Mineral and Vitamin Deficiencies

Section 4 - Technical and Business Considerations
8. Grain Fortification Processes, Technologies and Implementation Criteria
9. Financing and Sustainability of Food Fortification
10. Creating Consumer Demand and Driving Appropriate Utilization of Fortified Foods
11. The Importance of Public Private Collaboration in Food Fortification Programs

Section 5 - Fortification Vehicles
12. Wheat and Maize Flour Fortification
13. Rice Fortification
14. Salt Fortification
15. Fortification of Condiments and Sauces
16. Fortification of Bouillon Cubes
17. Fornication of Fats and Cooking Oils
18. Fortification of Milk and Dairy Products
19. Fortification of Breakfast Cereals

Section 6 - Nutrient Wise Review of Evidence and Safety of Fortification
20. Efficacy and Safety of Iron Fortification
21. Efficacy and Safety of Zinc Fortification
22. Efficacy and Safety of Iodine Fortification
23. Global Status and Efficacy of Folic Acid Fortification
24. Safety of Folic Acid Fortification
25. Efficacy and Safety of Vitamin a Fortification
26. Efficacy and Safety of Vitamin B12 Fortification
27. Efficacy and Safety of Calcium and Vitamin D Fortification

Section 7 - Program Performance Measurement and Improvement
28. Program Performance Overview and Synthesis of Information for Food Fortification
29. Regulatory Monitoring of Mandatory Fortification Programs
30. Consumption Monitoring: Coverage, Provision and Utilization
31. Economics of Food Fortification
32. Impact Evaluation of Food Fortification Programs: Review of Methodological Approaches and Methods to Strengthen Them

Section 8 - National Program Case Studies and Lessons Learned
33. National Program Case Studies and Lessons Learned: South Africa
34. Food Fortification in Senegal: A Case Study and Lessons Learned
35. Equity of Impact on Anemia and Iron Status of The Food Fortification Program of Costa Rica
36. Food Fortification in Canada
37. National Program Case Studies and Lessons Learned: Bangladesh

Section 9 - Business Case Studies
38. Business Considerations for Food Fortification: Cargill India Experience with Oil Fortification
39. Nestle Fortification of Bouillon Cubes in Central and West Africa

Section 10 - Future Trends and Strategies
40. Future Trends and Strategies


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 2018
20th June 2018
Academic Press
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

About the Editors

M.G.Venkatesh Mannar

M.G. Venkatesh Mannar is a champion and technology leader in global nutrition with 35 years experience in pioneering effective international nutrition, technology and development initiatives focused on the world’s most vulnerable citizens. A chemical engineer and food technologist by training, Mannar served as President of the Micronutrient Initiative (MI) in Ottawa for nearly 20 years until February 2014. In that role Mannar directed the organisation’s mission to develop, implement and monitor supplementation and food fortification programs to address malnutrition in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Middle East. In 2013, for his leadership in the global fight against malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency Mannar was appointed an Officer of the Order of Canada, one of the country’s greatest civilian honors. He is currently pursuing his research and teaching interests in applying engineering solutions to nutrition as Adjunct Professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering & Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Richard Hurrell

Richard Hurrell graduated in Food Technology from the University of Reading in the UK in 1969 and after a short spell in the food industry took a Masters in Nutrition and a PhD at the University of Cambridge UK under Kenneth Carpenter specializing in Bioavailability (lysine) and the effect of food processing on nutritional quality of foods. He joined Nestlé Research in Switzerland in 1978 and became head of the micronutrient group focusing on iron bioavailability and fortification in relation to infant foods. After a one year sabbatical in Kansas University with Jim Cook in 1984, iron bioavailability was extensively studied collaboratively between KU and Nestlé using human radioisotope studies and focusing on food factors such as phytic acid, polyphenols and proteins. At the same time, he introduced stable isotope techniques with mass spectrometry at Nestlé Research so as to work with children and optimize iron and zinc absorption from infant foods focusing on phytic acid removal. He moved to Institute of Food Science, ETH Zurich in 1994 as the full Professor of Human Nutrition, introducing nutrition into the food science curriculum and setting up a research program based on micronutrient malnutrition focused on the developing world. Human stable isotope studies on iron and zinc absorption in women and children from fortified and biofortified foods, and long term feeding studies in women and children to measure the efficacy of fortified foods formed the basis of this research. He was joint author of the WHO food fortification guidelines (2006,2009) and has worked closely with Harvest Plus, GAIN, IAEA and GAIN to improve micronutrient malnutrition. He has been a GAIN Board member since 2002, ILSI Europe Board since 2010 and was Editor of the International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research 2001-2014. He has some 200 peer reviewed publications with recent interest in the influence of infections on iron bioavailability; the influence of phytases on iron and zinc absorption in infants; the influence of inulin and carotenoids on iron absorption; efficacy of zinc, vitamin A and iron from triple fortified extruded rice; iron absorption from biofortified beans; and the efficacy in women and children of NaFeEDTA fortified margarine and atta flour. He retired as Head of Human Nutrition at the Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health at ETH in 2012 taking Professor Emeritus status and continues to work closely with GAIN, WHO, Harvest Plus and other international organizations.

Affiliations and Expertise

Human Nutrition, Institute for Food, Nutrition and Health, ETH Zurich, Switzerland


"This book outlines experiences over the past 50 years - and future potential - for the application of food fortification across a variety of foods in the industrialized and developing world. ...In covering the most technical scientific details in an approachable style, this work is accessible to a range of practitioners in industry, government, NGOs, academia and research." -Veterinarska Stanica

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