Food Engineering - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124545502, 9780323147484

Food Engineering

1st Edition

Principals And Selected Applications

Authors: Matcel Loncin
eBook ISBN: 9780323147484
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th May 1979
Page Count: 514
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Food Engineering: Principles and Selected Applications explores the principles of food engineering that are needed for resolving problems of food processing and preservation. This book is divided into 11 chapters that provide numerous effective examples and discussions of unique aspects of the food industry, which utilize these principles. This book discusses first the boiling heat transfer and the multi-effect principle for evaporators, as well as the application of this principle to the special problems involved in evaporation of liquid foods. The subsequent chapters cover the principles of fluid dynamics and axial dispersion. The discussion then shifts to the effect of residence-time distribution on continuous sterilization processes. The concluding chapters examine the concepts of water activity and its effect upon various reactions important to food processing and quality.
This book is intended for both students and practicing food engineers and technologists.

Table of Contents




1 Operations of The Food Industry

1.1 Characteristics of the Food Industry

1.2 Techniques Employed

1.3 The Concepts of Simple and Simultaneous Transfer

2 Measurement, Dimensions, Units

3 Equations Related to the Transfer of Mass, Heat, and Momentum

3.1 Concentration and Temperature Fields in an Immobile Material

3.2 Surfaces of Constant Concentration and Constant Temperature

3.3 First Laws of Fick and Fourier

3.4 Second Laws of Fick and Fourier

3.5 Diffusivities, Thermal Conductivities, and Thermal Diffusivities

3.6 Momentum Transfer in Fluids

3.7 Mass and Heat Transfer in Moving Fluids

4 Solution of The Transfer Equations

4.1 Steady-State Mass and Heat Transfer in Immobile Bodies

4.2 Unsteady-State Mass and Heat Transfer in Immobile Bodies

4.3 Momentum Transfer Equations

4.4 Transfer of Mass and of Heat between Phases in Turbulent Flow

5 Determination of Transfer Coefficients

5.1 Boundary Layer and "Penetration"

5.2 Geometric and Physical Similarity

5.3 Dimensionless Parameters

5.4 "Dimensional Analysis"—The Π Theorem

5.5 Practical Use of Similarity Methods

5.6 Momentum Transfer

5.7 Heat and Mass Transfer Without Change of State

5.8 Transfer with Change of State

5.9 Transfer in Non-Newtonian Materials

6 Equilibrium Between Phases

6.1 Thermodynamic Equilibrium

6.2 Chemical Potential

6.3 Activity Coefficients and Prediction of Equilibrium

6.4 Relative Volatility and Distillation

6.5 Water Activity

7 Evolution of Driving Forces

7.1 General Considerations

7.2 Discontinuous Operations

7.3 Semicontinuous Operations

7.4 Continuous Cocurrent Operations

7.5 Continuous Countercurrent Operations

7.6 Height Equivalent to a Theoretical Extraction (HETE)

7.7 Partially Miscible Phases

8 Mechanical Operations

8.1 Description of Particulate Systems

8.2 Mechanical Separations

8.3 Mixing

8.4 Size Reduction

8.5 Homogenization

8.6 Size Enlargement

9 Applied Biochemical Kinetics

9.1 Fermentations

9.2 Pasteurization and Sterilization

9.3 Dispersion of Residence Times—Continuous Operations

10 Cleaning, Disinfection, And Rinsing

10.1 Kinetics

10.2 Cleaning and Disinfecting Compounds, Surface Energy, and Detergency

10.3 Practical Achievement of Cleaning, Disinfection, and Rinsing

11 Optimization

11.1 Optimization by Differentiation

11.2 Optimization of Functions

11.3 Programming Methods

11.4 Numerical Methods

Appendix: General Tables and Diagrams






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© Academic Press 1979
Academic Press
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About the Author

Matcel Loncin

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