Food And Natural Resources - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125565554, 9780323146975

Food And Natural Resources

1st Edition

Editors: David Pimentel
eBook ISBN: 9780323146975
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th April 1989
Page Count: 530
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Food and Natural Resources provides an understanding of the interdependency of food and natural resources that affect society. It is hoped that through these discussions a more complete understanding of these timely issues will emerge. This base of knowledge will help individuals and government leaders develop and implement the types of programs that will result in the effective use and management of land, water, energy, and biological resources for improved food production and a higher standard of living for everyone.
The book begins by examining the intrinsic dynamics of natural ecosystems—especially the land, water, atmosphere, energy, and biological components. This is followed by chapters on the availability and interrelationships between population size, arable land, water, energy, and other biological resources; the loss of wild species of plants and animals; the availability of agricultural land for crops and livestock; and the impact of land degradation on food and other resources. Subsequent chapters discuss water use in agriculture; the mechanization of agriculture and food production; the principles and practices that can make agriculture environmentally and economically sound and sustainable; and the impact of population growth on the environment and food supply.

Table of Contents



1. Ecological Systems, Natural Resources, and Food Supplies

I. Introduction

II. The Structure and Functioning of Ecosystems

III. Evolution of Living Systems

IV. Biogeochemical Cycles

V. Aquatic Ecosystems

VI. Terrestrial Ecosystems

VII. Human Food Gathered and Hunted from the Wild

VIII. Agricultural Ecosystems

IX. Resource Constraints in World Food Production

X. Food Needs for Future Generations

XI. Requirements for Solving Food Problems

XII. Conclusion


2. Interdependence Of Food And Natural Resources

I. Introduction

II. World Population Growth

III. Energy Constraints

IV. Arable Land—Quality and Quantity

V. Water Constraints

VI. Biological Diversity

VII. Looking to the Future


3. Loss of Biological Diversity and its Potential Impact on Agriculture and Food Production

I. Introduction

II. Species' Contributions to Modern Agriculture

III. Extinction Processes

IV. Conclusion


4. Availability of Agricultural Land for Crop and Livestock Production

I. The World Land Area and Its Utilization

II. Food Production and Land

III. Livestock Production and Land

IV. Conclusion


5. Land Degradation and its Impact on Food and other Resources

I. Introduction

II. Land Degradation

III. Technological Options for Minimizing Soil Degradation

IV. Land Degradation and World Food Production

V. Need to Restore Productivity of Degraded Lands

VI. Conclusions


6. Water Use in Agriculture

I. Introduction

II. Global Perspective

III. Water Sources and Systems

IV. Water in Crop Production

V. Water in Animal Production

VI. Water in Food Processing

VII. Water Quality

VIII. Irrigation Systems


7. Water Scarcity and Food Production in Africa

I. Introduction

II. Present Resource Crisis

III. Water and Development

IV. Water Availability Limits Increase of Carrying Capacity

V. The Combined Picture

VI. Conclusions


8. Agricultural Chemicals: Food and Environment

I. Introduction

II. Use of Agricultural Chemicals

III. Nitrogen in Agroecosystems

IV. Pesticides

V. Rational Use of Agricultural Chemicals


9. Natural Gas as a Resource and Catalyst for Agroindustrial Development

I. Background

II. Monteagudo Agroindustrial Project

III. Food Processing Plants

IV. Energy Supply

V. Alternatives for the Supply of Electricity and Steam

VI. Water Supply

VII. Gas Pipeline

VIII. Transportation System

IX. Impact of the Project

X. Conclusions


10. Mechanization and Food Availability

I. Introduction

II. Farming and Agriculture

III. Mechanization, Tractorization, and Electrification

IV. Summary


11. Population, Food, and The Economy Of Nations

I. Is Population Limited by Food?

II. Is Food Driven by Population or by the Economy of Nations?

III. Can the Worst Fears of Environmentalists be Substantiated?

IV. Vision 2020


12. Ecological Resource Management for a Productive, Sustainable Agriculture

I. Introduction

II. Principles for a Productive, Sustainable Agriculture

III. Soil Nutrient and Water Resources

IV. Pests and Their Control

V. Importance of Biological Resources

VI. Environmental and Economic Aspects of Ecological Agricultural Management

VII. Conclusion



13. Population Growth, Agrarian Structure, Food Production, and Food Distribution in the Third World

I. Introduction

II. The Malnutrition Debate

III. Population Growth and Hunger

IV. The Green Revolution and the Alleviation of Hunger: Contribution and Controversy

V. Agrarian Structure, Food Production, and Hunger

VI. Food Policy, Food Consumption, and Nutrition

VII. Discussion

Appendix: Data Sources and Operationalization of Variables for the Empirical Analysis of Food Access in Third World Countries


14. Environment And Population: Crises And Policies

I. Introduction

II. Human Needs Worldwide

III. Standard of Living and Population Growth

IV. Population Growth

V. Per Capita Use of Resources in the United States and China

VI. State of the Environment in the United States and China

VII. Policy Decisions Concerning Environmental and Population Problems

VIII. National Population Policies in the United States and China

IX. Conclusion


15. Food Availability And Natural Resources

I. Introduction

II. Utilization of Resources

III. Production of Food in the United States and the World

IV. Summary


16. Food as a Resource

I. Introduction

II. Patterns of Human Population Growth

III. Food and Dietary Patterns

IV. Major Nutritional Problems

V. Trends in Food Production

VI. Resources Used in Food Production

VII. Planning Future Policy


17. Population Growth And The Poverty Cycle In Africa: Colliding Ecological And Economic Processes?

I. The African Paradox

II. Population

III. The Ecological Crisis

IV. The Economic Decline

V. Foreign Aid

VI. The Poverty Cycle and the Way Ahead


18. Food and Fuel Resources in a Poor Rural Area in China

I. Introduction

II. An Overview of Kazhou County

III. The Agroecosystem: Food and Fuel Production and Consumption System

IV. Energy Flows in the Kazhou Agroecosystem

V. Assessment of the Kazhou Agroecosystem

VI. Strategies for Improving Food and Household Fuel Supplies in Kazhou

VII. Conclusions




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© Academic Press 1989
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

David Pimentel

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