Fluoropolymer Additives - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781437734614, 9781437734621

Fluoropolymer Additives

1st Edition

Authors: Sina Ebnesajjad Richard Morgan
eBook ISBN: 9781437734621
Hardcover ISBN: 9781437734614
Imprint: William Andrew
Published Date: 16th December 2011
Page Count: 310
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Table of Contents

Series page


PART 1. Introduction

1. Introduction

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Uniqueness of Fluorine

1.3 Fluorine Characteristics

2. Descriptions of Fluoropolymer Additives

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Polymeric Fluorinated Additives

2.3 Perfluoropolyether (PFPE) Additives

2.4 PTFE-Modified Waxes

2.5 Fluorinated Graphite

2.6 Fluorination

PART 2. Manufacturing and Properties

3. Manufacturing and Properties of High-Molecular-Weight Fluoropolymer Additives

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) Preparation

3.3 Properties of Tetrafluoroethylene

3.4 Polymerization of Tetrafluoroethylene

3.5 Tetrafluoroethylene Polymers

3.6 Polymerization Mechanism

3.7 Suspension Polymerization of Tetrafluoroethylene

3.8 Emulsion Polymerization of Tetrafluoroethylene

3.9 Characterization of Polytetrafluoroethylene

4. Manufacturing and Properties of Low-Molecular-Weight Fluoropolymer Additives

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Molecular Weight Reduction

4.3 Degradation of Polytetrafluoroethylene

4.4 Production Methods

4.5 Direct Polymerization

4.6 Other Manufacturing Methods

4.7 Commercial Products

5. Manufacturing and Properties of FluoroelastomerBased Additives

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Manufacturing Process

5.3 Emulsion Polymerization

5.4 Suspension Polymerization

5.5 Development of Polymeric Process Additives

5.6 Commercial Products


PART 3. Applications

6. Applications of Fluorinated Additives for Lubricants

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Friction

6.3 Wear Processes

6.4 Fluorinated Additive Types

6.5 Lubrication Processes

6.6 Lubricant Base Oils

6.7 Lubricant Additives – General

6.8 Comparison of Solid Lubricant Additives

6.9 Polymeric Fluorinated Additives

6.10 Lubricant Application Categorization

6.11 Low-Viscosity Lubricants

6.12 Engine Oil

6.13 Grease

6.14 Suppliers of Lubricants Containing Fluorinated Additives

7. Fluorinated Additives for Plastics

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Types of Fluorinated Additives

7.3 Friction and Wear Processes

7.4 Friction and Wear of High- and Low-MW PTFE

7.5 Role of PTFE Manufacturing Process and Particle Size on Wear and Friction of Plastics

7.6 Development of Fluoroadditive Use for Friction/Wear Enhancement of Thermoplastics

7.7 Plastic Wear Under Water

7.8 Types of Non-Fluorinated Anti-Friction and Anti-Wear Additives

7.9 Plastic Types

7.10 Fluorinated Additives for Improved Melt and Mechanical Properties

7.11 Additives to Alter Plastic Surface Properties

7.12 Fluoropolymer Additives to Inhibit Melt Dripping in Fire Situations

7.13 Compounding of Fluorinated Additives into Thermoplastics

8. Addition of Fluoropolymers to Printing Ink

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Printing Processes

8.3 Inks

8.4 Fluoropolymer Addition to Ink

8.5 Abrasion/Rub Resistance of Prints

8.6 Blocking

8.7 Commercial Suppliers of Fluorinated Additives to the Ink Market

9. Use of Fluorinated Additives in Coatings

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Purposes of Addition of Fluoropolymer Additives to Coatings

9.3 Thermoplastic Coatings

9.4 Thermosetting Coating Parameters

9.5 Coating Processes

9.6 Fluoropolymer Types Used in Coatings

9.7 Perfluoropolymer/Metal Coatings by Electrolytic or Electroless Processes

9.8 Prevention of Staining of a Coating

9.9 Commercial Fluoroadditive Products

10. Fluorinated Additives for Rubber

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Rubber Compositions and Compounding

10.3 Characterization of Rubbers

10.4 Fluorinated Additive Types

10.5 Silicone and Fluorosilicone Rubbers

10.6 Addition of Fluorinated Additives to Fluoroelastomers

10.7 Addition of Fluorinated Additives to EPDM Rubber

10.8 Commercial Fluoroadditive Products for Elastomers

11. Applications of Processing Aid Additives

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Low-Molecular-Weight Processing Aids

11.3 Important Applications of PPAs

11.4 Select Applications of PPAs

PART 4. Compliance and Economics

12. Compliance with Regulations and Standards

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Food Contact and Medical Applications

12.3 FDA Requirements for Polytetrafluoroethylene Resins for Food Contact

12.4 Compliance of Commercial Micropowder Products

12.5 Standards

13. Safety, Health, Environment, Disposal, Recycling, and Economics

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Toxicology of Fluoropolymers

13.3 Thermal Properties of PTFE

13.4 Emission During Processing

13.5 Safety Measures

13.6 Fluoropolymer Scrap and Recycling

13.7 Environmental Protection and Disposal Methods

13.8 Economics

APPENDIX 1. Food and Drug Administration

APPENDIX 2. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)



In this first book on an additive group of growing importance, the authors review the commercial additives available on the market. The applications chapters provide you with a step by step description of techniques to select and incorporate these additives in various products.

Engineers and scientits involved in polymer processing need practical information about these additives, their applications, and proper and safe handling. Until now much of this information has been difficult to obtain because of commercial secrecy.

In recent years, the applications of fluoropolymer additives have expanded significantly, with even the meaning of ‘fluoropolymer additives’ expanding from relatively the narrow definition of PTFE powder fillers to a wide variety of fluoropolymer elastomers, used as a processing aid for plastics processing such as extrusion, injection molding, and film blowing. The benefits of fluoropolymer additives used in plastics are the elimination of sharkskin defects, increases in process speed and output (up to 20%), the reduction of die build up, the reduction of gels and optical defects, etc.

In addition, fluropolymer additives are being increasingly used in inks, lubricants, and coatings. For example, in the coating industry fluoropolymer additives can increase the life cycle of exterior coatings due to their excellent  weatherability and subsequently increase the time between recoats.

Key Features

  • Fluoropolymer additives are becoming more widely used with key applications including use as a polymer processing aid (increasing speed and reducing faults) and as an additive to lubricants, inks and coatings. This book is the only practical guide available to the selection and use of fluoropolymer additives, and will help readers to optimize existing fluoropolymer applications and implement new ones
  • Fluoropolymers are known as an area where detailed information is hard to come by. In this book two former DuPont employees provide a wide range of industry sectors with the essential practical information and data they need to realize the full benefits of fluoropolymer additives
  • Written for practicing engineers, Ebnesajjad and Morgan take a highly practical approach to the subject, based on real-world experience and case studies


Plastics Engineers and Product Design Engineers across a wide range of industrial sectors: automotive, aerospace, electronic, pharmaceutical, consumer, furniture, printing/publishing, lubricants, oil&gas, medical devices; Plastics Compounders. University researchers and graduate students, purchasing managers, fluoropolymer manufacturers, fluoropolymer additive manufacturers


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About the Authors

Sina Ebnesajjad Author

Sina Ebnesajjad is the series editor of Plastics Design Library (PDL) published in the William Andrew imprint of Elsevier. This Series is a unique series, comprising technology and applications handbooks, data books and practical guides tailored to the needs of practitioners. Sina was the editor-in-chief of William Andrew Publishing from 2005 to 2007, which was acquired by Elsevier in 2009.

He retired as a Senior Technology Associate in 2005 from the DuPont fluoropolymers after nearly 24 years of service. Sina founded of FluoroConsultants Group, LLC in 2006 where he continues to work. Sina earned his Bachelor of Science from the School of Engineering of the University of Tehran in 1976, Master of Science and PhD from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, all in Chemical Engineering.

He is author, editor and co-author of fifteen technical and data books including five handbooks on fluoropolymers technology and applications. He is author and co-author of three books in surface preparation and adhesion of materials, two of which are in their second editions. Sina has been involved with technical writing and publishing since 1974.

His experiences include fluoropolymer technologies (polytetrafluoroethylene and its copolymers) including polymerization, finishing, fabrication, product development, failure analysis, market development and technical service. Sina holds six patents.

Affiliations and Expertise

Fluoroconsultants Group, Chadds Ford, PA, USA

Richard Morgan Author