Fluids, Materials and Microgravity - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080445083, 9780080531731

Fluids, Materials and Microgravity

1st Edition

Numerical Techniques and Insights into Physics

Authors: Marcello Lappa
eBook ISBN: 9780080531731
Hardcover ISBN: 9780080445083
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 9th December 2004
Page Count: 538
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Description

Each year, universities and research centres – most particularly the major space agencies such as NASA, ESA, and NASDA – devote a vast amount of time and money into the research of materials behaviour and production in microgravity. Recently, the possibility of creating special alloys, inorganic and organic crystals, as well as biological (living) tissues in this condition has been investigated.

Fluids, Materials and Microgravity provides a solid basis of established knowledge – through literature, fundamental studies, experimental methods, numerical (basic and sophisticated) techniques – as well as the latest in research advancements. Important for the prediction of material behaviour when exposed to the environment of space, this book explores the new knowledge provided by microgravity-based studies in producing unique inorganic, and organic materials on Earth (and in designing related new technological processes). A vital resource for any scientists interested in the understanding and modelling of the new important physical mechanisms disclosed by microgravity research, and in their possible effect on the production and behaviour of materials both in space and on Earth.

A vital resource for any scientists interested in the effect of microgravity on the production and behaviour of materials.

Key Features

  • Covers typical fluid-dynamic disturbances which can affect the behaviour and final quality of materials both in space and on Earth, and possible strategies to contain their effects
  • Thorough attention is devoted to the most promising and innovative technological processes provided by microgravity experimentation
  • Information is provided through application-based engineering models, as well as mathematical frameworks, to facilitate a deeper understanding of physical mechanisms

Readership

Aerospace Engineers; Material Scientists; Material Engineers; Fluid Physicists

Table of Contents

Dedication

Preface

Acknowledgements

Chapter 1: Space research

1.1 What is microgravity?

1.2 Microgravity facilities and platforms

1.3 From basic research to industrial applications

1.4 Research in fluid physics under microgravity

1.5 Research in materials science

1.6 Basic questions in life sciences and organic materials

1.7 Numerical simulation as a useful tool to reduce the expensive experiments in space

Chapter 2: Fundamental concepts, mathematical models and scaling analysis for the microgravity environment

2.1 Products and thermo-fluid-dynamic disturbances

2.2 Buoyancy convection and the Boussinesq model

2.3 Some aspects of Marangoni flow

2.4 Structure of buoyancy and Marangoni convection and of mixed flows

2.5 Acceleration disturbances on the International Space Station

2.6 Oscillatory acceleration disturbances: g-jitters

2.7 Mixed buoyant/thermovibrational flows

2.8 Solution methods for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations

Chapter 3: Dispersed droplets and metal alloys

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Coalescence and wetting prevention by Marangoni effect

3.3 A fluid dynamic model of coalescence prevention

3.4 Free droplets in liquid matrices: typical phenomena

3.5 VOF – Volume of Fluid Method and moving drops

3.6 Absolute and convective instabilities in falling liquid jets

3.7 Dissolution and solutal convection in liquid systems with miscibility gap

3.8 DDVOF – Volume of Fluid Method for dissolving drops

3.9 Dissolution in isothermal conditions

3.10 Dissolution in nonisothermal conditions

3.11 Mixed buoyant-Marangoni instability of solutal jets

Chapter 4: Growth of semiconductors: the floating zone technique

4.1 Scientific rationale

4.2 Phase-change modeling theory: the enthalpy method

4.3 Modeling the floating zone: The half-zone and the full-zone

4.4 Numerical simulation and parallel strategy

4.5 Numerical simulations and theory of bifurcation

4.6 The half-zone: historical perspective

4.7 Structure of the 3D steady flow

4.8 Effect of geometrical parameters

4.9 Gravity effects and heating direction

4.10 A generalized theory for the azimuthal wave number

4.11 3D analysis of crystal/melt interface shape in the half-zone

4.12 High Prandtl number liquids

4.13 The full-zone: state-of-the-art

4.14 The full-zone: modeling and definitions

4.15 Cylindrical interface and microgravity conditions

4.16 Concave and convex volumes in microgravity

4.17 The laterally heated column on the ground

4.18 Physical explanations

4.19 Control of Marangoni convection

4.20 Mixed Marangoni/thermovibrational convection

Chapter 5: Macromolecular crystal growth: surface kinetics and morphological studies

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Surface-attachment kinetics and convective effects

5.3 Morphological studies

5.4 Differences between organic and inorganic crystal growth

5.5 Moving-boundary approach

5.6 OCGVOF – Organic Crystal Growth Volume of Fraction Method

5.7 Comparison with other methods

5.8 The OCGLSET – Organic Crystal Growth Level-Set Method

5.9 Prototype applications and physical aspects

5.10 Growth-habit simulation and microscopic facet-morphology study

5.11 Seeds for morphological studies and space experiments

5.12 Convective transport under microgravity and shape instabilities

5.13 Two interacting crystals

5.14 N interacting crystals

5.15 Conclusions, possible improvements and extension to the case N 1

Chapter 6: Macromolecular crystal growth at macroscopic length scales

6.1 Introduction

6.2 The use of gel as a substitute for microgravity and true microgravity conditions

6.3 Macroscopic analysis and integral formulation of the kinetic conditions

6.4 Nucleation models

6.5 Moving crystals - The OCSVOF (Organic Crystal Sedimentation Volume of Fraction) method

6.6 A mathematical model for sedimentation

6.7 Sedimentation-convection model

6.8 Examples and insights into the physics: the counterdiffusion technique

6.9 Protein precipitation in gel

6.10 Numerical simulation as a useful tool to estimate the nucleation threshold

6.11 Crystal sedimentation on the ground

6.12 Solutovibrational convection and crystal motion induced by g-jitters

6.13 Solutal Marangoni convection and protein crystallization: the vapor diffusion technique

Chapter 7: The growth of biological tissues

7.1 Tissue engineering and microgravity

7.2 The rotating vessel: how it “simulates” microgravity conditions

7.3 Scaffolds, microcarriers, and terminal velocity

7.4 OTGVOF – The Organic Tissue Growth Volume of Fraction Method

7.5 The OTGLSET – Organic Tissue Growth Level-Set Method

7.6 Mathematical formulation of the kinetics of cartilage tissue

7.7 A prototype application

7.8 The controversial effect of the fluid-dynamic shear stress

7.9 Comparison with macromolecular crystal growth

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
538
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier Science 2005
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier Science
eBook ISBN:
9780080531731
Hardcover ISBN:
9780080445083

About the Author

Marcello Lappa

Affiliations and Expertise

MARS Center, Naples, Italy.